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William Shakespeare - English poet and playwright, often regarded as the greatest English-language writer and one of the best playwrights in the world. Often referred to as the national poet of England. Extant works, including some written with other authors, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, poems and 4 3 epitaphs. Shakespeare's plays have been translated into all major languages and put more than the works of other playwrights.
wife of William Shakespeare In 1582, at the age of 18 , he married Anne Hathaway , the daughter of a local landowner , the former is 8 years older than him . At the time of the marriage Anne was pregnant. In 1583 the couple had a daughter, Susan, in 1585 - twins : Hemnet son , who died at age 11 in August 1596 , and a daughter Judith .
London and theatrical career
Biographers believe that Shakespeare's career could begin at any time since the mid- 1580s . From 1594 Shakespeare's plays were staged only troupe "Servants of the Lord Chamberlain ." The members of the troupe entered and Shakespeare , who at the end of the same in 1594 became its co-owner. The troupe soon became one of the leading theater companies in London. After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 , the troupe has received a royal patent by the new ruler , Jacob I, and became known as the "Servants of the King . In 1599, members of the partnership group built on the south bank of the Thames a new theater, called "The Globe ." In 1608 they also acquired an indoor theater " Blackfriars ." Reports on real estate purchases by Shakespeare and his investments show that the company made him a wealthy man. In 1597 he bought the second-largest house in Stratford - New Place.
Last years and death
1606-1607 years after Shakespeare wrote a few plays, and after the 1613 general stopped building them. His last three plays he wrote jointly with another playwright , probably with John Fletcher , who succeeded Shakespeare as chief dramatist troupe "Servants of the King. April 23, 1616 Shakespeare died. Traditionally, it is assumed that he died on his birthday, but confidence that Shakespeare was born on April 23
From fairest creatures we desire increase, That thereby beauty's rose might never die, But as the riper should by time decease, His tender heir might bear his memory: But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes, Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel, Making a famine where abundance lies, Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel. Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament And only herald to the gaudy spring, Within thine own bud buriest thy content, And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding: Pity the world, or else this glutton be, To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee. Creation Sonnet 1
Dramaturgy Most playwrights of the period created their works in collaboration with other writers , and critics believe that Shakespeare also wrote some of his plays together with other authors , mainly refers to the early and late works. For some works, such as " Titus Andronicus " and early historical plays , it is established that they are just co-written , whereas for "Two noble kinsmen " and a lost play " Cardenio " is documented . Data obtained from the texts also suggest that some of the other writers were altered relative to the original text.
Some of the earliest works of Shakespeare - "Richard III» and three part " Henry VI», written in the early 1590s , a period when it was in vogue historical drama .
After lyric " Richard II», written almost entirely in verse , Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into their chronicles "Henry IV, Part 1 " and 2 , and "Henry V». His characters become more complex and delicate , it is very cleverly alternates between comic and serious scenes , prose and poetry , so his mature works achieve narrative diversity. This period began and ended the tragedy " Romeo and Juliet " , the famous story of love and death, boys and girls Romeo and Juliet
In 1593 and 1594, respectively, when the theaters were closed because of plague , Shakespeare created two erotic poem , "Venus and Adonis " and " Lucrece dishonored .“The third poem , " The complaint in love ", in 1601 «Love's Martyr»,
Style by William Shakespeare
Shakespeare and Pushkin
Shakespeare 's plays , sonnets and poems reflected the thoughts , expectations and passion of almost every inhabitant of Albion. Pushkin was able , in spite of everything , express , almost one hundred percent, the hidden meaning of being Russian . Of course, William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) lived at different times , but the times in this case is not an obstacle for comparison , because they are irrelevant to the Eternity.
The first "Globe" Shakespeare's time "Globe" was built in 1599 using timber structures earlier theater ( the first public theater in London ) , simply called "Theatre" , which was built by the father of Richard Burbage , James Burbage , in Shoreditch in 1576 . Burbage originally rented place , which was built on the "Theatre" , 21 years . In 1598, the owner of the land on which the "Theatre" , raised the rent. Burbage dismantled "Theatre" beam for beam and transported him to the Thames , and there he was already assembled again as "Globus".
“Disposition of the "Globe” Actual dimensions of the " Globe" is unknown, but his plan may be almost exactly restored , based on research conducted over the past two centuries. These data suggest that it was a three-tier outdoor amphitheater surrounded by a high wall with a diameter from 97 to 102 feet ( 29,6-31,1 m), which could accommodate up to 3,000 spectators. In the sketch and " Long landscape " London Vaclav hollar ( 1647 ) "Globus" is shown as a circular building towers c . In 1989, the foundations of "Globe " was unearthed . Discovered fragments of the basement wall and the outer one of the towers ( which is absent in hollar ) confirmed the hypothesis that the theater was not in terms of the round , but twenty - or vosemnadtsatigranym .
On the explicit request of the American actor and director Sam Uenameykera new theater "Globe" was built on the plan of the Elizabethan time. The team of the project to rebuild the theater were Theo Crosby of Pentagram, as an architect, Bury Happold as structural engineer and service engineer , and the firm Boyden & Co, as a building inspector . The project consultant was Shakespeare Professor Andrew Herr . Construction took over the firm McCurdy & Co. Opened in 1997 under the name " Shakespeare Theatre " Globus " ." Now comes stage performances each summer (May to October). The first artistic director of contemporary theater "Globe" in 1995 was appointed Mark Raylens . In 2006, Dominic Dromgoole succeeded him in office. Modern "Globe"
Like the first "Globe" , today's theater scene has an extension , which is issued in a huge round courtyard surrounded by seating on three tiers of steeply pitched . Seven standing tickets ( necessarily stand , sit not allowed ) in the yard are available on each view 5 pounds each. The only part of the closed roof of the amphitheater - and this scene (more expensive ) seats . In winter, when the theater season closed , the theater is used for educational purposes.
Copies of theater in other countries USA OSF Elizabethan Theatre, Ashland , Oregon, built in 1935 , rebuilt in 1947 and 1959 ; San Diego, Old Theatre "Globus" , built in 1935 ; Cedar City , Utah , Adams Shakespearean Theatre Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Shakespeare Theater on Navygator Pier was built in 1999; Odessa, Texas, Old Theatre "Globus" , built in 1936 ; Williamsburg, Virginia, theater " Globe " was built in 1975 Germany Neuss , Globe Neuss built in 1991; Rust (Baden ), Europa-Park was built in 2000 Schwäbisch Hall , Baden-Wurttemberg Italy Rome , theater "Globe" name Silvano Toti , built in 2003.
Hall "Globus" Theatre School of Dramatic Art, Moscow
Shakespeare wrote many plays. More precisely, he wrote them not to read, not for publication, not as examples of literature - its tragedy and comedy were scenarios or libretto for theatrical productions. He had not even thought about publishing. And while such a polished style! Of course, Shakespeare is great especially that made in the great drama of poetic talent, talents surpassing all his predecessors. Second - this unique sense of drama, which nobody in the world had neither before nor after Shakespeare. Conclusion
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Not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing theatrical works , and moved to London , but the first extant sources talking about this , refer to 1592. This year's diary entrepreneur Philip Henslowe mentions historical chronicle Shakespeare "Henry VI», which was owned by Henslow in the theater "Rose" . In the same year, posthumously published pamphlet writer and playwright Robert Greene , the latter angrily hit Shakespeare , without naming names, but ironically beating her - «shake-scene» paraphrase a line from the third part of " Henry VI» « Oh, tiger's heart in this women's clothing! "as" the heart of tiger skin litsedeya . "
Biographers believe that Shakespeare's career could begin at any time since the mid- 1580s . From 1594 Shakespeare's plays were staged only troupe "Servants of the Lord Chamberlain ." The members of the troupe entered and Shakespeare , who at the end of the same in 1594 became its co-owner. The troupe soon became one of the leading theater companies in London. After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 , the troupe has received a royal patent by the new ruler , Jacob I, and became known as the "Servants of the King ."
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