Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методические указания для 2 курса по теме "СМИ"
Обращаем Ваше внимание: Министерство образования и науки рекомендует в 2017/2018 учебном году включать в программы воспитания и социализации образовательные события, приуроченные к году экологии (2017 год объявлен годом экологии и особо охраняемых природных территорий в Российской Федерации).

Учителям 1-11 классов и воспитателям дошкольных ОУ вместе с ребятами рекомендуем принять участие в международном конкурсе «Законы экологии», приуроченном к году экологии. Участники конкурса проверят свои знания правил поведения на природе, узнают интересные факты о животных и растениях, занесённых в Красную книгу России. Все ученики будут награждены красочными наградными материалами, а учителя получат бесплатные свидетельства о подготовке участников и призёров международного конкурса.

ПРИЁМ ЗАЯВОК ТОЛЬКО ДО 21 ОКТЯБРЯ!

Конкурс "Законы экологии"

Методические указания для 2 курса по теме "СМИ"

библиотека
материалов

Государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение

Нижегородской области

«Краснобаковский лесной колледж»









Воронина М.В.









Методические указания к развивающему курсу

английского языка для студентов II курса

«Новости, средства массовой информации»

(часть 3)













Красные Баки

2015 год













Настоящие методические указания предназначены для студентов II курса всех специальностей КБЛК очной и заочной формы обучения для организации аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов.

Методические указания состоят из тематических циклов, которые ориентированы на совершенствование знаний, умений и навыков студентов.











Учебно-методические указания составлены преподавателем английского языка ГБПОУ НО КБЛК Ворониной М.В.













Оглавление



Предисловие………..……………………………………………………….………..4

Newspapers and Magazines ...…..………………………………………………….…5

Texts for reading ……………………………………………………………7

TV and Radio .……...………………………………………………………………...12

Texts for reading ………………………………………………………… 17

Приложение 1

Лексический словарь по теме «Газеты и журналы»…..…………………………. 23

Приложение 2

Лексический словарь по теме «Телевидение и радио»…..…………………..…....24

Список рекомендуемой литературы по изучаемой тематике……………………..25

























Предисловие


Настоящие Методические указания предназначены для студентов очного и заочного отделения всех специальностей лесного колледжа. Они составлены в соответствии с Примерной программой учебной дисциплины Английский язык для специальностей СПО.

Целью обучения английскому языку является подготовка студентов к общению на этом языке вустной и письменной формах, что предполагает наличие у них определённых знаний, умений и навыков, которые после окончания курса дадут им возможность:

- читать оригинальную литературу по специальности для получения необходимой информации;

- принимать участие в устном общении на английском языке в объёме материала, предусмотренного Примерной программой;

- приобрести навыки самостоятельной работы с иностранной литературой.

В процессе изучения английского языка реализуются также общеобразовательные и воспитательные задачи обучения.

Методические указания включают в себя основные темы развивающего курса («Газеты и Журналы», «Телевидение и Радио»), содержащие адаптированные тексты и практические упражнения по его закреплению способствующих развитию и совершенствованию произносительных навыков.

Материал указаний может быть рекомендован для всех лиц, желающих повысить уровень владения английским языком.























NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES


1. New words

press - пресса

article - статья

illustration - иллюстрация

photograph - фотография

title - заголовок

affair - дела

issue - выпуск

publish - публиковать

commentator - комментатор

observer - обозреватель

tabloids – бульварная газета

broadsheets – широкоформатная газета

daily newspapers – ежедневная газета

Sunday newspapers – газеты, выпускаемые в выходные дни.

human interest stories – истории людей

quality papers –серьезные газеты

popular papers– популярные газеты


2. Read and translate the text.

Everywhere, everyday exiting things are happening. Each day is filled with news. How are people kept informed? The press, radio and television keep people informed on all topical issues of the day.

The press has a great political influence. You can get a lot of useful information from newspaper reports. If you are a regular reader of the press, you will be well informed about all matters. Newspapers publish articles on home and foreign affairs. Reports by political observers and commentators help us to get useful information on international and domestic issues.

The British are great newspaper readers. All British papers can be classified as either “quality” or “popular” papers. A “quality” paper is a serious national paper that aims at the educated reader. The "qualities" give serious accounts of the news and reports on business matters, industry and culture. They are usually large-sized. The "quality" papers, like The Times, The Guardian and others, are directed at readers who want full information on a wide range of public matters.

"Popular" newspapers appeal to people wanting news of a more entertaining character. They are usually with lots of illustrations. Some populars, like The Sun, are note for their sensational stories and photographs.

Some newspapers come out only on Sundays: "Qualities" - The Sunday Telegraph, The Sunday Times; "Populars" - Sunday Express, Sunday Mirror. Many newspapers are printed in color, as the part of Sunday or Saturday paper. They provide reading material about clothes, cooking, diet, the house and home.

There is a wide variety of magazines in Britain. They titles show that cater for tastes and interests: British Chess Magazine, Country Life, Homes and Gardens, Do-it-yourself...


Answer the questions:

1) Do you like reading newspapers/magazines?

2) What is your favourite newspaper/magazine?

3) What does the newspaper/magazine provide us with?

4) What newspapers/magazines do the members of your family read?

5) Why some local newspapers are free?

6) What are the main types of British newspapers/magazines?

7) Say what are the differences and similarities between newspapers and magazines?

8) Why is one of them large, other kind are small?

9) What national serious newspapers are in the country?

10) Daily newspapers are published on every day of the week except Sunday, aren’t they?


3. Exercises


1. Try to guess what these words mean?

1) A paper printed and sold usually daily or weekly with news.

2) The process of sending and receiving messages through the air, broadcasting programs for people to listen to.

3) Broadcasting programs (the news, plays, advertisements, shows, etc…) for people to watch on.

4) A way to communicate with your partner who might be a thousand miles away using the computer


2. Describe any newspaper

1) What is the title of this paper?

2) What kind is it? Daily or Sunday?

3) Is it large or small (broadsheet)?

4) When was it founded?

5) Where is it published?  What is its address?


3. Match the means of mass media with descriptions

Television

small paper printed and sold or free

Newspaper/ magazine

you can hear information from channels

Tabloid

different programmes for people to watch

Radio

a daily or weekly publication on folded sheets


4. Use these sentences in Past Simple/Future Simple.

  1. Many people buy tabloids like The Sun. It is the biggest-selling newspaper in Britain.

  2. All Sunday newspapers are national.

  3. Many people buy tabloids like The Sun, which is the biggest-selling newspaper in Britain.

  4. There are two kinds of newspapers in Britain.

  5. These newspapers are called serious papers or quality papers.


5. Insert the prepositions.

1. "Popular" newspapers are usually … lots of illustrations.

2. Many newspapers are printed … color.

3. Reading a newspaper you can get information … the events.

4. The freedom … press has become actual and real today.

5. The press, radio and television keep people informed … all topical issues … the day.


6. Find English equivalents in the text.

получать полезную информацию, кулинария, наполнен новостями, печатаются цветными, политический обозреватель, вкусы и интересы, читатели газет, промышленность, новости развлекательного характера, политическое влияние.



7. Write 3 forms of the verbs:

keep, inform, happen, have, get, fill, publish, give, be, help.



Texts for reading

Newspapers

Newspapers belong to the oldest methods of getting information to the public and keeping people well informed on important events. They can cover more news in greater detail than other media and reporters have more time to get the facts straight.

Producing a newspaper requires speed and good organization. Reporters, editors and photographers always face deadlines. Many other workers are also involved in making a paper: advertising salespeople, artists, printing press operators and truck drivers.

Format of newspapers

Standard papers are large papers that can have a size of up to 55 cm by 33 cm. Generally, these newspapers are more serious and present more facts than tabloids.

Tabloids are smaller papers with a size of up to 37 cm by 25 cm. They concentrate on sensational stories and often publish gossip combined with big pictures.

 

Types of newspapers

Newspapers can be divided into three basic types:

  • dailies

  • weeklies

  • special interest newspapers

In addition, many newspapers have their own online edition which provides news over the Internet.

Daily newspapers print world, national and local news. Many of them also have a section about events that happen in the area in which the reader lives. Most dailies are distributed in the morning, but in some large cities newspapers have an afternoon or evening edition that comes out when people travel home from work.

Sunday newspapers have additional features and more pages than weekday editions. Topics like entertainment, finance or travel are included in separate sections, which sometimes make Sunday papers so large that they are difficult to handle.

Weekly papers are distributed in a much smaller area and have news that is more local and personal. In small communities, people know each other and are often interested in activities of their friends and neighbours.

Special interest papers are newspapers for a special part of the population, like Hispanics in America. Some of them also focus on certain topics like sports or business.

Contents of a newspaper

  • International news – large format papers publish more news about world affairs than tabloids

  • National news covers the main events that happen in the country.

  • Local news centres on what happens in the state or district that the reader lives in Tabloids have more local stories than others.

  • Editorials are articles that show the opinion of the writer.

  • Letters to the editor come from readers and show their opinion on certain topics or agree or disagree with an editorial.

  • Comic strips are a series of drawn pictures , mostly by a cartoonist, that show a story.

  • Crosswords and other puzzles give the reader the chance to solve certain tasks

  • Horoscopes give you a description of your character and the things that may happen to you, based on the position of the stars and planets at the time of your birth.

  • Television guides give the reader an overview of the programmes they can watch throughout the day.

  • Sports are a very important part of most newspapers. That’s why they are given a larger section at the back of a newspaper.

  • Weather reports and forecasts give the readers information on local as well as travel and international weather

  • Death notices appear mostly in local papers. They show a list of people who have died in the region in the last few days.

  • Advertisements take up large parts of a newspaper and are positioned throughout the paper. Sometimes they can be a whole page in size, in other cases they make up only a few lines.

  • Advice columns offer tips for readers and answer their questions on certain topics.

  • Movie, art, book and music reviews give the reader information on new releases Reporters give their own opinion on how good a new film, book or a newly released CD is.

 

 

How newspapers are made

Gathering information

The first step in printing a newspaper is to collect enough information. A paper gets the news from two main sources: Reporters gather information for the newspaper

Reporters and correspondents do a lot of research work in order to gather the facts. They must also find out which news is important and worth reporting and which information can be left out.

  • A newspaper employs various kinds of reporters. A beat reporter covers certain issues and topics, mostly over a longer period of time. He or she may report on a crime and the trial that follows. An education reporter follows topics related to schools and universities. Other beat reporters cover topics like fashion or science. General assignment reporters cover any story that they are given to by the editor. Sometimes reporters spend months trying to get stories on corruption and other wrongdoings. These stringers, as they are called, do not work for a paper, but send them stories regularly.

Large newspapers often have offices in other cities or countries. Foreign correspondents work in these offices and can send news stories to the newspaper very quickly.

  • Newspapers cannot have reporters and correspondents everywhere in the world. They get part of their information from news or wire services. Such services collect information from reporters all over the world and relay it via computers and satellites to newspapers. Among the largest news services are United Press International and Associated Press (both USA). Other services include Reuters (UK), Agence France Press (France) and ITAR-TASS (Russia).


Writing and Editing

Most reporters only provide information and the basic facts of a story and rarely write the whole story themselves. This is usually done by news editors. They write stories as a team on computers that are connected together. The finished story goes to a copy editor or reader, who corrects spelling and makes the story easier to read. If it is too long he makes it shorter and also finds a headline.

Stories would be boring without photos. Newspapers get pictures from news services and sometimes have their own photographers who work for them. Graphic artists design charts or illustrations for certain stories.

Columnists write stories that offer readers opinions about the news and important events. These editorials often try to influence the opinion of the reader.

 

Creating a layout

The layout shows where the text, photos, advertisements etc. should appear on the page. Almost all newspapers use computers to create layouts. Usually these layouts are just empty frames that are filled when the news comes in.

 

Printing the newspaper

The completed paper is transferred electronically from computers to the printing press. Most papers use offset printers in which the contents is put on curved printing plates.

Every day newspapers must be finished at a certain time, so that they can be delivered to the readers on time. For the morning editions, this deadline is mostly late at night or shortly after midnight. For newspapers published in the afternoon, the deadline is sometime in the morning or near noon.

 

Delivery and circulation Selling newspapers at a kiosk

After printing, the papers are bundled into groups, loaded on lorries and delivered to stores, vending machines and newsstands. Thousands of carriers pick up newspapers at a distribution point and deliver them to private homes, because everyone wants to get the newspaper as early as possible.

Circulation managers organize the sales of newspapers and try to increase the number of readers.

 

Advertisements

A newspaper cannot exist without advertisements. They pay for at least 75 % of all costs. The people who work in this department sell ads to individuals and companies.

Newspapers carry two types of ads. Display ads can be as large as a full page and can also include illustrations and photos. Classified ads or want ads usually appear in a separate section. They often have only a few lines in which people offer goods and services or look for jobs and apartments. Classifieds are grouped into categories so that readers can easily find what they want.

 

Newspapers in the 21st century

The invention of computers in the 20th century has greatly changed the way newspapers are made. Today, reporters can save time by sending the main facts of their stories by e-mail. Editors can easily make corrections with spell checkers. Articles are shuffled from one page to another and colour graphics and pictures make newspapers more attractive.

Increasing costs of publishing, however, have also driven many newspapers out of business.


Magazines

Magazine is one of the major mass media. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories. Usually magazines also contain illustrations.

The earliest magazines developed from newspapers and booksellers catalogs. Magazines provide information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography or articles about TV, or movie stars.

Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time in comparison to newspapers and that is why they are printed on a better paper and have covers. Magazines, unlike newspapers, do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events.

There are specialized magazines intended for special business, industrial and professional groups, and consumer magazines intended for general public. There are several kinds of consumer magazines.

Children's magazines contain stories, jokes, and articles on subjects especially interesting for children and instructions for making games or useful items.

Hobby magazines are intended for collectors of coins, stamps, and other items; people interested in certain sports or games; photography enthusiasts.

Intellectual magazines provide analysis of current cultural and political events. Many of them publish fiction and poetry as well.

Men's magazines focus on such topics as adventure, entertainment, men's fashion and sports.

Women's magazines deal with child-raising, fashion trends, romance. They offer ideas on cooking and home decorating. Many of the monthlies with big circulations are women's magazines.
















TELEVISION AND RADIO

1. New words

television - телевидение

leisure – отдых, досуг

channel – канал

in operation – в эксплуатации

local - местный

commercial - комерческий

current affairs - текущие события

soap opera – сериал

mass media – средства массовой информации

to estimate – оценивать

aerial – антенна

carrier wave – несущая

paging – пейджинг (передача сигнала системы поискового вызова)

pager – пейджер (абонентский приемник системы поискового вызова)

alphabetic-numerical – буквенно-цифровой


2. Read and translate the text.

Television

Television is the most popular leisure pastime in Russia. Several television channels are in operation: "Ostankino". "Russian Channel", "Independent TV Channel - NTV". Besides there are local TV channels and local commercial TV channels in big cities and republics of Russia.

TV services provide programmes of general interest such as light entertainment, sport, current affairs, serious drama, music. There are programmes on arts, children's and family programmes, interviews with outstanding personalities, news reports covering international, national and local events.

Much attention is paid to foreign films, American in particular, foreign TV programmes and soap operas.

Television is one of the most popular mass media in Britain. About 96 per cent of population have television in their homes. It is estimated that about 10 per cent of household have two or more sets. Average viewing time per person is over 17 hours a week.

Four television channels are in operation: BBC-1. BBC-2, ITV, Channel-4.

The BBC has been providing regular television broadcasts since 1936. BBC television productions come from main studios at the Television Centre in west London and other studios in various parts of London.

The first regular independent television broadcast began in London in 1955. Independent television programmes are produced at 18 studio centres throughout the country.


Answer the questions:

1. How often do you watch TV?

2. Do you have more than one TV set?

3. What channels do you usually choose? Why?

4. What is your favourite TV programme?

5. Do you watch sport programmes?

6. Do you watch football matches?

7. Does TV do you any harm?

8. What about your parents, children? What programmes do they prefer watching?

9. Do your mother or grandmother watch soap operas?

10. Do you like soap operas?

11. Do you find Russian TV interesting?

12. Are there any programmes for pupils, students? What are they?

13. What do you think about advertising on TV?

14. Do you like watching advertisements?


3. Read and translate the text.


Radio communication

The greatest achievement in the field of communication should be considered the invention of radio by A.Popov in 1895. A.Popov demonstrated the possibility of sending messages over long distances by means of radio waves. A modern broadcasting station has an aerial from which sound waves combined with carrier waves are transmitted. These waves are received by radio sets in people's houses.

Nowadays radio and television find great application in all spheres of life and especially in the systems of space communication. Two-way radio and TV communications are constantly carried on with space vehicles and cosmonauts.

An up-to-date and popular means of radio communication is paging. Paging is carried out through the Personal Radio Call Network. It applies only one channel for servicing thousands of users. The first pagers appeared in the late 1950s. They were one-way communication devices provided with standard receivers. Since 1994 the device has been improved. It was provided with a low-power transmitter.

So at present the pager is able both to receive a message and to answer it. Modern pagers may be of tone, voice, numeric and alphabetic-numeric types. Today about 30 million people all over the world use pagers in cases of urgent transmission of messages. It is desirable that pagers should be widely used in private life as well.


Exercises


1. Find English equivalents in the text:

в настоящее время, во всем мире, на большие расстояния, посредством, система космической связи, современные средства связи, для обслуживания, пользователь.


2. Of the suggested wordings choose ones that are discussed in the text, and then arrange them in the order that they appear in the text.

1. Modern pagers.

2. Invention of radio.

3. Internet and its functions.

4. The first pagers and their characteristics.

5. Telex and fax and their application.

6. Satellite systems of personal communication and their advantages.

7. Radio and television in space communication.


3. Find Russian equivalents for English words:

achievement передавать

communication транспортное средство

message современный

constantly связь

up-to-date выполнять

carry out достижение

vehicle постоянно

transmit сообщение


4. Match the words in the columns:

space

sound

two-way

low power

to send

broadcasting

to demonstrate

to find

radio

urgent


message

communication

vehicle

station

wave

call

transmitter

application

possibility

channel



5. Now divide into groups and find benefits and dangers of television:

  1. Television helps us to learn more about the world and to know and see many new things.

  2. Television can make us passive. We don’t have to think and our brains become lazy.

  3. It has increased the popularity of sports and arts.

  4. It takes time away from activities such as reading, conversation, and games.

  5. It is an enjoyable way to relax.

  6. It encourages us to buy things that we don’t need, and can make us unhappy with our own lives.

  7. It has made us aware of our global responsibilities. In 1985, for example, 1.5 billion people in 147 countries watched TV pop concert and helped to collect more than $100 million for people in Africa.


Benefits of television

Dangers



6. The words given below are used to talk about the press and media. Sort the words out and put them under their right heading. Some words can be put under different headings.

1.a remote control; 2. a viewer; 3. a radio set; 4. an editor; 5. a headline; 6. a magazine; 7. a news photograph; 8. an essay; 9. a tabloid; 10. an issue; 11. a quiz master; 12. a soap opera; 13. an announcer; 14. a quality paper; 15. a commercial; 16. a broadcaster; 17. a feature article; 18. an advertisement; 19. a sitcom; 20. a news broadcast; 21. a journal; 22. a talk show; 23. a current affairs programme; 24. a disk jockey; 25. a cartoon; 26. a periodical; 27. a caption.

RADIO TELEVISION THE PRESS

______ _________ _________

______ _________ _________

______ _________ _________


7. This word square contains some words that are used when we talk about the press, radio and television. Find ten words. Here are their Russian equivalents.

  1. радио

  2. журнал

  3. объявлять, сообщать, извещать

  4. печать, пресса

  5. (научно-популярный, общественно-политический) журнал

  6. смотреть

  7. новости

  8. телезритель

  9. публиковать

  10. выпуск, издание

K

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MASS MEDIA REPORT

Questions:

Your friend’s name:

  1. How do you get the news?

1.

  1. Do you read newspapers or magazines more?

2.

  1. How often do you read newspapers/magazines?

3.

  1. What’s your favourite newspaper/magazine?

4.

  1. Do you like to watch TV?

5.

  1. How much time do you spend on watcing TV every day?

6.

  1. What do you usually watch on TV?

    • cartoons

    • films (comedies/documentaries/

horror films/soap operas/ adventures)

  • news

  • talk/game/reality/quiz shows

  • sport programmes

7.

  1. Do you use the Internet?

8.

  1. How often do you use the Net?

9.

10. Why do you surf the net?

  • for playing games

  • for talking to my friends

  • for reading the news

  • for finding information

  • for downloading films/music/pictures

10.

Is mass media important to your friend? Why?


















Texts for reading

What is mass media?

Mass media can be defined as channels of communication with the help of which information is delivered to the audience.

Despite today's abundance and variety of mass media, not everything can be ranked as such. Thus, for example, libraries or press conferences cannot be attributed to mass media.

Features of mass media

There are 3 main features which characterize mass media. First of all, they must be periodic. Second, they are always aimed at a large audience. Third, there must be a speaker or any other source of information.

Press

Press is considered to be a classic form of mass media. It includes newspapers, magazines, brochures and all other printed publications issued with a specific periodicity. Unfortunately, with the development of Internet and other means of media, press is experiencing difficult times.

Electronic mass media

This category includes radio, television and Internet. Radio is a popular means of media, especially when travelling or driving. Television is, without any doubt, the most effective one with the biggest audience of all. Nowadays, with Internet playing a significant part in our life, mass media is gradually moving into virtual space.

Role of mass media in the life of the society

It is difficult to overestimate the role of mass media in our life. Media influence people's consciousness, creating a certain public opinion. They also play a great role in the formation of a personality. With the help of mass media it became possible to quickly learn about things that happen around the world.


Mass Media

It is impossible to underestimate the role of mass media in society as a whole and in life of every single person. Starting with the invention of printing machine, for many centuries mass media influenced public opinion. In ideal world mass media would be independent body with the main function of reflecting the reality and providing people with objective and useful information. But in real life given information depends on goals of certain individuals and organizations, so the mass media lose the main purpose they serve.

Types of mass media

All the tools used to assist the circulation and distribution of information can be considered as a means of communication. There are several types:

  • Broadcast (recorded music, radio, television and film) – transmit information electronically.

  • Print (book, newspaper, comics, pamphlet) – use a physical object to distribute information.

  • Outdoor (sign, billboard, placard) – placed outside and inside buildings, shops, transport.

  • Digital (Internet and mobile tools) – transmit information digitally.


Positive and negative sides of mass media

Thanks to the mass media we have the possibility to get information about everything in the world as fast and as full as we want. Television, newspapers, Internet help the society to develop and every individual to become more competed and informed. All these informational tools also make our lives easier, safer, comfortable – one can learn how to prevent different diseases, chose the most convenient place for rest, educate oneself in any field.

But there are also negative sides – mass media are often used to influence our consciousness. We are made to buy what we don’t need, to think what we don’t think and to behave the way we don’t want to.

Mass media is an integral part of our lives and living in modern society we can’t withstand their influence. But we can learn to use them only at a profit. It’s really simple. Every piece of information is to be analyzed and taken critically, our personal point of view has to always come first.

типы средств массовой информации фото

There are different ways of getting information — mass media, books, travelling, visiting museums, meeting people. Which do you prefer? 

To live in the modern world is impossible without expanding your knowledge in all spheres. There are several ways of communicating the world to individuals — mass media, books, travelling, museums, meeting eminent people. Of all the existing ways, there are two which are the easiest ones, that is mass media and travelling. One more reason why I prefer them is that they provide the fullest and the most reliable information in the fields you are interested in. (For travelling, see 'Travelling'.)

Mass media play an important role in our life. How and why do they shape public opinion ?

Mass media play an important role in our life. They are usually defined by encyclopedias as any of the means of communication, such as radio, television, newspapers, magazines, etc. that reach and influence a very large audience, at least as large as the whole population of a nation. The term was coined in 1920s with emerging of nationwide radio networks and of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. I believe mass media are so influential because they can be used for various purposes: popularisation, for business or social concerns (advertising, marketing, public relations, and political communication), education, entertainment, video and computer games, journalism, public service announcements. Media include radio and television, films, various types of discs or tapes used for music and computer, Internet, publishing on paper (books, magazines, and newspapers).

Mass media play a crucial role in forming public opinion. They do it in a number of ways: first, they communicate the world to individuals. Much of the news media is made up of newsgathering by large organizations. Just four main news agencies — AP, UPI, Reuters and Agence France Presse — claim together to provide 90 % of the total news output of the world's press, radio and television. Second, they reproduce modern society's self-image by forcing attention to certain issues. They build up public images of political figures. They are constantly presenting objects suggesting what individuals in the mass should think about, know about, have feelings about. Because some of the media produce material which often is good, impartial, and serious, they have respect and authority. If we look into the reasons why the mass media shape public opinion, we will see, first of all, that in practice the ethics of the press and television provides a vital support for the existing order. Second, many of the mass media in practice cater for the tastes of some social group. Shaping the public opinion inside this group, they create the audience which supports them financially by buying the newspaper or watching the TV channel.

But how much do the media influence the modern society? Early critiques suggested that the media destroys the individual's capacity to act autonomously. Later studies, however, suggest a more complex interaction between the media and society. People actively interprete and evaluate the media and the information it provides.


History of television

The first attempts to get an image on the screen were made in the late XIX century. But the large-scale production of the first televisions did not start until 1930s. Soon, with the development of science and technologies, television became an essential part of our life.

Television variety

Today, it is hard not to get lost in this diverse TV world. Thus, there is high definition television, which is characterized by images and sound of high quality. There is also smart-TV – television with integrated Internet. There is also 3D-television, which can only be watched with the help of special goggles.

Television for everyone

Television is one of the mass media with the largest audience of all. 

Due to its accessibility everyone can watch television despite their age and social status. Some people get an update on the latest news; others watch soap operas and talk-shows.

However, television does not exist for information and entertainment only. It can also be educational. That is why students and little children may find it useful as well.



Television in our life

Television came to our life about 100 years ago, but nowadays there is hardly a household without a TV set. Despite the development of other sources of information, TV still remains one of the most important ones.


The Advantages and Disadvantages of Television

Television is one of the greatest inventions of all time. For example, on July 20, 1969, we were able to watch in our living room Neil A. Armstrong step out of the lunar module of the Apollo 11 spacecraft and haltingly walk on the surface of the moon. We were witnessing a milestone in the history of humanity. Such is the potential power of TV to inform, inspire, and unite.

Experiments to create a workable television began in the 19th century in Germany. Today television is probably the most widely used type of mass media — and entertainment. Most families in the civilized countries have a TV in their household.

TV has a lot of advantages. First, it is a powerful mass medium communicating the world to individuals and providing education to the viewers, as it broadcasts news about all spheres of human life and a lot of educational programmes. Second, it caters for all of the needs and tastes of all ages and social groups due to the variety of information it gets across to the viewer and is accessible even for illiterate and blind. It broadcasts news, feature films of all kinds imaginable, cartoons, documentaries, sports events, political commentaries, shows, commercials — and what not! Third, it provides entertainment — we can see major sporting events live, and the choice of feature films, cartoons and documentaries is enormous — from old classics to the latest Hollywood releases, cartoons, children's shows and films.

Yet, in its current state, TV produces a lot of problems. The first problem is no matter how noble our intentions are to watch only worthwhile programming, once we start watching, it is all too easy to become captivated by its almost hypnotic power to keep us watching regardless of the banality of the content.

So, before long, we are watching not for the content, but for the contrast, change, and captivating swirl of images. That is the danger. We may decide to catch a one-hour educational program and end up 'watching' longer than we originally planned.
TV also decreases one's attention span and weakens one's imagination because we grow used to quick, short bursts of ready-made information. All we have to do is sit back and observe someone else's imagination. We need to be more like Groucho Marx who said, 'I find television very educational. Every time someone switches it on I go into another room and read a good book.

One more disadvantage of the modern TV is that it is full of violence, which sets a bad example for children who are nanve and vulnerable and often use people they see on TV as role models.

Another major problem is the way it is used by those who own and run television stations and networks. TV is not made to entertain, educate, or enlighten us. It is made to sell products and services. Living with television means growing up in a world of about 22,000 commercials a year, 5,000 of them for food products, more than half of which are for low-nutrition sweets and snacks. TV, then, is heart of the monster called consumerism. Women are forced to go to work and children see less and less of their parents, all so we can buy more and more of the stuff TV tells us is indispensable for happiness.

TV creates great harm not only by its influence, but also by what it prevents. The primary danger of the television screen lies not so much in the behaviour it produces — although there is danger there — as in the behaviour it prevents: the talks, the games, the family festivities and arguments. TV distracts our attention from reality, solving real life problems and communicating with people.


Television

Whether we realise it or not, TV plays a very important part in our lives.

It's the main source of information and a cheap form of entertainment for millions of people. It's the window on the world which gives us an opportunity to "travel" all over the world, to "meet" different people and learn about their customs and traditions. It has the power to educate and broaden our minds.

It helps us to relax after a hard day's work and escape from reality. There's always a great variety of programmes on TV: news and sports programmes, talk shows and TV games, documentaries and feature films, concerts and theatre performances. Of course, not all programmes are good. But many are made in good taste and with great professional skill.

Some people argue that television is a terrible waste of time. It makes us lazier. We stay at home instead of going out. We read less. We think less. We even talk less. It's true that some TV addicts spend hours in front of the "box" watching whatever's on — from second-rate Mexican soap operas to silly commercials.

The trick is to learn to control television and use it intelligently. The ideal is to turn on the TV-set only when there's a really interesting programme.

Violence on TV is another problem that worries people. As George Mikes once said, TV teaches us "how to kill, to rob, to shoot and to poison." But the same can be said about computer games and many films and books.

And if you don't like a certain programme, why watch it?


Radio and TV in my life.

I think it is impossible to imagine our life without radio and TV. Radio and TV are widely used in today’s world. It is the quickest means of spreading news and information. Radio plays an important role in reflecting the life of society and building opinions. It performs the service of information well enough but on TV everything is much more real. Radio and TV keep us informed about current events, extend the education, provide the cultural recreation, allow us to follow the latest developments in science and politics and offer an endless number of programmers which are both instructive and entertaining. So they give us a lot of useful information and are exciting.

When I come home from school I turn on the radio, leave it on and go about my household duties. So I am actually doing two things at one and the same time. The best radio station for me is Europa Plus and Radio Maximum. I watch TV at the evening when all the lessons I have done. I prefer to see news programs such as: ”Vesty” and ” The Time”. Sometimes we can watch rather interesting films at TV. There are different kinds of films, for instance: a nature film, a war film, a crime film, a travelogue, an adventure film, a musical film and comic film. As for me I prefer to see comic and crime films.

My favorite channel is the “6th channel”. There are many interesting programs for me like “The world of computers”, “Farcop”, “News” “Show- Business” and others. I like this program because there are not so many advertisement. Also every weekend there are three films which are popular all over the world. So the “6th Channel” program is my favorite one because it satisfy my different interests in the best way. As for me my favorite radio station is “Europa plus”. It broadcasts many programs , for instance: “Press-Digest”, “Prezent”, “Garage”, “News” and others. Also there are a lot of programs where everyone can win something. It satisfies my interests in the best way. Sometimes when I came home from school I turn on the radio and leave it on and go about my household duties. So the best radio for me is “Europa Plus” and I like to listen to it.

That’s why I think that we can’t live without TV and radio nowadays.





























Лексический словарь по теме «Газеты и журналы»


publisher – издатель

editor – редактор

journalist – журналист

reporter – репортер

photographer – фотограф

advertising salespeople – рекламодатели

artist – художник

press – пресса

periodicals – периодика

correspondence – корреспонденция

subscription – подписка

edition – издание

newspaper – газета

magazine – журнал

issue – выпуск

article – статья

sketch – скетч

essay – эссе

review - обзор

interview - интервью

illustration - иллюстрация

photograph - фотография

commentary - комментарий

advertising - реклама

tabloid – бульварная газета

daily newspapers – ежедневная газета

Sunday newspapers – газеты, выпускаемые в выходные дни.

weekly paper – еженедельная газета

cover - обложка

page - страница

title - название

headline - заголовок

column - колонка

publish - публиковать

commentator - комментатор

observer - обозреватель

broadsheets – широкоформатная газета

human interest stories – истории людей

quality papers –серьезные газеты

popular papers– популярные газеты



Лексический словарь по теме «Телевидение и радио»


anchorman - ведущий новостей

breaking news - экстренное сообщение

commercial/ad break – реклама

couch potato - человек, любящий сидеть на диване перед телевизором

family friendly - передачи, разрешённые детям (для всей семьи)

quiz master – ведущий телевикторины

host – вести программу

newscast - последние новости

prime time tv - пиковое время, когда большинство людей смотрят ТВ

remote (control) / clicker - пульт дистанционного управления

announcer - диктор

journalist - журналист

editor - редактор

cameraman, operator – оператор

soundman - звукорежиссер

producer – продюсер

casting manager - менеджер по кастингу


Типы телевизионных программ


cartoon - мультфильм

docudrama - художественный фильм, в основу которого легли реальные события

documentary - документальный фильм

game show - телеигра/телевикторина

reality show - реалити-шоу

series - телесериал

sitcom (situation comedy) - комедийный телесериал

soap opera - мыльная опера

sports programme - спортивная программа

talk show - ток-шоу

the news - новости

weather forecast - прогноз погоды










Список рекомендуемой литературы по изучаемой тематике


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_times.jpg "The Times"

Газета Великобритании. Новости, политика, спорт, деньги, бизнес

http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_boston.jpg "The Boston Globe"

Ежедневная американская газета. Новости, искусство, бизнес, спорт http://www.bostonglobe.com/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_independent.jpg "The Independent"

Газета Великобритании. Политика, новости, спорт, технологии, здоровье, бизнес

http://www.independent.co.uk/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_mirror.jpg "The Daily Mirror"

Британский таблоид. Новости, сенсации, знаменитости, сплетни http://www.mirror.co.uk/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_nypost.jpg "New York Post"

Известная американская газета. Новости, развлечения, бизнес, мода, технологии

http://nypost.com/

http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_nytimes.jpg "The New York Times"

Американская газета. Новости, политика, здоровье, спорт, наука, мода.

http://www.nytimes.com/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_sun.jpg "The Sun"

Популярный британский таблоид. Новости, знаменитости, анонсы

http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_telegraph.jpg "The Telegraph"

Новости, спорт, финансы, комментарии, культура, путешествия, мода, технологии http://www.telegraph.co.uk/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_washington_post.jpg "The Washington Post"

Ежедневная американская газета. Новости, политика, мнения, спорт, бизнес, мода, путешествия, развлечения

http://www.washingtonpost.com/


http://my-skype-lesson.ru/newspaper_usatoday.jpg"The USA Today"

Одна из самых популярнных газет в США. Новости, мнения, путешествия, деньги, технологии http://www.usatoday.com/

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