Конспект урока по английскому языку в 10 классе
Тема: «Трагедия Уильяма Шекспира «Ромео и Джульетта»
Theme: The tragedy of William Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet”
1. Обобщить знания учащихся по теме «Трагедии Уильяма Шекспира».
2. Формировать навыки оперирования знаниями по изучаемой теме.
3. Расширить лингвистический кругозор учащихся.
4. Развить языковые способности учащихся, готовность к коммуникации.
5. Формировать и совершенствовать практические навыки владения лексикой повышенной сложности.
Интерактивная доска, инсценировка трагедии
I. Организационный момент:
Good morning, dear pupils! I am very glad to see you.
On this lesson you have an opportunity to work with the tragedy of W. Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet”.
II. Языковая зарядка:
I know you’ve learned Shakespeare’s biography and some of his works in our lessons.
Let’s remember some facts from Shakespeare’s biography.
By the way in spite of Shakespeare’s fame we know very little about his biography, just some facts.
1) When was Shakespeare born? - He was born on the 23 of April, 1564
2) What town was he born in? - He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon
3) When he was 21 years old where did he go and what for? - He went to London there he became and actor, he joined an acting company.
4) How do we call writers who write plays? - A playwright or a dramatist.
5) How many plays did he wrote? - 37 plays
6) What kind of plays did Shakespeare write? - He wrote tragedies, comedies, historical dramas.
7) When did he die? - He died on the 23 of April, 1616 on the same day as his birthday
8) Where was he buried? - He was buried in Stratford-upon-Avon in the Holy Trinity Church.
9) What plays did Shakespeare write? – Hamlet
All’s well that Ends Well,
Much ado about nothing,
The taming of the Shrew – Укрощение строптивой
Romeo and Juliet
As you like it
The merchant of Venice
A midsummer Night Dream
III. Основная часть:
Общий слайд (1)
The history of the tragedy (2)
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare about two young "star-cross'd lovers" whose untimely deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers.
Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562, and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both, but developed supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris, in order to expand the plot. Believed to be written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. This text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in line with Shakespeare's original text.
Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure, especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play.
Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical and opera. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. David Garrick's 18th-century version also modified several scenes, removing material then considered indecent, and Georg Benda's operatic adaptation omitted much of the action and added a happy ending. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text, and focused on greater realism. John Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text, and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. In the 20th century the play has been adapted in versions as diverse as MGM's comparatively faithful 1936 film, the 1950s stage musical West Side Story, and 1996's MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet.Contents [hide]
1 Major and supporting characters
The earliest edition of Romeo and Juliet, so far as we know, was a quarto printed in 1597, the title-page of which asserts that "it hath been often (with great applause) plaid publiquely." A second quarto appeared in 1599, declared to be "newly corrected, augmented, and amended."
Two other quartos appeared before the folio of 1623, one in 1609 and the other undated; and it is doubtful which was the earlier. The undated quarto is the first that bears the name of the author ("Written by W. Shake-speare"), but this does not occur in some copies of the edition. A fifth quarto was published in 1637.
The first quarto is much shorter than the second, the former having only 2232 lines, including the prologue, while the latter has 3007 lines. Some editors believe that the first quarto gives the author's first draft of the play, and the second the form it took after he had revised and enlarged it; but the majority of the best critics agree substantially in the opinion that the first quarto was a pirated edition, and represents in an abbreviated and imperfect form the play subsequently printed in full in the second. The former was "made up partly from copies of portions of the original play, partly from recollection and from notes taken during the performance;" the latter was from an authentic copy, and a careful comparison of the text with the earlier one shows that in the meantime the play "underwent revision, received some slight augmentation, and in some few places must have been entirely rewritten." A marked instance of this rewriting--the only one of considerable length--is in ii. 6. 6-37, where the first quarto reads thus (spelling being modernized):
The "omission, mutilation, or botching" by which some editors would explain all differences between the earlier and later texts will not suffice to account for such divergence as this. "The two dialogues do not differ merely in expressiveness and effect; they embody different conceptions of the characters;" and yet we cannot doubt that both were written by Shakespeare.
But while the second quarto is "unquestionably our best authority" for the text of the play, it is certain that it "was not printed from the author's manuscript, but from a transcript, the writer of which was not only careless, but thought fit to take unwarrantable liberties with the text." The first quarto, with all its faults and imperfections, is often useful in the detection and correction of these errors and corruptions, and all the modern editors have made more or less use of its readings.
The third quarto (1609) was a reprint of the second, from which it "differs by a few corrections, and more frequently by additional errors." It is from this edition that the text of the first folio is taken, with some changes, accidental or intentional, "all generally for the worse," except in the punctuation, which is more correct, and the stage directions, which are more complete, than in the quarto.
The date of the first draft of the play has been much discussed, but cannot be said to have been settled. The majority of the editors believe that it was begun as early as 1591, but I think that most of them lay too much stress on the Nurse's reference (i. 3. 22, 35) to the "earthquake," which occurred "eleven years" earlier, and which these critics suppose to have been the one felt in England in 1580.
Aside from this and other attempts to fix the date by external evidence of a doubtful character, the internal evidence confirms the opinion that the tragedy was an early work of the poet, and that it was subsequently "corrected, augmented, and amended." There is a good deal of rhyme, and much of it in the form of alternate rhyme. The alliteration, the frequent playing upon words, and the lyrical character of many passages also lead to the same conclusion.
The latest editors agree substantially with this view. Herford says: "The evidence points to 1594-1595 as the time at which the play was substantially composed, though it is tolerably certain that some parts of our present text were written as late as 1596-1598, and possibly that others are as early as 1591." Dowden sums up the matter thus: "On the whole, we might place Romeo and Juliet on grounds of internal evidence, near The Rape of Lucrece; portions may be earlier in date; certain passages of the revised version are certainly later; but I think that 1595 may serve as an approximation to a central date, and cannot be far astray."
For myself, while agreeing substantially with these authorities, I think that a careful comparison of what are evidently the earliest portions of the text with similar work in Love's Labour's Lost (a play revised like this, but retaining traces of the original form), The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and other plays which the critics generally assign to 1591 or 1592, proves conclusively that parts of Romeo and Juliet must be of quite as early a date.
The earliest reference to the play in the literature of the time is in a sonnet to Shakespeare by John Weever, written probably in 1595 or 1596, though not published until 1599. After referring to Venus and Adonis and Lucrece, Weever adds:
Romeo, Richard, more whose names I know not,
Their sugred tongues and power attractive beuty
Say they are saints...
No other allusion of earlier date than the publication of the first quarto has been discovered.
Особенности драматического произведения (3)
Драматическое произведение предназначено для постановки на сцене.
Пьеса делится на части, действия, акты. Внутри действия могут быть сцены, картины, явления.
В основе драматического произведения лежит конфликт.
В пьесе в диалогической и монологической формах воссоздается речь героев, воспроизводятся их поступки, поведение в целом.
Каждый период речи героев называется репликой.
В пьесах есть ремарки (авторские пояснения), помогающие представить героев и понять их поступки.
What literature genres do you know? What genre is “Romeo & Juliet”? (4)
«Ромео и Джульетта» - это трагедия.
Трагедия – это драматическое произведение, в котором изображаются исключительно острые, непримиримые жизненные конфликты, таящие в себе катастрофические последствия и чаще всего завершающиеся гибелью одного или нескольких героев.
Трагедия рождает в сердцах зрителей сильный душевный подъем (катарсис – очищение), чувство сопереживания, которое возвышает и облагораживает.
Особенности языка трагедии
Shakespeare uses a variety of poetic forms throughout the play. He begins with a 14-line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet, spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse, and much of it in strict iambic pentameter, with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays. In choosing forms, Shakespeare matches the poetry to the character who uses it. Friar Laurence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms, and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech. Each of these forms is also moulded and matched to the emotion of the scene the character occupies. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form. Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. This sonnet form is used by Lady Capulet to describe Count Paris to Juliet as a handsome man. When Romeo and Juliet meet, the poetic form changes from the Petrarchan (which was becoming archaic in Shakespeare's day) to a then more contemporary sonnet form, using "pilgrims" and "saints" as metaphors. Finally, when the two meet on the balcony, Romeo attempts to use the sonnet form to pledge his love, but Juliet breaks it by saying "Dost thou love me?" By doing this, she searches for true expression, rather than a poetic exaggeration of their love. Juliet uses monosyllabic words with Romeo, but uses formal language with Paris. Other forms in the play include an epithalamium by Juliet, a rhapsody in Mercutio's Queen Mab speech, and an elegy by Paris. Shakespeare saves his prose style most often for the common people in the play, though at times he uses it for other characters, such as Mercutio. Humour, also, is important: scholar Molly Mahood identifies at least 175 puns and wordplays in the text. Many of these jokes are sexual in nature, especially those involving Mercutio and the Nurse.
The play starts with a street brawl between Montagues and Capulets. The Prince of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Lord Capulet about marrying his daughter, but Capulet is wary of the request because Juliet is still only thirteen. Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris' courtship. After the brawl, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Lord Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited love for a girl named Rosaline, one of Lord Capulet's nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet courtyard and overhears Juliet on her balcony vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married.
With the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are married secretly the next day. Juliet's cousin Tybalt, offended that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight him. Mercutio is incensed by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission", and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded and Romeo, angered by his friend's death, pursues and slays Tybalt. The Prince exiles Romeo from Verona for the killing. He also adds that if Romeo returns, "that hour is his last". Lord Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride". When she then pleads for the marriage to be delayed, her mother rejects her. Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage.
Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for "two and forty hours". The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt.
The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, he learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant Balthasar. Grief-stricken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, finding Romeo dead, stabs herself with his dagger. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince's elegy for the lovers: "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo."
The main heroes of tragedy (6)
House of Capulet
Capulet is the patriarch of the house of Capulet.
Lady Capulet is the matriarch of the house of Capulet.
Juliet is the daughter of the Capulets, and is the play's female protagonist.
Tybalt is a cousin of Juliet, and the nephew of Lady Capulet.
The Nurse is Juliet's personal attendant and confidante.
Peter, Samson and Gregory are servants of the Capulet household.
Ruling house of Verona
Prince Escalus is the ruling Prince of Verona
Count Paris is a kinsman of Escalus who wishes to marry Juliet.
Mercutio is another kinsman of Escalus, and a friend of Romeo.
House of Montague
Montague is the patriarch of the house of Montague.
Lady Montague is the matriarch of the house of Montague.
Romeo is the son of the Montagues, and is the play's male protagonist.
Benvolio is a cousin, and friend, of Romeo.
Abram and Balthasar are servants of the Montague household.
Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar, and is Romeo's confidant.
A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts.
Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo.
An Apothecary reluctantly sells Romeo poison.
Rosaline is an unseen character with who Romeo is in love before meeting Juliet.
Постановка «Ромео и Джульетты»
Последний слайд (9)
После постановки трагедии учащиеся высказывают свое мнение.
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