Добавить материал и получить бесплатное свидетельство о публикации в СМИ
Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Рекомендации по обучению письму на уроках английского языка на старшем этапе
ВНИМАНИЮ ВСЕХ УЧИТЕЛЕЙ: согласно Федеральному закону № 313-ФЗ все педагоги должны пройти обучение навыкам оказания первой помощи.

Дистанционный курс "Оказание первой помощи детям и взрослым" от проекта "Инфоурок" даёт Вам возможность привести свои знания в соответствие с требованиями закона и получить удостоверение о повышении квалификации установленного образца (180 часов). Начало обучения новой группы: 24 мая.

Подать заявку на курс
  • Иностранные языки

Рекомендации по обучению письму на уроках английского языка на старшем этапе

библиотека
материалов









Авторская работа

учителя английского языка

МАОУ «Авторский лицей Эдварса № 90»

г. Ульяновска

Беляковой Елены Григорьевны





Тема: «Рекомендации по обучению письму на старшем этапе

изучения английского языка»





























Овладение письмом — это сложный и многогранный процесс, требующий много времени и усилий как со стороны учителя, так и со стороны учеников. Работая в классах филологического профиля, я уже много лет занимаюсь проблемой обучения письму учащихся 10-11 классов, изучаю соответствующую литературу, материалы по подготовке к экзаменам международного образца и Единому Государственному Экзамену, подбираю аутентичные письменные тексты, выстраиваю свою систему обучения письму. Мой педагогический опыт показывает, что целенаправленная и последовательная работа по организации обучения письму дает свои положительные результаты.

Ученики перестают испытывать страх перед выполнением письменного задания и приобретают умение практически пользоваться письмом как способом общения, познания и творчества. Это придаёт им уверенность, развивает чувство некоторого «господства» над языком и тем самым способствует повышению мотивации к изучению английского языка.

Кроме того, обучение письменной речи неразрывно связано с обучением другим видам речевой деятельности. Письменная речь позволяет сохранить языковые и фактические знания, служит надежным инструментом мышления, стимулирует говорение, аудирование и чтение на иностранном языке.

Предлагаю вниманию учителей и учеников разработанные мной схемы-пособия для обучения написанию различных видов неформальных и деловых писем (писем-заявлений, писем-запроса информации, благодарственных писем, писем-извинений и т.д.), статьи, рассказа, которые могут быть использованы как дополнение к любому современному учебнику английского языка для 9-11 классов.

В данных схемах суммированы и отражены отличительные особенности каждого вида текста, а именно:

  • структурная организация;

  • чёткое деление на абзацы и установка по раскрытию их содержания;

  • примеры используемых языковых средств, в том числе клише, формул письменной речи, характерных соединяющих конструкций;

  • рекомендации по соблюдению стиля.

Схемы — пособия используются как раздаточный материал при выполнении того или иного письменного задания. Опыт показывает, что данные пособия помогают ученикам точнее и грамотнее выполнить работу.




























Applications.

A letter of application is a written request for a job or place at a college or university, or a scholarship or grant. Letters of application are often written in reply to advertisements. They are written in a formal style and contain relevant personal information about the applicant.

Content:

  • refer to the advertisement ← say why you are writing;

  • support the application with relevant personal information;

  • remember to convince the target reader that you are the best person for the job // give reasons why you would benefit from the grant or scholarship.

Paragraphing: each § should have a clear topic and purpose.

§1

begin the letter in an appropriate way. Say why you are writing and where and when you saw the advertisement;

§2

explain why you are interested in this job;

§3

give relevant details about yourself and your availability;

§4

say what skills and experience you can offer. Be convincing // say why you are applying for the grant and how you expect to benefit from it;

§5

include a suitable final sentence and end your letter in an appropriate way.

Useful Vocabulary

Reasons: get experience, learn about, find out about, interested in

Personal qualities: hard-working, reliable, determined, enthusiastic, creative, etc.

Experience: voluntary work, holiday jobs, participation in activities

Qualifications: hold a certificate in …, passed exams in …, completed a course in ..

Practical skills: fluent in (language), driving license, cooking, first aid, etc.







Приложение





Layout:

hello_html_m4fcb1638.gifhello_html_a176b60.gif

signature identification








Dear Sir or Madam,”

Dear Mr Blatone,” ← full name


I have just seen your advertisement in the … for a … and would like to apply”.

I am writing with reference to your advertisement in this month’s edition of Worldwide travel”.



I’d like to work for you because I am very interested in …”

I would also like to learn about …”

I would like the opportunity to …”

I feel that … is extremely important”.



I would say that I’m …”

I think that I am a … person. For example I have …”

I also feel that I can …/ Finally I am familier with …”

As for the personal qualities which might be useful I am …”


As you can see from my CV, I …”

I have had a great deal of experience in …”

In terms of relevant experience I …”

I would like to add that I am a competent … as I have completed a course in …”

I am fluent in spoken and written …”

In addition I hold a certificate in …”

Although I do not have a lot of experience in this field, I feel that I can …”


I hope that you will consider my application favourably.”

I enclose a copy of my curriculum vitae.”

Please let me know if you need more information.”

I can be contacted at the above address.”

Please, do not hesitate to contact me if you require further information.”

I hope to hear from you soon.”

I look forward to you reply.”

I look forward to hearing from you soon.”


Your’s faithfully,” ← (“Dear Sir”)

Your’s sincerely,” ← (“Dear Mr Stone”)





Print your full name.



Приложение


Articles

Two most important things about articles are: the title and the first sentence.


Title

→ should attract the reader’s attention

→ should make you want to read the article





Opening sentence

→ there should be a link between this and the title;

→ it should introduce the topic and make the reader want to read the rest of the article;

→ types of opening sentence:

  1. a rhetorical question;

  2. representation of strong opinion;

  3. description of an unusual scene.


Paragraphing: → each new point should start a new §

First §: Together with the title this should attract readers and make them want to read the rest of the article.

Common techniques:

  • giving an interesting example to illustrate the topic of the article;

  • describing an unusual scene or situation;

  • addressing the reader in a direct way about something relevant to them. This may include asking personal questions, giving advice, giving encouragement, persuading, suggesting;

  • surprising the reader with strong opinions;

  • describing a puzzle or a problem which needs an answer.

Last § Main purposes:

  • to summarize the main points of the article;

  • to leave the reader with something to think about (rhetorical questions);

  • to express the final personal opinion on the theme of the article;

  • to round off the article.


Style can be light-hearted or more serious, depending on who is going to read the article. Remember to keep to the same style throughout the article.




Приложение


Transactional Letters

A ‘transactional letter’ has a specific purpose and a result. Types of transactional letters:

  • asking for information / details;

  • booking a holiday;

  • letter of invitation;

  • making a complaint;

  • letter of apology.

Key facts: include all the important factual information provided in the question. Use your own words.

Style: formal → ‘Dear Sir or Madam’ → ‘Yours faithfully’

Paragraphing: each § should have a clear topic and purpose.


complaint

invitation

apology

§1

why you are writing and what the nature of your complaint is

say who you are and why you are writing

apologize for the trouble you have caused

§2

listing problems

general information about your organization

Give a convincing explanation

§3

action’s you’ve done to put the problem right

details on the event

say what you intend to do now

§4

feelings and expectations (what you expect to happen next)

directions to the place and concluding sentence

promise that the situation will never arise again

hello_html_4284923.gifMaking a complaint:

Introductions


I am writing to complain about … which I bought …”

I am writing in connection with …, which I saw advertised …”

I have to say that I was not at all satisfied with …”

I am sorry to say that I was extremely disappointed with …”

I am afraid to say that I have a number of complaints about …”

I am writing to ask for some compensation for the problems I had (flying with your airline).”

Conclusions

hello_html_37deaf35.gif

I am sure that you will understand that I was very disappointed (dissatisfied, etc.) with…”

I would like to hear your explanations for this.”

I would like you to investigate this matter, and let me know your decision.”

I would like a complete refund as soon as possible.”

I would like a full or partial refund.”

I would like to have all of my money refunded.”

Could you please arrange for me to receive a new radio (CD, etc.) or refund my money in full?”

If we have not heard from you within … days from the date at the head of this letter, we shall assume that … and we shall start legal proceedings to recover the cost of …”

Asking for information:

I have just seen your advertisement in …, and I am now writing for further details …”

With reference to your advertisement for the … (25th of July), I would like to obtain detailed information on your courses in business.”

I would like to know if/ where/ what, etc. …”

I would be grateful, if you could tell me …” “Could you tell me …”

It has been said in the advertisement that …”

Please could you also let us know the details of (your prices).”

Another consideration is …”

I look forward to your reply.”

I would be grateful if you could send me this information as soon as possible.”

I would be grateful for an early reply to my enquiries.”

Giving information:

I am writing to let you know about …”

I have managed to get some information about …”

I am writing to tell you the possibilities of …”

Write back and let me know what you think is best.”

Write and tell me your decision.”

Приложение

Informal Letters

Organisation. A letter needs adequate paragraphing, to make it easy to follow.

Style: Typical features of informal writing:

  • contracted forms, for example, I’m, don’t;

  • phrasal verbs;

  • phrases with get, have, take, etc., for example, take a look;

  • short sentences;

  • simple linking words, for example, Then;

  • direct questions, for example, What about …;

  • some exclamation makes (not too many!)

Layout:






Ask your friend some introductory questions and/ or make a few, chatty comments.

How are you? Did you pass the exam? I hope so.”


State your main reason for writing.

Anyway, I’m writing to …”




Make up an exuse to stop writing.

Well, I have to go now because …”


Say goodbye and sign your name.

All the best,/ Lots of love, Janet”


















Приложение

Useful phrases:

Greeting and endings:

Dear (Sally), … love / best wishes / regards, (Jack)

Introductions:

How are you?

I’m sorry I haven’t written for so long / ages, but … (give reason)

It was great to hear from you …

It’s been a ling time since I last heard from you.

I thought I’d drop you a line to see how you are getting on.

As I haven’t heard from you for ages, I thought I would write to see how you are.

Thank for your letter. It was interesting / good to hear that … (give example)

I got your letter yesterday and decided to write back straightaway.

Thank you for writing such a long and funny letter.

I always enjoy reading what you’ve been doing.

Congratulations:

Well done!

Opinion:

My own thoughts are …

Personally, I have no doubt that …

Giving advice:

If I were you, I’d …

Why don’t you …?

Why not try …?

What about trying …?

Have you thought of …ing?

I would recommend … .

My advice is to …

It would be a good idea to …

You should / shouldn’t …

Don’t forget to …

Ending:

Well, that’s all my news. Write back soon, telling me what you’ve been up to.

Please write to me again soon, and tell me all your news.

Please give my regards to (your parents), Hope to hear from you soon.

That’s about all from me. What about you? Write back soon telling me what you’ve been doing recently.

Give (Peter) my regards if you see (him), and tell (him) to drop me a line.

Say hello to (Ann) from me.

I’m looking forward to your next letter, so write soon!

I can’t wait to hear (how you did in your exams), so write as soon as you know!

Do drop me a line if you have time.

Keep in touch.

Linking: Informal Expressions.

Involve the reader with questions: How are toy? / That skiing, break sounds the best, doesn’t it? / Can you believe it?

Refer to the reader: I hope the summer job is going well. / Here’s some news for you … / So you can imagine what he’s like! / You can tell me all your news!

Begin sentences with informal linkers: Anyway, we’re … / Luckily, we didn’t … / Actually, there isn’t … / But then we’re … / And Tom has … / Well, I must finish …



Приложение













Reports.

Functions:

  • giving information

  • describing

  • explaining

  • justifying

  • suggesting (← recommendations)

hello_html_m4ba3cc82.gif



any combination of these

-N/3 → There can be some commentary from our side, but your personal opinion is not important.

Content: concentrate on factual information which is relevant to the topic. If the report is based on a survey include number language.

Style:

  • concise = short + clear

  • precise = exact

  • evaluative = numbers

  • factual

  • very formal, impersonal.

Layout:

To:

From: {Name and Surname}

Date:

Subject: {Informative title}

Introduction:

State the aim and content of your report


hello_html_6b11c135.gif


hello_html_72ae8427.gifhello_html_65f4ffb6.gif § 1 (sub-heading)


hello_html_72ae8427.gif § 2 (sub-heading)

hello_html_98608df.gif

hello_html_72ae8427.gif § 3 (sub-heading)


Conclusion

Make clear suggestions or recommendations

hello_html_6b11c135.gif







The aim/ purpose of this report is …”

hello_html_mc266016.gif

By and large, …”

On the whole, …”

In general, = generally, …”



generalize

As it might be expected, ...”

(Not)surprisingly, …”

Interestingly, …”

hello_html_mc266016.gif


comment on a fact

A total of … per cent of those questioned said that …”

Half said …”

A large majority said …”

Over 70 percent said …”

One thing that most people mentioned was …”

hello_html_433c8cc8.gif


numbers


In conclusion …”

To sum (it) up, …”

To conclude, …”

It is recommended that …”

Reporting verbs: to say = to claim = to believe = to feel = to think = to complain = to consider = to argue = to (dis)agree

Useful phrases: It is quite clear, from simple observation, that …

What is equally worrying that …

to summarize the results of a survey …

The report is based on a sample of 100 locals.

It is clear that …

to give an outline of something …

after careful study …

to suggest ways in which …

on average …

to draw attention to

public opinion surveys show that …

accident figures are increasing

Приложение

Stories.

A story describes a series of real or imaginary events and can be written in the first or third person.

It should entertain the reader in some way, for example, by being funny or sad or strange.

Layout:

hello_html_m1ed18a4d.gifhello_html_m4999677e.gifhello_html_m4999677e.gifhello_html_m4999677e.gifhello_html_m4999677e.gif


Set the scene by giving some details about the main characters and saying where and when the story takes place.


Describe the main action. Include some dialogue.




Write what happened next



Summarize what happened and how the main characters felt.

Writing tips:

  • Give just a little interesting information in your introduction to make the reader want to read on;

  • Don’t give away the details of the events in the first paragraph;

  • Use a range of past tenses in your story;

  • Try to use specific vocabulary to describe events and people. Avoid ‘general’ words like good, bad, etc.;

  • Try to include some direct speech in your story to make it more dramatic. Use a range of verbs to introduce direct speech;

  • If you use direct speech, use the correct punctuation.

Useful connectors in stories:

Start of the story: The first thing that happened was … .

In the beginning … .

Following parts of the story: Then, … .

Later, … / Later on, … .

After some time, … .

A little while later, … .

After that, … .

The next thing … .

Events that happened fast / slowly: Suddenly, … .

All of a sudden, … .

In an instant, …

Immediately, …

Gradually, …

Slowly, …

Events in the future of the story: Soon, …

In a few minutes, …

In the next few hours, …

The end of the story: Finally, …

At last, …

Eventually, …

Note: At last / Eventually. These indicate that the final event happened after difficulty, or after a long time.


Список литературы.


  1. Антонов О. И., Филатова Е. А. Деловое письмо на английском языке // Практическое пособие. Тверь. Учебно-издательский центр. “Прогресс” – 1992г.

  2. Гальскова Н. Д. Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам // Пособие для учителя. Аркти-Глосса Москва. – 2000г.

  3. Мелех И. Я. Как пишут письма на английском языке. // Пособие по самообразованию. Москва. “Высшая школа”. – 1993г.

  4. Методическая мозаика. Приложение к журналу ИЯШ №3, 2004г. На уроке-письмо. Dear Sue, what should I do?

  5. Мильруд Р. П. Методика обучения иноязычной письменной речи. // Иностранные языки в школе – 1997г. – №2

  6. Попова Н., Акопова М. Путеводитель по деловой переписке. Business Guide. Москва ФИЦ “Татьянин день” – 1993г.

  7. Сафонова В. В. Программа по английскому языку для школ с углубленным изучением иностранных языков. 10-11 классы. Москва: “Просвещение” – 2000г.

  8. Соловьева Е. Н. Методика обучения иностранным языкам // Базовый курс лекций. Москва: “Просвещение” – 2002г.

  9. Arnold J., Harmer J., “Advanced Writing Skills” – London, 1978.

  10. Brooks A., Grundy P. Writing for study purposes – Cambridge University Press, 1990.

  11. Copage J. First Certificate Writing. Longman, 2000.

  12. English. Приложение к газете “Первое сентября”, №32, 2003 Writing Strategies

  13. 40, 2003 Personal letters

  14. 10, 2004 Writing a short story

  15. 22, 2004 World famous constructions. Holiday brochures.

  16. Hedge T. Writing. – Oxford University Press, 1999.

  17. Littlejohn A. “Writing”. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

  18. Stephens M. Practise advanced writing. – Longman, 1997.


Краткое описание документа:

Данная разработка содержит схемы-пособия для обучения написанию делового и личного письма, статьи, доклада, рассказа на английском языке. В схемах суммированы и отражены отличительные особенности каждого вида текста, а именно:

- структурная организация;

- чёткое деление на абзацы и установка по раскрытию их содержания;

- примеры используемых языковых средств, в том числе клише, формул письменной речи, характерных соединяющих конструкций;

- рекомендации по соблюдению стиля.

Схемы-пособия могут быть использованы как раздаточный материал при выполнении того или иного письменного задания, т.к. помогают ученикам точнее и грамотнее выполнить работу.

Автор
Дата добавления 26.10.2014
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Просмотров467
Номер материала 104181
Получить свидетельство о публикации

Выберите специальность, которую Вы хотите получить:

Обучение проходит дистанционно на сайте проекта "Инфоурок".
По итогам обучения слушателям выдаются печатные дипломы установленного образца.

ПЕРЕЙТИ В КАТАЛОГ КУРСОВ

Похожие материалы

Включите уведомления прямо сейчас и мы сразу сообщим Вам о важных новостях. Не волнуйтесь, мы будем отправлять только самое главное.
Специальное предложение
Вверх