Take care of the purity of the language, as you would do it with a sanctity. Never use foreign words. Russian language is so saturated and flexible, that there is nothing we can take from those, who are barrener than us.
Aphorism by I.S.Turgenev
The subject of our study is referred to the lexicology. As you well know, lexica is the most dynamic side of any language.
The purpose of the study is to find out the features and reasons for adoptions from English.
Objectives of the study:
-to separate out main social spheres, where there the amount of loan words is the biggest;
-to monitor the pointed spheres, analyze the situation;
-find out the reasons for the adoption;
-create solutions for adoption problems.
Vocabulary part of any language is always growing. One of the ways for this is adoption, which means copying a word or an expression.
There is huge amount of words that are being adopted in all areas of our life, including science, politics, culture, tourism, financials and commercials. Words, which are adopted from English are called Anglicisms. They began to appear in the beginning of XIX century, but their surge into the lexica of the Russian language was very small till the 90`s of the XX century : during this period an intensive adoption process had a start, because some words had no analogues in Russian language, or were more useful and comfortable than the Russian ones. The reason for a rapid and significant leap in amount of loan words was a reinforcement of information streams, development of the world economical market, international tourism, popularization of WWW. As many linguists and philologists mention, the intention of adoption of English lexica has already reached threating rates. The most worrying fact is that teenagers use more and more anglicisms in their speech. And the consistency of the main cultural monument – the language.
In the lexicon of any person we can separate out several groups, one of those will be slang. Teenagers use this group of words more than others, and this is the reason for this amount of attention, that is being paid by modern linguists. There is no certain definition of slang, so we will use the Oxford Dictionary definition:
-Slang ( language of a highly colloquial style, considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense ).
Slang is always developing and widening. Anglicisms became a modern trend, which is determined by some beliefs, created in teenage society. One of those is a belief, that the living standard in western countries, especially in the USA is much higher than in Russia. Most of Russian teenagers are trying to become a part of idealized American culture and lifestyle by using English slang. To study loan words deeper, we have to look at the examples of slang adoption process:
Development of computer and internet technologies has led to popularization of social web sites, that are quite popular among teenagers. For example, user, gamer, login.
Some loan words in this sphere got into the Russian lexica not long ago.
Some slang expressions aren`t always used in their full form.
Affection of modern musical and club culture, cinematic industry.
Most of their free time teenagers prefer to pass their time with their friends watching films, discussing musical interests and club visits, where they can get acquainted to new people.
The effect, that mass media and TV have, is a part of teenagers` life, and effect on the slang very strongly,too. In XXI century it`s hard not to follow the news on the mass media, because it`s impossible to live apart from the society, being in it. Every person wants to know, what is going on around.
Sports. Many sports names are being stolen from other languages. Many young people love to do spotrs, and they are interested in using shorter words.
Professional terminology, because of international companies integration.
Fast food popularization was a reason for appearance of a number of loan words.
Imitation of the life of American and English youngsters was a reason for the appearance of the widest slang group.
Recently Russian language adopted words like speaker, inauguration, impeachment, image, electorate, pier, consensus, summit.
Wide range of cosmetics, that Russian people weren`t familiar with before it was invented, was a reason for word adoption, like make-up, consealer, peeling-cream, lifting-cream, vanish-cream.
This sphere is adopting words extremely fast. The records is kept by the WWW. Although many people with philological education, that have to bring Russian language culture to people, it`s not happening. The loan words are popular because of TV and mass media. We often use online, talk-show, image-maker, primetime.
New cladding materials have come with their English names: siding, molding, the interest in keeping gardens made a mixborder to be used in our language.
Many words, that we all got used to, have come to us from English language
(football, sportsman, bodybuilding, basketball, volleyball, bike).
New technologies require new names, that are adopted from English (notebook, computer, scanner, mobile phone, keyboard, organizer, monitor, e-mail). Based on English terminology of digital tehnologies is easily adopting Anglicisms. Words like website, banner, browser and others are used among modern computer users, that grow in numbers more and more.
Cinema, TV, music.
This sphere is a powerful source of English language popularization. Most Anglicisms got a place in our language because of pop-culture. Nowadays many Russian stars sing in English. Everybody knows words like rap, thriller, track, remake, horror. A powerful push for the development for the adoption of English lexica was its usage in the speech of popular people on TV or other mass media.
In this sphere we can find anglicisms like marketing, investments, broker, dealer, price-list.
Now we can examine main reasons for words adoption:
Requirement in a name for a new product, concept or appearance (scanner, notebook, printer, player)
Absence of better name in the language. Hot-dog, video saloon, chips. About 15% of modern anglicisms are adopted because there is no more accurate name. Words like pricelist and image belong to this group, because they are easier to pronounce, shorter, or have a clearer meaning.
Some loan words replace huge descriptive phrase and introduce a new comprehension, like lifting, pilling. The idea is that a solid, imparted object has to be called by one word, and not by a long row of words. For example, zapper – a person that is continuously switching TV channels and zapping – the following process : all these words replace long phrases. The “quiz” Anglicism replaces “radio or TV gameshow in questions and answers with prizes.
Social-psychological reasons and factors for adoption: the whole
group of speakers or part of it appreciates the foreign word as a prestigious one. Among native Russian speakers the idea that foreign technologies are more progressive, foreign banks are more reliable, foreign products are of better quality. This is widely used in ads, for example auto-rental.
A need to concretize the meaning (hamburger instead of sandwich). Tendency towards to delimiting close, but different conceptions. Sandwich has an abstract meaning, while hamburger, fish burger, cheeseburger, chicken burger have differentiating meaning. Often used example is word killer, which in Russian has a meaning of professional killer, mercenary.
Because modern technologies are concentrated in Europe and America, and the English language is international, technological vocabulary is replenished with Anglo-Americanisms.
Many linguists studied the reasons for word adoption. Earlier the main reason for word adoption the requirement for naming things and ideas. But there are some other reasons, different by their nature.
Words adoption from the second group makes lexical overdose in the language, and as a rule one of the synonyms becomes popular and others are being forgotten. \*
However, loan words that don`t have synonyms in Russian are very useful, as they make it closer to modern reality
Office ghost – an office worker that is on his place, but all his work is being done by others.
iBrick- any iPhone before activation;
attention spam – condition, when you can`t concentrate because of lots of useless thoughts.
Accidental jedi – when someone does something extraordinary;
Headdesk – highest state of despair and disappointment because of someone`s foolish actions
Digital immigrant – a person that began to use internet after adult period
Bio-accessory- small dog that girls carry in bags;
Ego-wall – a wall being covered with awards;
Chairdrobe- a chair that kees clothes on it;
Thechnolust – a condition, when person wants to have latest gadgets;
Coffee face – a face of a person who didn`t drink coffee in the morning;
Drivestep- dubstep, which is perfect to drive with;
Book hangover- a feeling, when the world seems imperfect after reading an exciting book.
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