Тема: Ролевые игры в системе обучения иноязычной речи
учитель английского языка
МБОУ «СОШ №1»
Котова Лариса Сергеевна
Role play. What is it?
The advantages and disadvantages of а role play.
Organization of a role play.
Teacher’s pre-class preparation.
Class’s pre-role play preparation.
Teacher’s role in a role play.
Long-term preparation of a role play.
Traditional oral practice or oral drills.
Supplement. Satellite Link “Moscow-London”
The increasing tendency nowadays for school classes is to have oral proficiency as their aim. From this point of view a role play is the most suitable pedagogical technique in the learning process.
Role play is a classroom activity which gives the student the opportunity to practise the language, the aspects of role behaviour, and the actual roles he may need outside the classroom. It is a form of group work, where the students in pairs or larger groups have a language exercise to discuss and complete, some questions to answer, a topic to discuss, or some similar task to perform. The students have the opportunity to express their own opinions and feelings and to play roles within a situation which resembles real life.
Role plays affect the students’ cognitions, develop their self-dependance, creative initiative. It gives a wide opportunity to use all language skills: understanding, speaking, reading and writing. If it is felt that the class needs extra practice in any one of these, then this can be taken into consideration when the role play is being planned. Extra writing practice could have been provided, for example, by asking each group to write a formal report of their discussion or by getting the students to write letters expressing different points of view to the local paper.
To be a success a role play should meet several requirements:
a role play should stimulate and sustain the students’ interest and motivation by encouraging them to be creative so that they make discoveries in the language they are learning;
a role play should be accepted by every student in the group;
a role play should be well-prepared and well-organized;
a role play should suit the level of the class and be closely connected with the work immediately preceding it;
the atmosphere during the role play should be as natural and friendly as possible;
students’ confidence and pleasure in language must be a central concern in work;
most of the time must be given for students to learn through language, to use the language;
the teacher should be taking a minor part or be as unobtrusive as possible in the role play.
Role plays have got a great number of advantages. The most obvious of them is that each student is active almost 100% of the time. Coherent speech requires a great deal of mental activity, both in its formulation, in the monitoring of other’s reception of it, and in its possible subsequent adaptation in the light of that monitoring. The listener must show understanding or otherwise of the speaker, relate what it is being said to his own opinions and needs in order to be able, when he has judged that his turn to speak has come, to formulate an appropriate, acceptable and understandable message. So it does mean that role plays give maximum use to the students. The language they practise is extended and developed through the role play.
Besides a role play gives the student a chance to use the language himself, without the direct control of the teacher. No student who is interested in what he is doing will misbehave. And what is more a role play requires mental and bodily activity, it freshens concentration and interest, thus increases the possibility of effective learning.
As no learning group is homogeneous, teachers are always in need of activities that can be graded to suit a wide range of abilities. A role play is an excellent exercise for dealing with this problem and can be graded in a number of ways. Roles, then, can be created to fit not only the linguistic ability, but also the personality of the individual student.
Role description can be altered to suit varying abilities. In a role play where the roles require more or less the same type and amount of student activity from each student, the students can be given guidance according to their abilities. If the teacher has judged it necessary to give out role play cards for this role, they might have looked like this:
Role 1 – card for a ‘slow’ student
Fill in what you want to buy.
You want to buy:
------------ at the grocer’s.
------------ and ------------- at the greengrocer’s.
------------ at the butcher’s.
Remember to say: ‘I’d like…’ and ‘Thank you’.
Role 1 – card for a ‘fast’ student
Buy things at three shops.
Make a list of what you want first.
If the main aim of the class is oral proficiency, then it is difficult to find any disadvantages in using a role play as a teaching and learning technique. But there is no doubt that in certain classes and in certain teaching situations, there may be some practical drawbacks. But with care in selection, and a little imagination, many practical problems are not insurmountable.
A role play cannot be successful unless it has been chosen with the level, needs and interests of the students in minds. Any role play should form an integral part of the logical progression of a class’s course plan. The teacher must asses what the role play requires with regard to linguistic competence, cultural and situational understanding, and so on. If there is too great a gap between this and the student’s present competence in the language, then the role play should be left until the class is nearer the level required, or, if it is possible, simplified to suit the present level of the class.
Once the teacher has selected a role play suitable for his particular class, it is necessary for him to assess what class work will have to be done prior to the role play phase. Good introduction and explanation by the teacher, and extensive oral production in the form of repetition, oral exercises, pair work, group work, and role play , is in itself not sufficient to give the students a real ‘feel’ for the language. It is also necessary to provide a wide exposure to different kinds of spoken and written English through the use of authentic tapes and text materials.
The teacher should make a plan of which students are in each group, and where each group should be, so that the practical organization goes smoothly and quickly. When deciding on composition of the group, the teacher should consider both the abilities and the personalities of the students. A role play group consisting solely of the shyest and quietest students will not be a success. Similarly, one ‘weak’ student should not be put into a group of ‘good’ students or vice versa.
The class has been introduced to, and has practised the material that the teacher has predicted will be necessary for the role play. The situation and the necessary facts surrounding it have been given out or discussed. The students now have their role cards and are ready to prepare their roles. The amount of preparation time depends on the type and scope of the role play, and the type and the scope of the individual role.
In most role plays the teacher will not take part. If he does, it will not be in his role as a teacher. The teacher’s role during the role play phase is to be as unobtrusive as possible. There are two ways in which this can be done. The first is when the teacher either sits somewhere where he can hear much of what is going on; or, when the role requires a lot of moving around on the part of the students, the teacher can move quietly round the room. The second way in which the teacher can observe the role play is by taking a role himself. This should not be a major role, or the teacher may quickly become the dominating personality and the role play will turn into something resembling teacher-guided group work. The advantage of the teacher’s new role, either as observer or minor player, is that he is freed from the task of running and organizing the class. A well-planned, well-prepared role play runs itself. The teacher is therefor free to listen for mistakes, misunderstandings and problems, which would be worked with at a later date.
The only legitimate for the teacher to interrupt a role play is when it has been broken down completely, i.e. the participants cannot get it to function. Here the task of the teacher is to stop the role play, and try to analyze with the students the reasons for its collapse. It might be, however, that the group lacked some information or misunderstood the instructions in some way. In such cases the answer may be to stop the role play and discuss the missing information, or clarify the misunderstanding. The role play can then start again from the beginning.
Preparation and the subsequent role play can be expected to be fully successful if the other oral activities done in class, the materials chosen as a basis for these, and the attitudes of the teacher and the class towards the learning situation are of such a nature as to make role play a natural and logical part of language learning.
Long-term preparation of a role play includes several steps among which are:
traditional oral practice or drills;
The main feature of drills is a series of rigidly controlled stimuli and responses. The number of similar exercises continues until the students are making automatic and structurally correct responses. But such exercises should contain an element of choice, so that the student can select from a limited range of responses the response which is the most appropriate to his own personal feelings. For example:
S 1: Do you like travelling?
S 2: Yes, I like travelling.
Yes, I do.
No, I don’t.
At a later point such exercises can be made a little more natural by the use of a simple tag-question:
S 1: Do you like travelling by train?
S 2: Not really, do you?
S 1: Yes, I like travelling by train.
Students can also be encouraged to expand ‘yes /no’ answers:
S 1: Do you like travelling by train?
S 2: Not really. I like travelling by plane.
S 1: Do you like buying tickets in advance?
S 2: Yes, I like buying tickets in advance.
Dialogue work contains several teaching techniques under its heading, beginning with reading dialogues and repeating them after native speaker, writing skeleton dialogues and finishing with composition of freer dialogues. The dialogue, using the teacher as a model, is first used for choral and individual repetition. The aim is to get the students saying the dialogue with the closest approximation to native speaker’s pronunciation, stress, intonation, etc.
Skeleton dialogue is a refined form of ‘filling-in-the blanks’ exercise. It can be done in groups or pairs. As skeleton dialogues give a very limited choice, they can be used where the situation is concrete, e.g. asking for and giving information at a station:
S 1: Excuse me, when is the next train to --------------------- ?
S 2: At ------------------------ .
S 1: How much is a ----------------------- ticket ?
S 2: ----------------------------.
S 1: And which platform does it leave from ?
S 2: ----------------------------.
S 1: Thank you.
This dialogue with blanks can be put on the blackboard. The class must be divided into pairs and one student in each pair be given a card with a simple railway time-table:
London 10.45 10 pounds 18 pounds 2
Cardiff 9.10 15 pounds 28 pounds 3
After this work the students can be asked, in pairs or threes, to compose their own dialogues. Weak students can be given special cards, for example:
That’ true. I’m afraid you’re wrong.
Yes, you are right. I don’t think so.
I think so. I disagree.
I agree ( with you ) I can’t quite agree.
I believe. I don’t believe.
Certainly. Certainly not.
That’s right. That’s not right.
Miming, games and drama are three activities which help to prepare students for role play. They can be used to practise any of the skills - speaking, listening, reading and writing - at any stage of the learning process, from controlled repetition through guided practice to free expression.
Miming can be initiated with the students sitting at their desks. One student mimes an action, and the other student guess what it is:
S 1: What am I doing ?
S 2: You are ----------ing.
S 1: That’ right. / No, I am not.
Other questions could be: ‘ What did I do last night?, or ‘ What am I going to do tomorrow? ‘
All games should involve interaction and conversation between pairs or small groups, giving every student maximum language practice. Here is a description of several games.
Where Is It ?
One student is asked to leave the room, while the rest of the class ‘hides’ a small object ( a hat, a book, etc.). The student is then asked to return to the classroom and he asks:
S 1: Is it in a desk ?
S 2: No, it isn’t.
Comment on What You Hear.
One student is suggested to tell few sentences about his journey, for example:
S 1: My name is Jane Brown. Last summer I traveled to Moscow. My journey lasted three weeks…
Other students should comment on what S 1 has just told:
S 2: Her name is Jane Brown.
S 3: Last summer she traveled to Moscow.
S 4: Her journey lasted three weeks.
The class is divided into two groups: ‘tourists’ and ‘guides’. ‘Tourists’ ask questions about sights of a town, ‘guides’ answer them. Then the groups should exchange their roles.
Guess Which City It Is.
One of the students thinks the name of any city, and all the rest ask him questions, for example:
S 1: Is it in Great Britain ? ( the USA, Canada, etc.)
S 2: Is it the capital of Great Britain ?
S 3: Is it on the river Thames ?
That student who gives the right answer becomes the ‘it’.
Dramatizing dialogues should be a regular class activity. Drama is used for consolidation of specific language points, both structural and functional. The dialogues for dramatizing may come from the textbook, or be written by the students themselves. The students are encouraged to act out the stories and create their own endings to them. Diagrams, where two roles are written out side by side may be very useful in dialogue work, e.g.:
You wake up one morning and the sun is shining, the birds are singing, and there is not a cloud in the sky. You decide to go to the seaside for the day. So you phone a friend.
YOU YOUR FRIEND
him to the seaside.
Accept the invitation.
Suggest how to go.
Accept your friend’s suggestion.
Make arrangements when and
where to meet.
Agree. Say you will
Role play itself can be arranged in different forms. The simplest and the easiest of them is the ‘interview’. It can be used with any material based on oral English, and can be easily adapted to suit different topics. One student pretends to be a certain person and prepares a ‘story’. The second student prepares questions to ask him, and then, ‘interviews’ him, for example:
The development of the student’s knowledge and active command of all aspects of linguistic competence and role behaviour can be done by expanding role plays based on one situation. Each successive role play revises the language required in the previous ones, while adding another dimension to the situation. The example, given below, is “asking for information at a travel office”.
Similar role cards can be written for other destinations.
Many of the new functionally based materials, and those that aim at communicative competence, take many of the aspects of the role behaviour into consideration, and provide for excellent presentation and practice phases for them. When this preparation is already part of the material, developing detailed role plays is relatively easy. For example, in a textbook we have the task:
‘You arrive at a hotel abroad and ask to see a foreign friend who is staying there. The receptionist asks for your name and the name of your friend. The friend is not in his room. But the receptionist asks you for a description in case he has seen him in the hotel and knows where he is.’
There is not enough information provided to make a realistic and smooth-running role play. It can deal only with the following role cards:
( The student is given a coloured picture of a person from a magazine.)
Different names, room numbers and pictures can be used.
Role play is an exercise which gives the student freedom to select and use his own language and accompanying para-linguistic and extra-linguistic behaviour, without the interference or guidance of the teacher. As the student is not yet proficient in the foreign language, it is obvious that the students will make mistakes in the execution of such an exercise. Those mistakes that will be made during the role play cannot be corrected immediately.
The role play is finished. If it has been successful, then the students feel satisfied and pleased that they have used the language for something concrete and useful. This feeling of satisfaction will quickly disappear if their every mistake is then going to be analysed and corrected. It may also make them less confident and fluent in subsequent role plays.
During immediate follow-up phase the whole class is together to find out what was done in the role play. A few questions may be asked or a report or summary of the groups’ findings can be given. This phase can also take the form of an informal discussion about the formal composition of the role play. Did the students feel they had enough preparation ? If not what was lacking ? Did their group work well ? Was there enough or too much information on their role cards or were there any other aspects they may wish to comment on ? This should not be a follow-up to every role play, it would be very boring if it were, but it should be done formally a few times so that the students feel they are free to comment or criticise if they want to. These criticisms and comments should be taken into consideration by the teacher and can help him to improve the role play for future classes, and, perhaps, even give ideas for new role plays.
Long-term follow-up concerns the mistakes the teacher noted during the role play. Exercises designed to revise, practise, and so hopefully eradicate them, should form part of the ongoing activities of the class. Subsequent role plays and other forms of freer work will show whether these exercises have achieved their aim, or whether yet more work will have to be done. Remedial exercises can be given either to the whole class, to the group of students making the same mistake, or to individuals.
Thus, we may say, that a role play is one of the most effective teaching and learning techniques, which provide opportunities for pupils to use the language. The teacher’s role is to make learning English a joyful activity thus making children happy and willing to study it. Children learn what language is and what it can do by communicating with other people. Role play provides the opportunity for the teacher to organize the lesson time in such a way that the children speak more than the teacher.
Aims: to enable students to communicate effectively in English, to revise the material about daily life in Britain, about peculiarities of Russian and English traits of character, likes and dislikes in fashion and sport.
Visual aids: role cards, pictures with views of Moscow and London, maps of Moscow and London, emblems with names and countries of the participants.
The class is divided into two groups: the Russians and the English. The students are given their role cards.
Teacher: Dear ladies and gentlemen, dear boys and girls. We welcome you at our Satellite Link “Moscow-London”. My name is Rona Grand. I am a leader of our show. Today we are going to discuss and answer such questions as:
What are the British and the Russians like?
What would you like to see in the UK and in Russia?
What are the main holidays of these two countries?
What are your favorite kinds of sports?
What’s your personal attitude towards fashion?
Let’s start our conversation with the discussion of person’s traits of character. I am sure that some of you are interested very much in differences between habits and lifestyles of the British and the Russians.
Now let’s have a glance at two magnificent cities – Moscow and London. How do they differ? What can you tell a foreigner about their places of interest?
I know that there are some students who like changes on holidays. Almost all of them would rather travel than stay at home. Let’s discuss different ways of travelling.
It’s well-known that Britain is the country of traditions. And what about Russia? Let’s speak on this topic now.
Both in the UK and in Russia there are a lot of people who go in for different sports. What are the most popular sports and the most famous sportsmen in these two countries?
Sport… Is it exciting and dangerous? Some people like to participate in sports contests, other people like to watch them. What reasons can you give for sport and against it?
We have one more important problem today - fashion and tastes of British and Russian teenagers. Young people have different attitude towards fashion.
Dear friends. Our time is out. Today we’ve learned and discussed a lot of interesting and important questions. Let us finish our Satellite Link “Moscow-London” with the song “The more we get together”.
К.Ливингстоун «Ролевые игры в обучении иностранным языкам», М., Высшая школа, 1988 г.
Е.И.Пассов «Урок иностранного языка в школе», М.,Просвещение,1988г.
И.С.Кон «Личность и её социальные роли», М, Наука, 1969г.
Д.Б.Эльконин «Психология игры», М., Педагогика, 1978г.
Н.К.Скляренко, Е.И.Онищенко, С.Л.Захарова «Обучение речевой деятельности на английском языке в школе», К., Радянська школа, 1988г.
С.И.Заремская «Развитие инициативной речи учащихся»,М., Просвещение, 1983г.
М.Ф.Стронин «Обучающие игры на уроке английского языка», М., Просвещение, 1984г.
Журналы «Иностранные языки в школе», 2011-2015гг.
Данный реферат написан на английском языке. Известно, что игра обладает большими обучающими и воспитывающими возможностями, ее можно рассматривать как точную модель общения. Преимущество ролевой игры перед другими коммуникативными упражнениями заключается в том, что она предполагает подражание действительности в ее наиболее существенных чертах, усиление личной сопричастности ко всему происходящему.
Ученик включается в ситуацию хотя и не через свое я, но через я соответствующей роли. Ясно ощущаемое личностное ядро повышает эмоциональный тонус «актера», что положительно сказывается на результате и, в конечном счете, на усвоении английского языка.
Ролевая игра способствует формированию учебного сотрудничества и партнерства, поскольку она предполагает участие группы школьников, которые должны слаженно взаимодействовать, точно учитывая реакции друг друга, и друг другу помогать. Процесс обучения в этих условиях имеет четко выраженный групповой характер. Такая деятельность оказывает положительное влияние на личность обучаемого, она приобретает подлинно коллективный характер. А ведь это не что иное, как прообраз трудовой деятельности взрослого человека. Школьники, таким образом, готовятся к непростому общению в процессе этой деятельности.
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