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Презентация составлена учителем английского языка Муниципального автономного общеобразовательного учреждения Белоярского района «Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 3 г. Белоярский» Васьковой Ольгой Владимировной. Для учащихся 11 класса по теме: «Знаменитые английские учёные. Джон Дальтон.»
The fundamental idea of modern chemistry is that matter is made up of atoms of various sorts, which can be combined and rearranged to produce different, and often novel, materials. The person responsible for "this master-concept of our age" (Greenaway, p. 227) was John Dalton.
He applied Newton's idea of small, indivisible atoms to the study of gases in the atmosphere and used it to advance a quantitative explanation of chemical composition. If French chemist Antoine Lavoisier started the chemical revolution, then it was Dalton who put it on a firm foundation. His contemporary, the Swedish chemist Jöns J. Berzelius, said: "If one takes away from Dalton everything but the atomic idea, that will make his name immortal."
John Dalton English chemist and physicist, who drew up the first list of atomic weights. was born about the 6th of September 1766 at Eaglesfield in Cumberland, England. John received his early education from his father and from John Fletcher, teacher of the Quakers' school at Eaglesfield, on whose retirement in 1778 he himself started teaching. This youthful venture was not successful.
In 1781 he left his native village to become assistant to his cousin who kept a school at Kendal. There he passed the next twelve years. About 1790 he seems to have thought of taking up law or medicine, but his projects met with no encouragement from his relatives.
Dalton began a meteorological journal on March 24, 1787. Dalton maintained this journal methodically for the rest of his life, making his last meteorological observations on his deathbed. He made over 200,000 measurements over a period of fifty-seven years. Dalton's meteorological observations launched his scientific career and provided the material for his first book, Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793). Another work by him, Elements of English Grammar, was published in 1801.
In 1793 Dalton moved to Manchester, becoming professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at New College. He stayed there until 1799, at which time he resigned in order to devote more time to research.
In 1794 he was elected a member of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and a few weeks after election he communicated his first paper on "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours," in which he gave the earliest account of the optical peculiarity known as Daltonism or color-blindness, and summed up its characteristics as observed in himself and others.
The most important of all Dalton's investigations are those concerned with the Atomic Theory in chemistry, with which his name is inseparably associated.
Dalton's study of the atmosphere, prompted by his weather measurements, led him in 1803 to his law of partial pressures (in a mixture of gases, each gas acts as an independent entity), and subsequently to the study of the combining of elements.
He compared marsh gas (methane, CH 4 ) with olefiant gas (ethane, C 2 H 4 ), and found that ethane contained exactly double the mass of carbon to the same mass of hydrogen. It is this relationship between the two gases that guided him to his law of multiple proportions.
He imagined a chemical atomic model, whereby one atom of an element could combine only with one, two, or three atoms (and so on) of a second element, the combinations forming distinct compounds. He visualized atoms as small hard balls and constructed small wooden models to illustrate how they combined. He invented symbols that enabled him (and others) to notate chemical formulas
Dalton appears already in 1803 to have pictured to himself the form of atoms, for in a paper "On the Absorption of Gases by Water“.
Dalton drew up the first list of atomic weights. Dalton's ideas about atoms and their combinations were first aired in 1803 at meetings of the MLPS, mentioned in Thomas Thomson's System of Chemistry (1807), and finally published by Dalton in his most important book, New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
In the summer of 1822, in company with Mr Benjamin Dockray and Mr W. D. Crewdson, Dalton spent a short time at Paris, where he met Ampère, Arago, Berthollet, Biot, Brèquet, Cuvier, Fourier, Gay-Lussac, Laplace, Thénard, Vauquelin, and other distinguished men of science.
Six years previously he had been made a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences. Dalton's most significant work was done between 1795 and 1805, but fame came later—when the importance of his atomic theory was realized. He became a member of the Royal Society in 1822, received its first Royal Medal in 1826, and was honored with a state pension in 1833, among other honors. He died on July 27, 1844, and 40,000 people attended his funeral.
1.When and where was John Dalton born? 2. What observations did launch Dalton’s scientific career? 3. What did he do in 1793? 4. What did he communicate in 1794? 5. What are the most important Dalton’s investigations? 6. What was first aired in 1803?
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Данная презентация на английском языке о знаменитом английском учёном- химике Джоне Дальтоне. Она знакомит учащихся 11 класса с его биографией и важными открытиями. Презентация содержит химические термины на английском языке и будет интересна не только учащимся, но и студентам факультета химии. Презентация состоит из 17 слайдов и позволяет проверить усвоенный материал с помощью вопросов.