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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическое пособие по английскому языку по теме: «Проблемы современного мира и человек»

Методическое пособие по английскому языку по теме: «Проблемы современного мира и человек»



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ СТАВРОПОЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

ГЕОРГИЕВСКИЙ РЕГИОНАЛЬНЫЙ

КОЛЛЕДЖ «ИНТЕГРАЛ»








ПЦК ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ПЕДАГОГИКИ



Методическое пособие

по английскому языку

по теме:


«Проблемы современного мира и человек»






















Георгиевск 2011


Составитель: M. В. Ахумян / Методические рекомендации по английскому языку по теме «Проблемы молодежи»»/Георгиевск. гос. регион, кол. «Интеграл»; Сост. M.В. Ахумян. - Георгиевск, 2011.- с.




Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК филологии и педагогики

Протокол №



Предназначены для обучения студентов всех специальностей







Рецензенты



Преподаватель высшей категории

Е. А Дедкова

Преподаватель КМВИ (ф) ЮРГТУ (НПИ) к.ф.н


Э.Х. Алиева











Георгиевский региональный колледж «Интеграл», 2011

Пояснительная записка

Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов всех специальностей при изучении темы «Проблемы современного мира и человек».

Целью данной разработки является совершенствование навыков чтения, развитие разговорных навыков в различных видах речевой деятельности в рамках учебной программы по иностранному языку.

Тексты подобраны из оригинальной литературы и адаптированы в той мере, в какой это возможно без нарушения языковых норм.

Данная разработка имеет актуальное значение, так как затрагивает проблемы современного мира и человека.

В пособии представлены темы : «Жизнь в 21 веке» «Добро пожаловать в эру Водолея», « Биоритмы», « Экологические проблемы», « Загрязнение окружающей среды», « Загрязнение воды», « Озоновая дыра», « Глобальное потепление».

































Содержание


Тема № 1

LIFE IN THE 21st CENTURY---------------------------------

Жизнь в 21 веке

Welcome to the Age of Aquarius-----------------

Добро пожаловать в эру Водолея


Тема № 2

What are Biorhythms?-----------------------------

Биоритмы


Тема № 3

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION-------------------------

Загрязнение окружающей среды

3.1 Ecological problems-----------------------------------------

Экологические проблемы

3.2 WATER POLLUTION-------------------------------------

Загрязнение воды

3.3 THE HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER-------------------

Озоновая дыра

    1. GLOBAL WARMING-----------------------------------

Глобальное потепление

Тема № 1


LIFE IN THE 21st CENTURY


We've entered a new era: the twenty-first century. Of course, it's exciting and we are trying to predict what our life will be like in the future. It will certainly become better — I'm sure of it.

Robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us and our daily life will become easier. They'll sweep the floor, dust the furniture and wash the dishes, even cook! It doesn't mean we'll become lazier, no. When everything is automated, we'll be able to do more creative jobs. We'll be able to call our friends on a videophone and type up homework by talking to a small gadget that understands the human voice. Scientists (or probably computers?) will find solutions to our most urgent problems. People will stop dying from cancer and AIDS and will live to be 150 years old.

There will be no more famine on our planet and no more hungry children.

Our cities will become cleaner, greener and safer. We'll drive electric cars and live in houses with lots of plants and special air-cleaning gadgets. Atmospheric pollution will be stopped and our planet will be saved.

There will be no more wars, no more criminals and no more terrorists. People will learn to live in peace and understand each other.

We'll have more free time and longer holidays. We'll be able to travel in space and — who knows? — one day we'll be able to spend our holidays on Mars.

I'm really optimistic about the future. After all, we are becoming wiser. The superpowers are disarming; governments are waking up to Green issues...

Anyway, it's up to us to look after our planet and try to make it a better place to live.


Questions


1. Are you optimistic about the future?

2. Do you believe that robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us?

3. What will robots do for us?

4. Do you think children will go to school in the future?

5. What's the difference between a telephone and a videophone?

6. Will writing by hand become the thing of the past?

7. Why do you think people will become healthier?

8. Will our planet become cleaner or more polluted?

9. Pessimists say that one day we'll have to pay for clean air just like we do now for clean water. Do you think it's possible?

10. Will there be wars in the future?

11. Have you ever seen an electric car?

12. Do you think the world will become more democratic?






VOCABULARY


era - эра to type up - печатать terrorist - террорист

exciting - волнующий gadget- приспособление Mars - Mapc

to predict - предсказывать scientist - ученый optimistic - оптимистический

robot - робот solution - решение wise - мудрый

dangerous - опасный urgent - насущный superpower - сверхдержава

daily - повседневный cancer - рак to disarm - разоружаться

to dust - вытирать пыль famine - голод are waking up to- начинают осознавать,

furniture - мебель safe - безопасный

lazy - ленивый atmospheric pollution –атмосферные загрязнения Green issues-экологические проблемы




Welcome to the Age of Aquarius



Welcome... or beware? You've probably noticed that life on our planet seems to be going off the rails in one way or another. Astrologers have an explanation: everything is changing. We are leaving the age of Pisces that began 2000 years ago and stepping into the new Age of Aquarius. What will the New Age be like? How different will thing be?


The age of science and technology


Astrologers call Aquarius "the sign of all things that are newly invented". They predict new discoveries in medicine, engineering, computer technology, incredible voyages through space and invention of things we can’t even imagine!


The age of knowledge


The key phrase for Aquarius is "I know", so be prepared for life-long education. Too lazy? Then have a silicon chip implanted in your brain- it’ll improve your mental abilities

New values


With the changing of ages there come a changing of values and beliefs. Money will still be important but making profit will not be the main thing in life. People will learn to think about other values-nature, environment, human relations.


The age of universal love


Aquarius is the sign of universal love and humanity The New Age is believed to bring harmony on Earth. We may reach at last the ideal of peace.


The age of independence and democracy


Aquarius is independent and democratic. He values his personal freedom, but at same time likes to be part of team. He would rather co-operate than boss other people about. But if you don't get orders you have to make decisions by yourself. And that means greater responsibility.

So the New Age calls for new people: broadminded, intellectual, inventive, friendly, peace loving and responsible. (Just like you?) They will be able to change the world and make our planet safer.

Do you feel an inner call for change? Then you’re probably under the influence of Aquarius already…


Vocabulary


beware - осторожно, берегись

gene engineering- инженерия генная universal - всеобщий

to go off the rails сходить с рельсов, идти кувырком humanity- человечество, гуманизм

key phrase - ключевая фраза

Age of Pisces [paisi:z] -эра Рыб life-long- продолжающийся всю жизнь independence to Improve - улучшать, responsibility ответственность

to predict -предсказывать, пророчить

value- ценность broadminded -широких взглядов

belief- убеждение

invention - изобретение

incredible - удивительный неслыханный

profit - прибыль inner - внутренний environment - окружающая среда

influence -влияние



Тема № 2

What are Biorhythms?


At the beginning of this century, medical scientists made a surprising discovery: that we are built not just of flesh and blood but also of time. They were able to demonstrate that we all have an internal “body clock” which regulates the rise and fall of our body energies, making us different from one day to the next. These forces became known as biorhythms; they create the “highs” and “lows” in our everyday life.

The idea of an internal “body clock” should not be too surprising, since the lives of most living things are dominated by the 24-hour night-and-day cycle. The most obvious feature of this cycle is the way we feel tired and fall asleep at night and become awake and alert during the day. If the 24-hour rhythm is interrupted, most people experience unpleasant side effects. For example, international aero plane travelers often experience “jet lag” when travelling across time zones. People who are not used to shift work can find that lack of sleep affects their work performance.

At well as the daily rhythm of sleeping and waking, we also have other rhythms which last longer than one day and which influence wide areas of our lives. Most of us would agree that we feel good on some days and not so good on others. Sometimes we are all fingers and thumbs-but on days we have excellent coordination. There are times when we appear to be accident-prone, or when our temper seems to be on a short fuse. Isn’t it also strange how ideas seem to flow on some days but at other times are apparently nonexistent? Musicians, painters and writers often talk about “dry spells”

Scientists have identified the following three biorhythmic cycles: physical, emotional and intellectual. Each cycle lasts approximately 28 days and each is divided into a high energy period and a low energy period of equal length. During the high energy period of a physical biorhythm we are more resistant to ills, better coordinated and more energetic; during the low energy period we are less resistant to illness, less well coordinated and tire more easily. The low

period puts energy into our “batteries” for the next high period.

The “critical” or weakest time is the time of changeover from the high energy period to the low energy period, or vice versa. This “critical” time usually lasts a day. On the critical day of a physical biorhythm, there is a greater chance of accident and illness.

Human experience is always individual and we each have our own biorhythmic experiences. Some people experience such enormous physical turbulence on their “physically critical” days that they have to go to bed. Accidents appear to happen so frequently during turbulent biorhythms that some car insurance companies in Japan have issued biorhythm forecasts to policyholders in order to cut down the number of costly incidents.



Questions:

  1. What are Biorhythms?

  2. What problems can people have if their 24-hour rhythm is interrupted?

  3. What three biorhythmic cycles have scientists identified?

  4. Which is the weakest part of a cycle?

  5. How long does each cycle last?


Vocabulary


flesh- плоть

internal- внутренний

cycle – цикл

obvious- очевидный

approximately- приблизительный

experience- опыт

accidentprone-склонный к несчастным случаям

turbulence- дискомфорт

forecasts- предсказание; прогноз

vice versa- наоборот; обратно (лат.)


Задание 2.1 Say what these words and expressions from the text mean.

All fingers and thumbs; accident-prone; on a short fuse; vice versa.



Задание 2.2 Match the word from the text with a word with a similar meaning.


regulate

  1. rule b) stop c) control d) create


alert

a) happy b) talkative c) lively d) hungry


apparently

  1. completely b) seemingly c) hopelessly d) unfortunately


resistant to

  1. protected against b) frightened of c) aware of d) open to

turbulent

  1. painful b) uncomfortable c) sick d) disturbed


costly

a) expensive b) bad c) dangerous d) unnecessary



Тема №3

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live.

People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale. With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.

In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pollutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates. Particulars are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are products of incomplete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combustion engines, road dust and wood smoke. Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels are burnt, they produce smoke and other by-products, which are emitted into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and automobiles, but it is not enough. These chemical compounds undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most dangerous to our health are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dio­xide and ozone or active oxygen. If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or light­headed, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide (CO). This odorless, colorless, but poisonous gas is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel fuel.

Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: indus­trial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in our seas.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.

And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals. We can recycle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities, because it is apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bodies and our future.


QUESTIONS:

1. When did the problem of pollution become dangerous?

2. What problems threaten human lives on the Earth?

3. Why is air pollution harmful?

4. Is it dangerous to breathe polluted air?

5. What does the burning of fuel and fossil fuels produce?

6. What are the most dangerous pollutants?

7. What is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid, rains on our planet?

8. Can we solve the problem of environmental protection?


VOCABUIARY:

tiny part — крошечная часть

to pollute — загрязнять

rural area — сельский район

polluting agents — загрязняющие компоненты

global scale — глобальный масштаб

acid rains — кислотные дожди

overpopulation — перенаселение

to threaten — угрожать

to affect — воздействовать

respiratory system — дыхательная система

particulates — макрочастицы

solid particles — твердые частицы

ray of sunlight — зд. солнечный свет

combustion — сжигание, сгорание

internal-combustion engine — двигатель внутреннего сгорания

wood smoke — зд. сгорание древесины

by-products — побочные продукты

power plants — силовые установки

chemical compounds — зд. химические элементы

to undergo —подвергаться воздействию

smog — смог

fog — туман

carbon monoxide — угарный газ

nitrogen oxides — окислы азота

sulfur dioxide — сернистый газ

dizzy — головокружение

odorless — без запаха

fossil fuels —органическое топливо

gasoline — бензин

to emit — испускать, выбрасывать

disastrous consequences — гибельные последствия

greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

to breathe — дышать, вдыхать

chemical fertilizers — удобрения

pesticide — пестицид

plant — растение

insect — насекомое

extinct — исчезнуть, вымирать

to persuade enterprisesзд, убедить предпринимателей

wastes — отходы







3.1 Ecological problems


Since ancient times Nature was the source of people’s life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and they thought that natural riches were unlimited. The development of civilization increased man’s harmful interference in nature.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises pollute the air we breathe and the water we drink. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million ton of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Beautiful old forests disappear forever. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of lakes and rivers dry up.

The pollution of air and destruction of the ozone layer are the results of man’s attitude towards Nature.

The protection of the environment is a universal concern. We must be very active to create a serious system of ecological security.


Words

ancient – древний

source – источник

natural riches – природные богатства

to increase – увеличиваться

harmful interference – вредное воздействие

industrial enterprises – промышленные предприятия

to pollute – загрязнять

substances – вещества

suffer – мучаться

to upsetзд. нарушать

rare – редкий

to dry up – высыхать

ozone layer – озоновый слой

attitude – отношение

universal concern – всеобщая забота


Questions



1. What is the main reason of ecological problems?

2. What are the main ecological problems?

3. Why the ecological problems should be a universal concern?

4. What steps are taken to fight ecological problems?




3.2 WATER POLLUTION


Water pollution occurs mostly, when people overload the water environment such as streams, lakes, underground wa­ter, bays or seas with wastes or substances harmful to living beings.

Water is necessary for life. All organisms contain it, some drink it and some live in it. Plants and animals require water that is moderately pure, and they cannot survive, if water con­tains toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. Water pol­lution kills large quantity of fish, birds, and other animals, in some cases killing everything in an affected area.

Pollution makes streams, lakes, and coastal waters unplea­sant to swim in or to have a rest. Fish and shellfish harvested from polluted waters may be unsafe to eat. People who drink pollu­ted water can become ill, if they drink polluted water for a long time, it may develop cancer or hurt their future children.

The major water pollutants are chemical, biological, and physical materials that lessen the water quality. Pollutants can be separated into several different classes:

The first class is petroleum products: oil, fuel, lubrication, plastics. The petroleum products get into water by accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks and when there are leaks from underground storage tanks. Many petroleum products are poi­sonous for animals. Spilled oil damages the feathers of birds and the fur of animals, often it causes death.

The second class is pesticides and herbicides. There are chemicals used to kill harmful animals and plants. If they pe­netrate into streams, rivers, lakes, these chemicals can be very dangerous. The chemicals can remain dangerous for a long time. When an animal eats a plant that's been treated with it, the poisons are absorbed into the tissues and organs of the animals. When other animals feed on a contaminated animal, the chemicals are passed up to them. These animals at the top of the food chains may suffer cancers, reproductive problems, and death.

Nitrates can cause a lethal form of anemia in infants.

The third class is heavy metals, such as, mercury, seleni­um, uranium, radium, cesium, etc. They get into the water from industries, automobile exhausts, mines, and natural soil. Heavy metals also become more harmful as they follow the food chain. They accumulate in living being's cells and when they teach high levels of concentration in the organism, they can be extremely poisonous, or can result in long-term health problems. They can sometimes cause liver and kidney damage.

The fourth class is fertilizers and other nutrients used to promote plant growth on farms and in gardens.

The last one is thermal pollution. Water is often taken from rivers, lakes or seas to be used in factories and power plants. The water is usually returned to the source warmer than when it was taken. Even a small temperature change in a body of wa­ter can drive away the fish and other species that were originally there, and attract other species in place of them. It breaks a balance and can cause serious circumstances in future.


QUESTIONS:

1. When does water pollution occur?

2. Why do plants and animals require pure water?

3. What are the major water pollutants?

4. How can pollutants be separated?

5. How do petroleum products affect the animals?

6. Why can pesticides and herbicides be dangerous if they penetrate into streams, rivers and lakes?

7. What do heavy metals result in?

8. How do fertilizers penetrate to water?

9. What damage can thermal pollution cause?



VOCABULARY:

pollution — загрязнение

to occur — происходить, случаться, совершаться

mostly — главным образом, по большей части

environment — окружение, окружающая обстановка; окружающая среда

stream — река, ручей

underground water — подземные воды

bay — залив, бухта

harmful — вредный

living beings — живые существа

to contain — содержать в себе, включать, иметь в своем составе; вмещать

to require — требовать

moderately — умеренно, сдержанно

to survive — выдержать, пережить, перенести

quantity — количество

shellfish — моллюск, ракообразное

to harvest — проводить массовые охоты

to ingest — глотать, проглатывать

to lessen — уменьшать(ся), сокращать(ся)

petroleum products — нефтепродукты

fuel — топливо, бензин

lubrication — смазка, смазывание (машины)

accidental — случайный

to spill — проливать(ся), разливать(ся), расплескиваться)

tanker truck — грузовой танкер

leak — течь, протечка, утечка

underground storage tank — подземные хранилища (резервуары)

poisonous — ядовитый

to penetrate — проникать внутрь, проходить сквозь, пронизывать

to remain — оставаться

to absorb — всасывать, впитывать; абсорбировать, пог­лощать

tissue — ткань

contaminated — зараженный, загрязненный

to suffer - страдать; испытывать, претерпевать

lethal form — летальный исход

exhausts — выхлопные газы

to cause damage — причинять ущерб, вред

liver — печень

kidney — почка

nutrient — питательное вещество

circumstance — обстоятельство, случай; условие





3.3 THE HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER



Discovery of the hole in the ozone layer showed that human activity has a major impact on the Earth. The damage of ozone in the stratosphere high above the planet's surface has been brought about as the result of the widespread use of chemicals, which under normal conditions are chemically inert and harmless, Ozone occurs at all levels in the atmosphere, but most of it is found in the stratosphere, between about 15-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface, where it plays a very important role. Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation which is produced by the Sun. Ultraviolet radiation can damage cells of living things— plants, animals and people. Whereas small doses result in nothing worse than sunburn, larger amounts may cause cataracts or skin cancer, and can affect the growth of plants.

The damage of ozone has been caused by complex chemical reactions involving chlorine and bromine. Large amounts of gas called CFCs were produced in twentieth century for use in everyday appliances like fridges, aerosol spray cans, and fire extinguishers. At ground level, these compounds are chemi­cally non-reactive. However they are carried on wind systems up into the high atmosphere, where the ozone layer is. CFCs can be broken up by the intense sunlight, but before then de­struction CFCs gases become reactive and damage the ozone layer.

The hole in the ozone layer is formed over the Antarctic continent each spring. During the long dark Antarctic win­ter, the atmosphere becomes colder than anywhere else on the Earth. Strong winds enclose the cold air above the Antarctic, allowing ice clouds to form. The ice crystals provide the sites where chlorine reacts with ozone when sunlight returns in the spring, and results in the ozone hole. In early summer, the ozone hole mixes with the rest of the air mass of the stratosphere. Over the past years, the concentrations of chlorine in the at­mosphere have been steadily increasing, and as a result — more ozone has been destroyed.

Ozone itself is a useful protective layer high above our heads, but in the cities is pollutant agent. The CFCs have other effects too. As well as contributing to the breakdown of ozone, CFCs are also very effective in providing «greenhouse effect», contributing to a gradual warming of the atmosphere. Ho­wever, the possible change in climate resulting from increa­ses in various greenhouse gases might actually make the strato­sphere colder, not warmer.

Governments of many countries agreed in 1987 to the Mon­treal Protocol in an effort to reduce the amount of CFCs, and so protect the ozone layer. Since then, more countries have signed it, and more substances included for control. As a re­sult, the amount of chlorine and bromine in the atmosphere is decreasing. With less chlorine in the atmosphere the ozone hole should become smaller, and eventually close up, but it might take 20-30 years


QUESTIONS:

1. What did the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer show?

2. Why did the hole in the ozone layer appear?

3. What can ultraviolet radiation damage?

4. What caused the damage of ozone?

5. How are CFCs produced?

6. Why do CFCs become reactive and damage the ozone I layer?

7. What does greenhouse effect contribute to?

8. What is the essence of the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987?

9. How long can it take to close up the ozone hole in the atmosphere?


VOCABULARY:

discovery — обнаружение, открытие ozone layer — озоновый слой

to bring (past brought, p.p. brought) about — вызывать, причинять

impact — влияние, воздействие

damage — вред, повреждение

surface — поверхность

widespread — широко распространенный

harmless — безвредный

to occur — случаться, происходить

to absorb — поглощать

ultraviolet radiation — ультрафиолетовая радиация

cell — клетка

to cause — вызывать, причинять

cataract —- катаракта

skin cancer — рак кожи

to affect — воздействовать

chlorine — хлор

bromine — бром

appliance — прибор, приспособление

aerosol sprays can — баллончик для аэрозоля

fire extinguisher — огнетушитель

wind systems — воздушные массы

to enclose — замыкать, окружать

to destroy — разрушать

to contribute — способствовать, содействовать

to increase — увеличиваться

breakdown — разрушение

greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

gradual — постепенный

effort — усилие, старание

to reduce — уменьшать

to protect — защищать

to decrease — уменьшать, сокращать

eventually — в конечном итоге


3.4 GLOBAL WARMING


Global warming is sometimes referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the absorption of energy radi­ated from the Earth's surface by carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere, causing the atmosphere to become warmer. Each time we burn gasoline, oil, coal, or even natural gas, more carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is what is causing the temperature on the Earth to rise, and creating many problems that will begin to take place in the coming decades.

Today, however, major changes are taking place. People are conducting an unplanned global experiment by changing the face of the entire planet. We are destroying the ozone layer, which allows life to exist on the Earth's surface. All of these activities are unfavorably changing the-composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance. If we do not slow down our use of fossil fuels and stop destroying the forests, the world could become hotter than it has been in the past million years. Average global temperatures have risen 1 degree over the last century. If carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases conti­nue to spill into the atmosphere, global temperatures could rise five to 10 degrees by the middle of the next century. Some areas, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out and a greater occurrence of forest fires will take place. At the present rate of destruction, most of the rain forests will be gone by the middle of the century. This will allow man-made deserts to invade on once lush areas. Evaporation rates win also increase and water circulation patterns will change. De­creased rainfall in some areas will result in increased rainfall in others. In some regions, river flow will be reduced or stopped all together completely. Other areas will experience sudden downpours that create massive floods.

If the present arctic ice melting continues, the sea could rise as much as 2 meters by the middle of the next century.

Large areas of coastal land would disappear. Plants and other wildlife habitats might not have enough time to adjust to the rapidly changing climate. The warming will rearrange entire biological communities and cause many species to be­come died out.

The greenhouse effect and global warming both correspond with each other. The green house effect is recalled as incoming solar radiation that passes through the Earth's atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infrared radiation from esca­ping into outer space. It causes the overheat of the air and as a result, we have the global warming effect. As you see, green­house effect and global warming correspond with each other, because without one, the other doesn't exist.


QUESTIONS:

1. What is global warming?

2. What is greenhouse effect?

3. What activities are unfavorable and change the com­position of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance?

4. What can prevent the developing of greenhouse effect?

5. Why are water circulation patterns changing?

6. What might cause disappearing of large areas of coastal land?

7. Does the warming affect biological communities?

8. Is there a correspondence between greenhouse effect and global warming?


VOCABULARY:

global warming — глобальное потепление

to refer — иметь отношение, относиться; касаться

greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

absorption — поглощение, абсорбция

surface — поверхность

carbon dioxide — углекислота, углекислый газ

to burn (past burnt, p.p. burnt) — сжигать

gasoline —бензин

oil — нефть

coal — уголь

ozone layer — озоновый слой

to slow down — замедлить

fossil fuel — ископаемое топливо

average — нормальный, обыкновенный, обычный, средний

to spill into — проливать(ся), разливать(ся)

the Northern Hemisphere — Северное полушарие

destruction — разрушение, уничтожение

evaporation rate — скорость/уровень испарения

to increase — возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти

water circulation pattern — сложившийся круговорот

воды в природе

rainfall — количество дождей, дождевые осадки

river flow — уровень воды в реках

downpour — ливень

massive flood — крупное наводнение

to melt — таять

coastal land — прибрежные земли

to adjust — приспосабливаться, привыкать

entire — весь, целый

biological communities — биологические сообщества

to die out — вымереть, исчезнуть

outer space — внешний/открытый космос

overheat — перегрев

to correspond — согласовываться, соотноситься



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Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов всех специальностей при изучении темы «Проблемы современного мира и человек».

Целью данной разработки является совершенствование навыков чтения, развитие разговорных навыков в различных видах речевой деятельности в рамках учебной программы по иностранному языку.

Тексты подобраны из оригинальной литературы и адаптированы в той мере, в какой это возможно без нарушения  языковых норм.

Данная разработка имеет актуальное значение, так как затрагивает проблемы современного мира и человека.

         В пособии представлены  темы : «Жизнь в 21 веке» «Добро пожаловать в эру Водолея», « Биоритмы», « Экологические проблемы», « Загрязнение окружающей среды», « Загрязнение воды», « Озоновая дыра», « Глобальное потепление».

 

 

 

 

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