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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Сборник материалов по теме "Vitamins. Minerals. Supplements"

Сборник материалов по теме "Vitamins. Minerals. Supplements"

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  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

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Vitamins. Minerals. Supplements. Сборник материалов.

Составители: Маркова Наталья Борисовна, преподаватель БПОУ УР «УРСПК»

Боровикова Надежда Владимировна, преподаватель БПОУ УР «УРСПК»







Для полноценной жизни каждого человека необходимы витамины и минералы. Эти вещества играют важную роль в организме, участвуют во множестве процессов и требуются для нормального обмена веществ.

Данный сборник предназначен для работы над темой «Vitamins. Minerals. Supplements», предусмотренной рабочей программой учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» специальностей «Преподавание в начальных классах», «Дошкольное образование» и «Физическая культура».

Материалы сборника могут быть использованы как на аудиторных занятиях, так и при выполнении внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы.


If you’re like most kids, you’ve probably heard at least one parent say, “Don’t forget to take your vitamin!” or “Eat your salad — it’s packed with vitamins!” But what exactly are vitamins?


Learn the vocabulary to the text. Find the words in the text.

overdosage – передозировка

harmful – вредный / ant. harmless

dose – доза, приём

coldпростуда

fluгрипп

resistanceсопротивляемость

to protect – защищать

eyesight – зрение

to increase – повышать

yeast – дрожжи

to destroy – разрушать

to recover – выздоравливать

illness – болезнь

bone – кость

to improve – улучшать

treatment - лечение

V I T A M I N S

Vitamins play a very important role in human health. Overdosage of some vitamins may be harmful, so people must take normal doses of vitamins.

When the winter months come your food becomes poor of vitamins.

Winter is the time for virus infections, colds and flu and your resistance is especially low. Take vitamins A, D, C every day. They are often called “winter vitamins”.

Study the table. Tell the group about the usefulness of vitamins and products they are in.

You will find …

You must take …

Vitamin A in

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Vitamin A to protect eyesight, increase resistance to infection.

Vitamin A is often combined with other vitamins, especially vitamin D.

Vitamin B in

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Vitamin B to strengthen nervous system.

Cooking destroys vitamin B. Take it daily.

Vitamin C

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Vitamin C to increase resistance to infection.

It helps to recover after illness. Take it daily.

Vitamin D

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Vitamin D to help the body in formation of bones and strong teeth.

Vitamin E

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Vitamin E to improve poor blood circulation, in treatment of thrombosis, varicose veins.

Find English equivalents in the table for:


Защитить зрение

Укрепить нервную систему –

Повысить сопротивляемость инфекции –

Принимайте ежедневно –

Улучшать плохое кровообращение –

Лечение варикозного расширения вен –


Answer the questions to the table.


  1. What do we take vitamin A for?

  2. Can vitamin A strengthen nervous system?

  3. How often must we take vitamin B?

  4. What does vitamin C give to human health?













Read some more information about vitamins. What facts attracted your special attention? Why?


Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop just like you should. When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play. For example:

  • Vitamin D in milk helps your bones.

  • Vitamin A in carrots helps you see at night.

  • Vitamin C in oranges helps your body heal if you get a cut.

  • B vitamins in whole grains help your body make energy from food.


Vitamins Hang Out in Water and Fat


There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble.

When you eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues in your body and in your liver. They wait around in your body fat until your body needs them.

Fat-soluble vitamins are happy to stay stored in your body for awhile — some stay for a few days, some for up to 6 months! Then, when it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins.

Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods that have water-soluble vitamins, the vitamins don't get stored as much in your body. Instead, they travel through your bloodstream. Whatever your body doesn't use comes out when you urinate (pee).

So these kinds of vitamins need to be replaced often because they don't stick around! This crowd of vitamins includes vitamin C and the big group of B vitamins - B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), niacin, B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, B12 (cobalamine), biotin, and pantothenic acid.

This additional information will help you to get ready with your presentation.


Vitamins Feed Your Needs


Your body is one powerful machine, capable of doing all sorts of things by itself. But when it comes to vitamins, it can use some help. That's where food comes in. Your body is able to get the vitamins it needs from the foods you eat because different foods contain different vitamins. The key is to eat different foods to get an assortment of vitamins. Though some kids take a daily vitamin, most kids don't need one if they're eating a variety of healthy foods.

Now, let's look more closely at vitamins — from A to K:


Vitamin A


This vitamin plays a really big part in eyesight. It's great for night vision, like when you're trick-or-treating on Halloween. Vitamin A helps you see in color, too, from the brightest yellow to the darkest purple. In addition, it helps your body fight infections by boosting your immune system.

Which foods are rich in vitamin A?

Milk fortified with vitamin A, liver, orange fruits and vegetables (cantaloupe, carrots, sweet potatoes), dark green leafy vegetables (kale, collards, spinach).


The B Vitamins


There's more than one B vitamin. Here's the list: B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid. Whew — that's quite a group!

The B vitamins are important in metabolic activity - this means that they help make energy and set it free when your body needs it. So the next time you're running to third base, thank those B vitamins.

This group of vitamins is also involved in making red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body. Every part of your body needs oxygen to work properly, so these B vitamins have a really important job.

Which foods are rich in vitamin B?

Whole grains (wheat and oats), fish and seafood, poultry and meats, eggs, dairy products (milk and yogurt), leafy green vegetables, beans and peas.


Vitamin C


This vitamin is important for keeping body tissues, such as gums, bones, and blood vessels in good shape. C is also key if you get a cut or wound because it helps you heal.

This vitamin also helps your body resist infection. This means that even though you can't always avoid getting sick, vitamin C makes it a little harder for your body to become infected with an illness.

Which foods are rich in vitamin C?

Citrus fruits (oranges), cantaloupe, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, kiwi fruit, sweet red peppers.


Vitamin D


No bones about it . . . vitamin D is the vitamin you need for strong bones! It's also great for forming strong teeth. Vitamin D even lends a hand to an important mineral — it helps your body absorb the amount of calcium it needs. Vitamin D is made in the skin when exposed to sunlight, or you can get it from the foods you eat.

Which foods are rich in vitamin D?

Milk fortified with vitamin D, fish, egg yolks, liver, fortified cereal.


Vitamin E


Everybody needs E. This hard-working vitamin protects your cells and tissues from damage. It is also important for the health of red blood cells.

Which foods are rich in vitamin E?

Whole grains (as wheat and oats), wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, vegetable oils (sunflower, canola and olive), egg yolks, nuts and seeds.


Vitamin K


Vitamin K is the clotmaster! Remember the last time you got a cut? Your blood did something special called clotting. This is when certain cells in your blood act like glue and stick together at the surface of the cut to help stop the bleeding.

Which foods are rich in vitamin K?

Leafy green vegetables, dairy products (milk and yogurt), broccoli, soybean oil.


When your body gets this vitamin and the other ones it needs,

you'll be feeling A-OK!

M I N E R A L S

Did you ever notice how TV commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals? But when you think of minerals, food isn't the first thing that comes to mind. Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz?

Well, yes, but small amounts of some minerals are also in foods — for instance, red meat, such as beef, is a good source of iron.

Just like vitamins, minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.

Macro and Trace

The two kinds of minerals are: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macro means "large" in Greek (and your body needs larger amounts of macrominerals than trace minerals). The macromineral group is made up of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur.

A trace of something means that there is only a little of it. So even though your body needs trace minerals, it needs just a tiny bit of each one. Scientists aren't even sure how much of these minerals you need each day. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.

Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food.


When people don't get enough of important minerals, they can have health problems. For instance, too little calcium — especially when you're a sportsman — can lead to weaker bones. Some sportsmen may take mineral supplements, but most sportsmen don't need them if they eat a nutritious diet. So eat minerals and stay healthy!

Calcium

Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you can do everything from standing up straight to scoring that winning goal. It also helps build strong, healthy teeth, for chomping on tasty food.

Which foods are rich in calcium?

Dairy products (milk, cheese, and yogurt), canned salmon and sardines with bones, leafy green vegetables (broccoli), calcium-fortified foods (from orange juice to cereals and crackers).


Iron

The body needs iron to transport oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Your entire body needs oxygen to stay healthy and alive. Iron helps because it's important in the formation of hemoglobin, which is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

Which foods are rich in iron?

Meat (especially red meat, such as beef), tuna and salmon, eggs, beans, baked potato with skins, dried fruits (raisins), leafy green vegetables (broccoli), whole and enriched grains (wheat or oats).


Potassium

Potassium keeps your muscles and nervous system working properly. Your blood and body tissues, such as muscles, contain water. And potassium helps make sure the amount of water is just right between cells and body fluids.

Which foods are rich in potassium?

Bananas, tomatoes, potatoes and sweet potatoes (with skins), green vegetables (spinach and broccoli), citrus fruits (oranges), low-fat milk and yogurt; legumes (beans, split peas, and lentils).

Zinc

Zinc helps your immune system, which is your body's system for fighting off illnesses and infections. It also helps with cell growth and helps heal wounds, such as cuts.

Which foods are rich in zinc?

Beef, pork, and dark meat chicken; nuts (cashews, almonds and peanuts); legumes (beans, split peas and lentils).


Make up questions to the information given in the text.

Fill in the table about minerals.

Mineral

Foods

Usefulness

Zink

  • helps immune system for fighting off illnesses and infections

  • helps with cell growth and helps heal wounds, such as cuts.

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Read the text then make it in a form of a dialogue (Direct Speech)

S U P P L E M E N T S

The last time I went to the doctor for a checkup, she told me that I needed to start taking some dietary supplements that had the vitamins and minerals that my body needed to stay healthy. I told her that I ate a balanced diet, but she said that many people who generally ate well still didn’t get the nutrients their bodies needed every day, and that’s why she recommends taking a multivitamin. I remember taking chewable vitamins when I was a kid, but as an adult, I never thought I needed it. It wasn’t because I had any signs of deficiency, she said, but that it was better to be safe than sorry.

I asked if it was possible to overdosage on over-the-counter multivitamins, and she said that it was highly unlikely if I followed the recommended dosage. She said that most people’s bodies are able to tolerate and absorb the multivitamins without any problems. As I get older, she said, it’s all the more important to take care of myself.

She’s right, of course. I shouldn’t neglect my health. I just wonder if I can find some of those chewable vitamins in the shape of my favourite cartoon characters. I may be an adult, but I don’t always have to act like one!

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Read the article from a Health Magazine. What are the most urgent problems raised in it? Discuss with your partner. Be ready to report to the group.


Вы наверное на раз слышали, а то и сами говорили: - «И витамины принимаю, и питание сбалансированное, а волосы стали ломкими и выпадают, кожа потускнела, да и общее состояние не очень… Почему такое?!»

Витамины, безусловно, играют очень важную роль в нормальном обмене веществ, повышают активность, защищают от болезней, делают кожу чистой и гладкой, ногти – крепкими, а волосы – блестящими.

Но избыток витаминов тоже может быть вреден для нашего организма. Например, если в организме слишком много витамина С, это может способствовать образованию камней в почках, вызвать расслабление желудка и появление аллергической сыпи, Кроме того, избыток витамина С препятствует усвоению витамина В6 и магния. Избыток витамина D может вызвать хрупкость и ломкость костей. Появляется тошнота, головные боли. Избыточные дозы витаминов А, D, Е, F сосредотачиваются в печени. При слишком большом содержании в организме витамина А появляются головные боли, а также возможны отравления, сопровождающиеся тошнотой.

Некоторые витамины усваиваются организмом лучше, если их принимать в сочетании с другими витаминами или некоторыми минеральными элементами. Например, витамин А действует наиболее эффективно, если его принимать с витаминами группы В, D, Е - его действие усиливается такими минеральными элементами, как кальций, фосфор, цинк. Витамины группы В хорошо сочетаются с витамином С - его воздействие на организм человека усиливает также сочетание с магнием. Витамин С лучше усваивается, если его принимать с такими минеральными элементами, как кальций и магний. Витамин D хорошо сочетается с витаминами А, С, а, также, с кальцием и фосфором.

Для того, чтобы получать максимальное количество витаминов из пищи, нужно соблюдать нехитрые правила:

- покупайте только свежие овощи и фрукты;

- храните фрукты и овощи недолго и в темном холодном помещении;

- чистите овощи непосредственно перед употреблением;

- варите картофель в кожуре, и лучше всего на пару;

- мойте салат только под проточной водой.

А самое главное, что вы должны знать:

- алкоголь разрушает витамины А, группы В, а также калий, цинк, кальций, магний и железо;

- никотин разрушает витамины А, С, Е и селен;

- кофеин разрушает витамины группы В, РР, а также снижает содержание в организме человека железа, калия, цинка, кальция;

- аспирин уменьшает содержание витаминов группы В, С, А, а также кальция и калия;

- снотворные средства затрудняют усвоение витаминов А, D, Е, В12, а также существенно снижают уровень кальция;

- антибиотики разрушают витамины группы В, а также железо, кальций, магний.

- мочегонные средства выводят из организма витамины группы В, а также магний, цинк и калий;

- слабительные средства препятствуют усвоению витаминов А, D, Е.

Вhello_html_m6dc814b9.jpgот теперь внимательно отнеситесь к своему рациону питания и выбирайте, что для вас важнее – чашечка кофе, сигарета или красивый цвет лица!


Watch a video. Look at the script. Are the italicized words familiar to you?


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISZLTJH5lYg


HOW DO VITAMINS WORK?

Ginnie Trinh Nguyen


A, C, E, D, B, K.

Now, this isn’t some random, out of order alphabet.

These are vitamins, and just like letters build words, they are building blocks that keep the body running.

Vitamins are organic compounds we need to ingest in small amounts to keep functioning.

They are the body’s builders, defenders and maintenance workers, helping it to build muscle and bone, make use of nutrients, capture and use energy and heal wounds.

If you need convincing about vitamin value, just consider the plight of olden day sailors, who had no access to vitamin-rich fresh produce.

They got scurvy.

But vitamin C, abundant in fruits and vegetables, was the simple antidote to this disease.

While bacteria, fungi and plants produce their own vitamins, our bodies can’t, so we have to get them from other sources.

So how does the body get vitamins from out there into here?

That’s depending on the form these compounds take.

Vitamins come in two types: lipid-soluble and water-soluble, and the difference between them determines how the body transport and stores vitamins, and gets rid of the excess.

The water-solubles are vitamin C and B Complex vitamins that are made up of eight different types that each do something unique.

These are dissolved in the watery parts of fruits, vegetables and grains, meaning their passage through the body is relatively straightforward.

Once inside the system, these foods are digested and the vitamins within them are taken up directly by bloodstream.

Because blood plasma is water-based, water-soluble vitamins C and B have their transport cut out for them and can move around freely within the body.

For lipid-soluble vitamins, dissolved in fat and found in foods like diary, butter and oils, this trip into the blood is a little more adventurous.

These vitamins make it through the stomach and the intestine, where an acidic substance called bile flows in from the liver, breaking up the fat and preparing it for absorption through the intestinal wall.

Because fat-soluble vitamins can’t make use of the blood’s watery nature, they need something else to move them around, and that comes from proteins that attach to the vitamins and act like couriers, transporting fat-solubles into the blood and around the body.

So, this difference between water- or fat-soluble vitamins determines how they get into the blood, but also how they’re stored or rejected from the body.

The system’s ability to circulate water-soluble vitamins in the bloodstream so easily means that most of them can be passed out equally easily via the kidneys.

Because of that, most water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished on a daily basis through the food we eat.

But fat-soluble vitamins have staying power because they can be packed into the liver and in fat cells.

The body treats these parts like a pantry, storing the vitamins there and rationing them out when needed, meaning we shouldn’t overload on this type of vitamin because the body is generally well stocked.

Once we figured the logistics of transport and storage, the vitamins are left to do the work they came here to do in the first place.

Some, like many of the B Complex vitamins, make up coenzymes, whose job it is to help enzymes release the energy from food.

Other B vitamins then help the body to use that energy.

From vitamin C, you get the ability to fight infection and make collagen, a kind of tissue that forms bones and teeth and heals wounds.

Vitamin A helps make white blood cells, key in the body’s defense, helps shape bones and improves vision by keeping the cells of the eye in check.

Vitamin D gathers calcium and phosphorus so we can make bones, and vitamin E works as an antioxidant, getting rid of elements in the body that can damage cells.

Finally, from vitamin K, we score the ability to clot blood, since it helps make the proteins that do this job.

Without this vitamin variety, humans face deficiencies that cause a range of problems, like fatigue, nerve damage, heart disorders, or diseases like rickets and scurvy.

On the other hand, too much of any vitamin can cause toxicity in the body, so there goes the myth that loading yourself with supplements is a great idea.

In reality, it’s all about getting the balance right, and hitting that vitamin jackpot.

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Краткое описание документа:

Данный сборник материалов составлен в помощь учителю / преподавателю иностранного (английского) языка и может быть использован при изучении тем "Здоровый образ жизни", "Здоровое питание", "Привычки" и проч., являясь дополнением к основному учебно-методическому комплексу.

Предложенные тексты могут использоваться обучающимися при выполнении внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы, подготовке докладов, презентаций, дискуссий.

Автор
Дата добавления 12.10.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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УЖЕ ЧЕРЕЗ 10 МИНУТ ВЫ МОЖЕТЕ ПОЛУЧИТЬ ДИПЛОМ

от проекта "Инфоурок" с указанием данных образовательной лицензии, что важно при прохождении аттестации.

Если Вы учитель или воспитатель, то можете прямо сейчас получить документ, подтверждающий Ваши профессиональные компетенции. Выдаваемые дипломы и сертификаты помогут Вам наполнить собственное портфолио и успешно пройти аттестацию.

Список всех тестов можно посмотреть тут - https://infourok.ru/tests

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