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Different Countries – Similar Flowers Муниципальное казенное общеобразовательное учреждение «Первомайская средняя общеобразовательная школа» Поселок Кедровый 2015 Prepared by Koryakova Natasha 10th form Teacher: Perezhogina Galina Konstantinovna
I live in a small village near the town Nyasepetrovsk in South Ural. Our village is situated in picturesque place. Its history dates back to the 18th century. Nyasepetrovsk was founded in 1747 by Peter Osokin. It is situated on the banks of two small rivers –Ufa and Nyasa. Nyasa means “fir tree” in Bashkor. The town is surrounded by fir forests since present days.
I like nature very much. My favorite subject is biology. I read a lot of books about different plants. There are many flowers, which have similar names in English and Russian. Some names of the flowers have different pronunciation, but their meaning is similar. I try to tell you about origin of some names.
Snowdrops (подснежник) have similar names, because they are white as snow, and appear in forests, when there is still snow there. Some people mind that at once its name in English was «eardrop» ancient form of ear-ring, due to the form. Snowdrops are disappearing in our forests, we must protect this nice shy flowers.
One of the earliest spring flowers is primrose (примула), (from Greek 'primus' — ранний, первый). Primroses can be white, yellow, pink, purple and orange. The flowers look like small stars. They grow wild in many countries in Europe. In England people believed that fairies were living in these flowers. That’s why these flowers are very popular in Britain.
Camomile (ромашка) English name camomile is of French – Latin – Greek origin and means “an earth – apple”, because it has a strong aromatic scent and a bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for cooking. Russian word ромашка has Latin origin from Anthemis romana with Russian suffix.
Morning glory (утреннее сияние) is a climbing plant with blue or purple blossoms, their leaves look like small green hearts and blossoms are like bells. Flowers open early in the morning, when hot sun appears in the sky they close. Another Russian name of it is climber (вьюнок)
Bluebell (колокольчик) is a plant that grows in the countryside or in gardens, with small blue flowers shaped like bells. In Russian the name of the flower appeared from Latin word “calo” (восклицать созывать), similar word is колокол.
Cornflower (василёк) is a small wild plant with bright flowers. Russian «василек» is Greek by origin, “basileus”means «король», in English there is plant basil (базилик). There is a legend, that mermaid tried to pull young boy in water, couldn’t do it and turned him into a blue flower.
Foget-me-not (незабудка) is connected with many legends. One of them told about knight, who picked up flowers for his sweetheart and fell down in a river. Falling down he cried: «Forget me not!»
Sunflower (подсолнух) is a very tall plant that has large yellow flowers with a round brown center. Heliotrope is "following the sun". The Greek noticed its trick and gave it the name made up of "helios", sun, and "-tropos", turning to go into.
Dandelion (одуванчик) is a wild plant with a large yellow flower that changes into a furry white ball of seeds called a dandelion clock. The name of the flower in English appeared from Middle French dent de lion, literally "lion's tooth" (from its toothed leaves). Russian name is formed from одуван , суффиксальное производное от одувать (дуть).
Anemone (горицвет) sprang from the blood of Adonis. Adonis was a Greek youth who was very handsome. Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, was deeply in love with him. When he was killed in a boar hunt, she was stricken with grief. The gods of the lower world agreed to allow the young man to come up to earth and pass a part of each year with her. In Russian it is also called «горицвет» in spite of very bright colour.
Narcissus or daffodil (нарцисс). The history of this flower name leads us into a love story of the Greek gods. Echo, daughter of air and earth, served to Hera, queen of heavens. She happened to offend her mistress, and for punishment was deprived of all speech. She could only repeat words said by others. She fell hopelessly in love with the beautiful youth, son of a river god. But the young man rejected her and Echo faded away until only her bones and her voice were left. In order to punish the youth for his cruelty Nemesis, goddess of vengeance, made this youth fall in love with his own reflection in the waters of a fountain. Since such love as this could never be satisfied, the youth pined away and finally changed into a flower.
Aster ( астра ) a plant with small white, purple, or pink flowers became their name from Greek aster star (звезда), due to the form. In ancient time some people believed that this flowers protect from evil spirits.
Nasturtium is actually a "nose-twister". The ancients called it so because of its pungent smell. Its Latin components are: "nasus", nose, and "torqueo", twist. Geranium is related to "geranos", a Greek word for "crane", it looks like the bill of a crane. Its house variety, though, is named "pelargonium", from the Greek word "pelargos", meaning "stork". So it's all a matter of picking your bird.
Rose (роза) is any of the wild or cultivated, usually prickly-stemmed, pinnate-leaved, showy-flowered shrubs of the genus Rosa. Old English rose, from Latin rosa, probably ultimately related to Iranian root “vrda “- "thorn, bramble." The form of the English word was influenced by the French. Used as a color name since 1520s. In English civil wars of 15c., the white rose was the badge of the House of York, the red of its rival Lancaster. There are many legends about this flower. In one of them roses appeared from drops, which were fallen down from Afrodita, when she came out from water.
Snapdragon or dragon flowers – львиный зев (antirrinum) is a garden plant, 1570s, from snap + dragon. So called from fancied resemblance of antirrhinum flowers to a dragon's mouth, in Russian Lion + snap
The name calendula «календула» is Latin by origin. The word “calenda” had meaning the first and the last day of month. The Flower became this name because it blossoms for the whole month.
Daisy ( маргаритка) is a type of small white flower with a yellow centrer became its name due to the form in English. Daisy means “day’s eye”. Russian word has Greek origin “margarites” – pearl (жемчужина)
In English there are other interesting names of flowers: Naked lady (обнаженная леди) – амариллис Baby’s breath (дыхание ребенка) (US, Canada) or soap wort (сусло) (GB) – гипсофила Bleeding heart (кровоточащее сердце)- “разбитое сердце”, дицентра великолепная, сердцецвет великолепный Bluebonnet (голубой колпачок) – люпин Sweet william – турецкая (бородатая) гвоздика и так далее и так далее) Naked lady (обнаженная леди) – амариллис Bluebonnet (голубой колпачок) – люпин
Литература и сайты: Л.М. Борисова Из истории английских слов.- М: Просвещение,1994 СD Macmillan English Dictionary. New Edition http://ru.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Заимствование&oldid=50586389 http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B0 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=book http://www.pochemyneinache.com/alfavit/2/str61.html http://flower.onego.ru/other/primula.html http://photo.i.ua/search/?type=label&words=2791 http://www.keepflowers.ru/crocus/ http://www.pro-rasteniya.ru/alpinariy-i-vodo-m/edelveys-legenda-alpiyskich-gor-v-vashem-sadu http://www.tomat-pomidor.com/2013/08/%D1%84%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BA%D1%81%D1%8B/ http://www.almanac.com/plant/marigolds http://www.sazhaemsad.ru/dushistyj-goroshek-devyat-pravil-uspeshnogo-vyrashhivaniya.html
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Исследовательская работа ученицы 10 класса Коряковой Натальи.
Наши страны разные, но многие слова похожи. Почему названия цветов в английском и русском имеют одинаковое звучание? Из каких языков они попали к нам? При работе с этимологическим словарем многое становится понятным.
В процессе становления языков многие слова были взаимствованы, но каждый язык внес свои особенности в произношение и написание слов. Некоторые названия были взаимствованы, а некоторые являются калькой - дословным переводом.
Познакомтесь с работой Наташи, погрузитесь в прекрасный мир цветов, может быть вы станете внимательней и бережней относиться к нашей природе.
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