Lesson № 10
Тема урока: Architecture: Its Forms and Functions.
Aims of lesson:
Образовательная: Способствовать обучению профессиональной лексики по теме:“Архитектура”, формированию репродуктивных умений, содействовать активизации лексического материала по данной теме
Развивающая: развивать навыки устной диалогической речи, чтения, письма; развивать внимание, память, мышление. навыки общения
Воспитательная: Содействовать воспитанию всесторонне развитой личности, способствовать воспитанию чувства уважения к иностранному языку, создать условия для развития и углубления интересов студентов в выбранной ими области знания, в частности как средство получения профессионально-значимой информации.
Type of lesson:
Тип урока: изучение нового материала
Methods of lesson:
Методы обучения: объяснительно- иллюстративный, частично поисковый
Оборудование урока: тематические схемы, карточки.
Знать применение грамматического материала лексический минимум по данной теме
Уметь воспринимать и переводить иностранную речь, работать со словарем, выполнять грамматические упражнения.
Plan of the lessonOrganizational moment
Good afternoon, pupils! How are you today? I’m very glad to see you. Sit down please! Who is on duty today? Who is absent? What day is it today?
Explanation of the new material
Consolidation of the lesson Practice (exercises)
Information about homework, instructions of doing it. Now, write down your home task. At home you should do…
The end of the lesson
Summing- up. Commenting marks. What did we do on your today’s lesson? You worked very nice today. Thank you. Goodbye. The lesson is over.
ARCHITECTURE: ITS FORMS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Read and translate the text
Architecture is the art or science of planning, building and structures. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, social and economic requirements a building cannot take form. But without aesthetical quality inherent in its form *a building cannot be considered as a work of architecture1 as well. From the very beginning of construction in human history lots of architectural skills, systems and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings, which have housed nations and generations of people in any kind of their activity. Writings on architecture are almost as old as writing itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of buildings, and on the aesthetical view of buildings exist in great number. The oldest book, which sets forth the principles, upon which buildings should be designed and which aim is to guide the architect, is the work of Markus Vitruvius Pollio written *in the first century B. C.2
Architecture is an art. Its nowadays expression should be creative and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ignored, but it must be expressed in modern terms. There exists an evident paradox in the coexistence of change and survival in every period of human civilisation. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.
Architecture is also the style or manner of building in a particular country or period of history. There are widely known examples of Gothic architecture all round the globe. During many centuries mankind admires the architecture of ancient Greece or Roman Empire as well.
Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture. They are convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors have been present and are always interrelated in the best constructions till the 21st century. *No true architect could think of any of them3 without almost automatically considering the other two as well. Thus, architectural design entails not only the necessity to study various solutions for convenience, structure, and appearance as three separate processes. Architectural design also includes the necessity to keep in mind the constant interaction of these factors. It's impossible for an architect first plan a building from the point of view of convenience, and then make the design of a strong construction around his plan to shelter it. Then, as a final touch, try to adjust and decorate the whole to make it pretty. Any design evolving from such kind of work will produce only a confused, incoherent, and unsatisfactory building. When speaking about any truly great building we cannot but say that every element in it has a triple implication or significance.
This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art. *It needs some unique type of imagination as well as long years of training and experience to make a designer capable of getting requite in the light of these three factors—use, construction, and aesthetic effect—simultaneously. The designer must have a good knowledge as of engineering so of building materials. This knowledge will enable him to create economically strong and practical construction. The designer, in addition,
must possess the creative imagination, which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into the harmonious whole. The architect's feeling of satisfaction in achieving such integration is one of his/her (their) greatest rewards.
2. A few explanations to the text
1... .a building cannot be considered as a work of architecture.—здание не может считаться архитектурным произведением.
2... .in the first century В. С. (before Christ) —.. .в первом веке до нашей эры (до рождества Христова).
3. No true architect could think of any of them... — Ни одиннастоящий архитектор не смог бы думать только об одном из них...
4. It needs some unique type of imagination... — Она (архитектура) требует своеобразного видения...
entail [in'teil] — v вызывать
evolve [i'volv]—v развиваться
incoherent [inkou'hiarant] — adj непоследовательный, несвязный
inherent— adj присущий, неотъемлемый
heritage ['heritidj] — n наследство
requite [ri' kwait] — n вознаграждение
triple [traipl]—adj тройной; v утраивать
3. Phonetic Test. Read the following words correctly
pseudo-concrete, honour, chancellor, quote, fluent, psychology, champagne, bath, asphalt, psalm, guide, chronicles, chef, technology, basic, architecture, guestion.
4. Word construction. Translate the words keeping in mind their suffixes and prefixes
necessary — necessitate — necessity
evolve — evolutive — evolution—evolutionist — evolutionary — evolutional
architect — architectonic — architectonics — architectural — architecture
stuff—' stuffy —'stuffiness
5. General understanding. Answer the questions to the text
1. What is architecture?
2. What is the oldest book to set forth the principles of construction?
3. How should mankind deal with the heritage of the past?
4. What three basic factors in architecture were listed nearly
two thousand years ago?
5. Why architecture is a difficult art?
6. What can we say about any truly great building?
7. What integration must an architect achieve?
6. Translate the sentences with some odd meaning of the familiar words
1.1 am on the run the whole day with these documents.
2. The book has a considerable run.
3. The lease runs for four years.
4. Do you know the proverb: cut the coat according to the cloth?
5. The trip made a pleasant break.
6. Just give her a break!
7. They break the vase into small pieces.
8. The building houses the City Counsil.
9. He is considered to be the best mind of our time.
10. Mind your own business!