Добавить материал и получить бесплатное свидетельство о публикации в СМИ
Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическая разработка по изучению темы "Великобритания"

Методическая разработка по изучению темы "Великобритания"

Идёт приём заявок на самые массовые международные олимпиады проекта "Инфоурок"

Для учителей мы подготовили самые привлекательные условия в русскоязычном интернете:

1. Бесплатные наградные документы с указанием данных образовательной Лицензии и Свидeтельства СМИ;
2. Призовой фонд 1.500.000 рублей для самых активных учителей;
3. До 100 рублей за одного ученика остаётся у учителя (при орг.взносе 150 рублей);
4. Бесплатные путёвки в Турцию (на двоих, всё включено) - розыгрыш среди активных учителей;
5. Бесплатная подписка на месяц на видеоуроки от "Инфоурок" - активным учителям;
6. Благодарность учителю будет выслана на адрес руководителя школы.

Подайте заявку на олимпиаду сейчас - https://infourok.ru/konkurs

  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

«Энгельсский государственный профессионально-педагогический колледж»












АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК



методическое пособие по теме

«Великобритания»














hello_html_m6507b989.png


Энгельс, 2012





Рассмотрено на заседании цикловой комиссии общих гуманитарных и социально-экономических дисциплин


Протокол № ______ от «_____»_______________20___ г.


Председатель _________________С.С. Щербак





Рекомендовано методическим Советом к применению в учебном процессе


Протокол № ______ от «_____»_______________20___ г.


Зам. директора по УМР _______________ О.А. Карюкина






















Автор: И.А. Тихонова


Рецензент:







Пояснительная записка


Настоящее методическое пособие предназначено для организации самостоятельной работы студентов очной формы обучения по специальности 050501 Профессиональное обучение по отраслям, 190604 Техническое обслуживание и ремонт автомобильного транспорта.

Обучение иностранному языку в среднем профессиональном учебном заведении является частью процесса формирования специалиста и завершения формирования основ владения иностранным языком, начатое в школе.

Цель обучения: сформировать практическое владение иностранным языком; научить студента читать и понимать специализированную оригинальную литературу для получения информации, принимать участие в устном общении на иностранном языке в объеме, предусмотренном программой.

Пособие состоит из 3-х разделов, каждый раздел состоит из 5 частей. В первом разделе студенты знакомятся с историей Великобритании, ее географическим положением, политической системой, столицей и ее достопримечательностями; во втором разделе представлен страноведческий материал по темам: «Экономическая система Великобритании», «Образование», «Традиции и обычаи», «Спорт» и «Выдающиеся деятели Британии», в третьем разделе рассматривается страноведческий материал по другим англо-говорящим странам, который необходимо изучить. В каждой части представлены лексико-грамматические упражнения и практические задания к соответствующему тексту. Для контроля усвоения материала в конце третьего раздела предлагается выполнить тест.

Основой успешного овладения иностранным языком является самостоятельная работа студента над учебным материалом. Чтобы добиться хороших результатов, необходимо работать с языком систематически и помнить, что занятия по 30-40 минут ежедневно приносят гораздо больше пользы, чем несколько часов работы один раз в неделю. Перерывы в занятиях ведут к утрате приобретенных знаний, умений и навыков.















Раздел 1.

Часть 1.


FROM THE HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN.


  1. Прочтите текст.

The conquest of England by the Normans began in 1066 with the battle of Hastings, where the English fought against the Normans. The conquest was complete in 1071.

Who were these Normans who conquered England? Some 150 years before the conquest of England they came to a part of France, opposite England, a part which we now call Normandy.

There they adopted the Christian faith, the French language and the Roman law of their new home in France. They became French.

What did the Norman conquest do to England?

It gave England French kings and nobles. The Normans also brought with them the French language. After the Norman Conquest there were three languages in England. There was Latin, the language of church and the language, in which all learned men wrote and spoke: the kings wrote their laws in Latin for some time after the conquest. Then there was French, the language which the kings and nobles spoke and which many people wrote. Finally, there was the English language, which remained the language of the masses of the people.

Some men might know all these languages: many knew two: but most of the people knew only one. There were some people who understood the French language though they could not speak it. Rich people who owned land, the landowners, often knew French and Latin. But poor people, the peasants did not understand French and Latin. They understood only English.

In time, however, came the general use of the English language. About 1350, English became the language of law, but the English language, when it came into general use, was not quite the same as it was before the Conquest. The grammar remained, but many words came into it from the French language.

The role of Norman Conquest was also great for the development of feudalism and absolute monarchy in Britain.


  1. Догадайтесь о значении следующих слов:


Normans, Hastings, a part of France, Normandy, Christian, the French language, the Roman law, French kings, Latin, finally, masses of the people, the landowners, general, the grammar, the role, fewdalism, absolute monarchy, Britain.


  1. Подберите к данным английским словам соответствующие эквиваленты:


Conquest язык

принимать

Kings землевладелец

Complete церковь

Adopt короли

Language знать

Church крестьяне

Remain завоевание

Know завершать

Landowner оставаться

peasants


  1. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами, предложения переведите на русский язык:

  1. The Conquest by the Normans was … in 1071.

  2. There they … the Christian faith the French language and the Roman … of their new home in … .

  3. After the Norman … there were … languages in England.

  4. There was … the language of church.

  5. There were some people who … the French language though they could not speak it.


(France, conquest, three, complete, adopted, Latin, understood)


  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

  1. When did the Norman Conquest begin?

  2. When did the Normans come to France?

  3. The Norman Conquest gave England French kings and nobles, did not it?

  4. Was the role of Norman Conquest also great for the development of Fewdalism in Britain?


6. Письменно переведите 1, 2, 3, 6 и 8 абзацы текста.


Часть 2.


THE UNITED KINGDOM OF

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.


  1. Прочтите текст.


The U.K. (short for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is Great Britain. This island consists of three parts: England Scotland and Wales, and the smaller is Ireland. Southern Ireland, now called Eire or Irish Republic, is independent of the U.K.

The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea, which is between Great Britain and Ireland.

If you travel to England from Russia it will take you two days to pass through several countries on the continent by train, and six more hours to cross the English Channel by boat. You can also fly there, and then the journey will only take you three and a half hours.

There are mountain chains in Scotland, Wales and Northern West England, but they are not very high. North-West England is also famous for its beautiful lakes.

The longest river in England is the Severn, and the deepest is the Thames, on which stands the capital of England, London.

The U.K. is a highly-developed industrial country. She exports machinery, vessels, motors and other goods. One of her main industries is the textile industry and a lot of British textiles are exported. The U.K. buys more goods than she sells because she has to import food products and raw materials from many countries of the world including Russia.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. Where do the British Isles lie?

2. How many islands do the British Isles include?

3. What countries does Great Britain comprise?

4.Is Ireland divided into two parts?

5.What countries constitute the United Kingdom?

6.Thecountry is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the north Sea and the Irish Sea, is not it?

7. What part of England is famous for its beautiful lakes?

8. On what river does the capital of England stand?

9. Why does the U. K. buy more goods than she sells?

10. Are there mountain chains in Scotland, Wales and Northern West England?


  1. Выполните тест, выбрав один из предложенных вариантов:


  1. The U. K. is situated on two large … called the British Islands.

  1. Highlands

  2. Cities

  3. Islands

  1. The larger island is … .

  1. Ireland

  2. Great Britain

  3. Haiti

  1. Great Britain consists … parts.

  1. 2

  2. 3

  3. 4

  1. The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and … .

  1. The Red Sea

  2. The Black Sea

  3. The Irish Sea

  1. The longest river in England is … .

  1. The Thames

  2. The Severn

  3. The Mississippi

  1. The capital of Great Britain is … .

  1. New York

  2. Glasgow

  3. London

  1. One of the main industry in Britain is … .

  1. Vessels

  2. Textile

  3. Machinery.


  1. Перескажите текст, используя следующие слова и выражения:


United Kingdom, situated, British Isles, consists, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Irish Republic, independent, washed, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the Irish Sea, mountain chains, rivers, highly-developed, exports.


Часть 3.

LONDON.


  1. Прочтите текст.


1. London, the capital of Great Britain.

London is not only the capital of the country; it is also a huge port, one of the world's greatest commercial centres, a science city, and the seat of the British Government. London was founded at the time of the Roman Empire and now its population is about 7 million.

It is situated upon both banks of the Thames, spanned by seventeen bridges.

The most important parts of London are the City of London, the East End, the West End and Westminster.

The City, or the Square Mile (another name for the City of London), is the oldest part of London. It got its name from the fact that its area covers about one square mile.

In the City the streets and pavements are very narrow and on weekdays the traffic is very heavy, because the City is the commercial centre of London, and London's most important firms and banks have offices there. About half a million people work in 'the Square Mile. But over weekends the City is almost dead.

Now very few people live there. They are caretakers of office blocks, some lawyers, the choirboys and the clergy of St Paul's Cathedral, the residents of a new cultural centre called the Barbican.

As the name suggests, the West End is the western part of London. It is located between the City and Hyde Park.

The City and the West End are the heart of the capital. Here the visitor will find all the most interesting buildings, theatres, movie houses, museums, picture galleries, shops, offices and gardens.

Westminster with Government buildings is the next part of London. There one can see the Westminster Palace, the Westminster Abbey, and the Clock Tower with the great bell - Big Ben.

The East End is the eastern part of London. The East End is the poorest part of the city, mostly inhabited by factory workers. There are no big parks or gardens there.

London has many great and wonderful sights, which attract the attention of thousands of people from every part of the world. There are many beautiful buildings in London and among them are the Houses of Parliament, the Bank of England, die British Museum.

There are many squares and beautiful parks in the city, the "lungs" of London. Hyde Park is the city's largest park. In spring and summer Londoners walk, sit, play on the grass.

Just inside Hyde Park you will find the Speakers' Corner, a place famous for its open - air meetings.

In London all kinds of vehicles ride up and down the streets: double-decker buses, lorries, vans, taxis, private cars, motor-cycles and bicycles. London's red double-decker bus is will-known all over the world. In today's crowded streets it is, in terms of road space, the most economical road user. Its equipment, its engine, gear-ratios, brakes and aii its mechanical devices are designed to suit the rhythms of London's traffic.



  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.


1. What is the capital of Great Britain?

2. How many millions of people are there in London?

3. Are there any beautiful places in London?

4. Name three main parts of London?

5. Where is the financial centre of London?

6. The East End is the district for working people, isn’t it?

7. Is the West End the cultural centre of London?

8. What kind of interesting places are there in London?

9. Is Buckingham Palace the residence of the Queen?

10. What is the favourite street for shopping?


3.Переведите текст письменно.


Часть 4.

THE HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT.


  1. Прочтите текст.


The House of Parliament in London, known also as the Palace of Westminster, is the place where members of Parliament(P.P.) gather to make laws. The Palace of Westminster stands on the riverside near Westminster Abbey. Tourists always go to see them.

Those who visit the House of Parliament may sit in the Stranger's Gallery looking down into the House of Commons and listen to the debates.

The members of each House meet in sessions which begin at the end of October and last for about one hundred and sixty days. The sittings usually begin at 10 o'clock in the morning and end in the late afternoon; but if Parliament is discussing an important question, sittings may go on till late at night. All the time Parliament is in session, a flag can be seen over the building, and when the House of Commons is still sitting after dark, there is a light over the face of Big Ben.

The members of the House of Commons sit on two sides of the hall. The

Speaker is the chairperson at all the debates in the House of Commons, and it is his (her) duty to keep order. The Speaker1 is elected by all the members of the House of Commons. He(she) belongs to one of the political parties in Parliament, but he (she) never votes with оther members. "How ever, when the votes are equal he(she) votes with the government.

The chairperson of the House of Lords is Lord Chancellor. He sits on the Woolsack, a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. It shows that wool made England rich.


2. Подберите к данным английским словам соответствующие эквиваленты:


  1. The House of Lords Вестминстерское аббатство

  2. the House of Parliament Палата Общин

  3. Palace of Westminster заседания

  4. Members of Parliament дебаты

  5. Lord Chancellor спикер

  6. Westminster Abbey сессии

  7. Stranger’s Gallary Вестминстерский дворец

  8. House of Commons председатель

  9. Debates галерея гостя

10)sessions парламент

11)sittings Биг Бен

12)Big Ben правительство

13)the speaker член парламента

14chairperson Палата Лордов

15)elect Лорд-канцлер

16)government выбирать, избирать.


3.Составьте краткий рассказ о Парламенте Великобритании

(5 – 6 предложений).


Часть 5.

    1. STONEHENGE.


  1. Прочтите тексты.


About 4 ,600 years ago- or maybe more- the Stone Age inhabitants of Britain started buildings an enormous stone structure. This structure is now called Stonehenge, and it is near Salisbury, in the South of England.

The largest of the Stonehenge stones weigh 50 tons, and the smallest weighs 5 tones. The people who started 3tonehenbe were primitive. They used no metal and their tools v.ere mace only of stone, bone and v.ood. Those

primitive people usually spent all day, from sunrise to sunset, nun ting, fishing and growing crops.

They started to build Stonehenge in about I ,000 B.C. and finished it 600 years later. Thousands of men and women took part in building it.

Why did they build this structure, and how did they do it? The builders of Stonehenge could not read or write, so they have left us no records of the work. And we do not know how Stonehenge was built.


    1. THE UNION JACK.

This is the popular паше given to the flag of Great Britain. Actually it is called the Union Flag and it is a mixture of several flags.

It all began in 1606 when Scotland was joined to England and Wales. The Scottish flag, St Andrew’s Cross, blue with a white cross from corner to corner, was joined to the English Flag, St George’s Cross, white with a red cross. The flag of St George can still be seen on churches in England.

Later, in 1801, when Ireland was joined to the Union, as it was called, the Irish Flag of St Patrick’s Cross was added, white with a red cross from corner to corner.

In this way the English people got the Union Flag which is red, white and blue. King James the Third (1566-1622) ordered that the Union Flag should be flown on the main mast of all British ships, except on ships of war.

Here the flag was flown at the front of the snips, on what was called the bowsprit. The end of the bowsprit was called the Jack Star and so we get the name of Union Jack. A “jack”, by the way, is an old word for the sailor. The Union Jack is also on the flags of Australia and New Zealand.


    1. THE BRITISH PRESS.


These are the main British national newspapers. The British national newspapers are the ones sold over the country giving general news: they are produced in the capital city, London.

There are two main types of national papers – the popular papers and the quality papers. The popular papers are smaller in size with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read and often have little real information. Examples of this type of newspapers are the Daily Mail and the Daily Express.

Quality papers are for a more serious reader, who wants to read about business, politics and foreign “affairs. These” newspapers”, “such as’ The Times, The Guardian, The Financial Times, The Daily Telegraph, are bigger in size, with longer articles. They nave different pages for home news, foreign affairs, business, fashion, sport and so on.

In addition to these there are evening papers such as London’s Evening Standard.


  1. Составьте к каждому тексту по три специальных вопроса.

  2. Переведите тексты А и В письменно.

  3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту С.

  1. Do you know the main British national newspapers?

  2. What types of national newspapers are there in Britain?

  3. What difference is between the popular and the quality papers?

  1. Составьте мини-рассказ об одном из видов национальных газет в Британии (3 предложения).


Раздел 2.

Часть 1.

INDUSTRY IN GREAT BRITAIN.


  1. Прочтите текст.


Great Britain is one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world. The largest industrial cities in Britain are: London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Newcastle, Liverpool, and Sheffield. The district around Birmingham is a land of factories and mines. The Glasgow industrial region has many shipbuilding yards, extensive docks and textile factories. Sheffield is a big centre of steel industry, and in Manchester there are many textile factories. Liverpool is one of the’ biggest ports in the West. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh are universities towns.

Britain is one of the most important and the largest exporters of automobiles, textile machinery, and electronic equipment.

Agriculture is one of the largest and most important activities in Great Britain. Four fifths of the land is devoted to it and it provides employment for over a million people.

Sheep-farming, cattle-farming and dairy-farming are still important branches in the British economy. Vegetables are grown in all parts of the country. The chief grain crops are wheat and barley.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту письменно.

  1. Is Great Britain a highly industrialized country?

  2. What are the centres of heavy industry in Great Вritain?

  3. What are the centres of the textile region?

  4. What are university towns in Great Britain?

  5. What does Britain export?

  6. Is agriculture important activity in Great Britain?


  1. Выберите соответствующий перевод следующих предложений:

  1. The district around Birmingham is a land of factories and mines.

  1. Бирмингеймская область – это область фабрик и шахт.

  2. Бирмингейм и его окрестности – это районзаводов и фабрик.

  3. Район вокруг Бирмингейма – это территория заводов и шахт.

  1. Liverpool is one of the biggest ports in the West.

  1. Ливерпуль – это большой порт на западе

  2. Ливерпуль – крупнейший порт на западе Британии.

  3. Ливерпуль является одним из крупнейших западных портов.

  1. Four fifth of the land is devoted to agriculture.

  1. 45% земли отводится под сельское хозяйство.

  2. 4/5 всей земли в стране отводится сельскому хозяйству.

  3. Четыре, а иногда пять стран занимаются сельским хозяйством.

  1. Переведите на английский язык:

  1. Крупным центром производства стали в Британии является Шеффилд.

  2. Одним из крупнейших импортеров автомобилей и текстиля.

  3. Основные зерновые культуры – это ячмень и пшеница.

  1. Кратко расскажите о промышленности Великобритании (4-5 предложений).


Часть 2.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN.


  1. Прочтите текст, обращая внимание на слова, данные после текста.


SCHOOLS IN BRITAIN.


Children in Britain start school when they are five and stay at school until they are sixteen or older. Many children in Britain attend nursery school from the age of about three, but this school are not compulsory. Compulsory education begins at the age of five, when children go to primary school. Primary education lasts for six years. They attend the infant school from five to seven and then junior school until they are eleven. Then pupils go to secondary school.

Children study 10 subjects: English, mathematics, science, geography, history, art, music, physical education and a foreign language. Most secondary schools teach French and some schools offer Spanish, German, Italian and Russian. The first three are called "core" subjects. Pupils take examinations in the core subjects at the age of 7, 11 and 14.

After five years of secondary education, pupils take the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination. Most pupils take examinations in all subjects.

Compulsory education ends at sixteen. Some people choose to stay at secondary for a further two years. Other people leave secondary school at sixteen and go to colleges of further education. Higher education begins at eighteen ends usually lasts for three or four years. Students go to universities, polytechnics or colleges of higher education. There are now about 80 universities. Some parents choose to send their children to private schools where they pay for their education. State education is free. More than90% of Britain's children attends state schools.


WORDLIST

Compulsory - обязательный.

Core- основной, главный

Education-образование.

Nursery- детский сад

physical education- физическая подготовка.

Primary- начальный.

Secondary- средний.

Stay- оставаться.

Free-бесплатный.

Further-дальнейший.

lnfant-зд. подготовительный.

Junior-младший.


  1. Найдите по словарю значения следующих слов.


Start, stay, attend, lasts, study, subject, science, art, foreign, teach, offer, call, general, certificate, choose, leave, private, pay, state.


  1. Выпишите из второго абзаца текста все глаголы и запишите их 3 основные формы.


  1. Определите функции окончания –s в следующих предложениях; является ли оно показателем множественного числа существительных, притяжательного падежа существительных или окончанием глагола 3 лица, единственного числа в настоящем времени. Предложения переведите на русский язык.


1) More than 90% of Britain’s children attend state schools.

2) Higher education begins at eighteen and lasts for three or four years.

3) Pupils take exams in the core subjects at the age of 7, 11 and 14.


  1. Письменно переведите 1, 3 и 4 абзацы текста.


  1. Расскажите о системе среднего образования в Британии по таблице

(7 – 8 предложений).



hello_html_m2cc27ace.jpg


HIGHER EDUCATION IN BRITAIN.


  1. Прочтите текст.

There are now 46 universities in the United Kingdom: 35 in England, 8 in Scotland, 2 in Northern Ireland and one in Wales.

All British Universities are private that is not state - controlled institutions. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may receive personal grant from the local authority of the place where he lives.

British Universities can be divided into three main groups: the old universities, the redbrick universities, which include all the provincial universities of the period 1850-1930, as well as London University; The new universities, founded since the Second World War.

In the group of old universities Oxford (1167) and Cambridge (1209) are the oldest ones. A number of well-known scientists and writers, among them Newton, Darwin and Byron were educated in Cambridge.

These two universities differ greatly from all the others in general organization, traditions, history, etc. They are based on colleges (law, music, natural science, economics, agriculture, engineering, commerce, etc.), each college having about 300 students. The teachers there are called "dons" (старший преподаватель университета).

The course of study at a university lasts three or four years. In general Bachelor's degree, the first academic degree, is given to the students who pass their examination at the end of the course.

Bachelor of Arts, for history, philosophy, language and literature. Bachelor of Science or Commerce or Music.

Some universities have extra-mural departments. Besides universities there are 30 polytechnics, numerous colleges for agriculture, art, design, law, a few hundred technical colleges with part-time and full-time education.

In British Universities students prepare themselves in specialized fields of knowledge by three categories of academic activity - lectures, tutorials and examinations.

It is common for students to leave home to study and only 10-15°/o of all university students live at home while they study.

  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.


  1. How many Universities are there in the United Kingdom?

  2. Are British Universities private or state?

  3. What are the oldest Universities in Great Britain?

  4. What groups can British Universities be divided into?

  5. How are teachers called at these Universities?

  6. What is the course of study at a university?

  7. What Institutions are in England besides Universities?


  1. Найдите в тексте и запишите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

Частный, институты, контролируемые государством, платить за обучение и проживание, личная стипендия, местная администрация, могут быть разделены, отличиться, основаны на, степень Бакалавра, сдавать экзамены, заочное отделение, заочное и очное обучение, уезжать из дома.


  1. Будьте готовы кратко рассказать о системе высшего образования в Британии

(5 – 6 предложений).


Часть 3.

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN.


Прочтите, переведите тексты A, B, C, D, E, F, G и подготовьте устное сообщение по данной теме на выбор (15 – 20 предложений).


  1. Customs and traditions.


Some English customs and traditions are famous all over the world. Bowler hats, tea and talking about the weather, for example. From Scotland to Cornwall, the United Kingdom is full of customs and traditions. Here are some of them.

St. Valentine’s is the saint of people in love, and St. Valentine’s day
is February 14
th. On that day, people send valentine cards and presents to their husbands, wives, boyfriends and girlfriends. You can also send a card to a person you don’t know. But traditionally you must never write your name on it. Some British newspapers have a page for Valentine’s Day messages on February, 14.

April, 1 is April Fool’s Day in Great Britain. This is a very old tradition from the Middle Ages. At that time servants were masters for one day of the year. Now April Fool’s Day is different. It’s a day for jokes and tricks.

May, 1 was an important day in the Middle Ages. In the very early morning young girl went to fields and washed their faces with dew.On May Day young men of each village tried to win prizes with their Dows and arrows, and people danced round the Maypole.

November, 5 is Guy Flawless Day. All over the country people built wood figures, or bonfires, in their gardens. On top of each bonfire is a guy, this is a figure of Guy Fawkes. On November, 5 1665, Guy Fawkes tried to kill King James I. He and a group of his friends put a bomb under the Houses of Parliament in London. But the king’s men found the bomb and Guy Fawkes. They took him to the Tower of London, where his head was cut off. Before November 5, children use guys to make money. They stand in the street and shout : ”Penny for the guy”.


  1. PAINTED EGGS FOR EASTER.


The tradition of painting eggs for the holiday goes back to the pre-Christian time. Painted wooden eggs in Russia were presented on Easter which was earlier marked almost immediately after the New Year starting on March. The tradition of painting eggs is keeping nowadays. The explanation of the secret of the popularity is that they are a symbol of revival of life. In the past centuries gift eggs were made of precious metals, carved bone, wood, porcelain, ground glass, papier-mâché and stone. A must for all of them was the vertical hole for ribbons: at the holiday such an egg was to be hanged in the red corner from an icon. The wives of the best craftsmen were entrusted with the selection of silk and satin ribbons and tying in the bow. Modern artists decorate their works with conventual embroidery, beads, glass incrustations, mother-of-pearls, brocade and precious stones, as well as with partterns painted in teasel. At the exhibition: “Easter eggs: retrospect, traditions, modern, times”, which was opened at the museum of decorative applied and folk art in Moscow, one cannot only admire the eggs, but also buy them. One can also join there the new international ovo-art club.


  1. CHRISTMAS DAY IN GREAT BRITAIN.


Most people in “Great Britain consider Christmas as the major holiday of the year – an occasion for parties, giving and receiving gifts, eating and drinking and generally having fun. On Christmas Eve, children hang stockings at the end of their beds or over the fireplace. They are told that Father Christmas or Santa Claus, arrives at night, climbs down the chimney and fills each stocking with presents. The children open their presents – put them secretly by their parents on Christmas morning. Lunch is the most important point of Christmas Day, The traditional lunch consists of roast turkey with vegetables, followed by Christmas pudding, which is made with dried fruits and brandy. Sometimes a coin is put in the pudding as a surprise.


  1. HE HISTORY OF VALENTINES DAY.

7j)

Valentine’s Day started in the time of the Roman Empire. In ancient Rome, February,14 was a holiday to honor Juno. Juno was the Queen of the Roman Gods and goddnesses. The Romans also knew her as the Goddess of women and marriage.

Under the rule of Emperor Claudius II Rome was involved in many bloody and unpopular campaigns. Claudius the Cruel was having a difficult time getting soldiers to join his military leagues. He believed that the reason was that roman men did not want to leave their love or families. As a result, Claudius cancelled all marriages and engagements in Rome.

The good Saint Valentine was a priest at Rome in the days of Claudius II. Saint Valentine’s actual name was Valentinus. He aided the еребряны martyrs and secretly married couples.

Emperor Claudius II considered St. Valentine’s giving any kind of aid to Christian a crime.

There is a legend that says while awaiting his execution he befriended his jailer’s blind daughter whose sight he restored to her.

St. Valentine was beaten and finally beheaded on the 14 day of February about the year 270.

According to the legend, on the eve of Valentine’s death, he wrote a farewell message to the jailer’s daughter and signed it, “From your Valentine”.

By the year 496 the Christian Church had become very powerful. THE head of the Church, Pope Gelasius didn’t like or believe in the Roman gods. He turned the celebration into a church holiday by honoring St. Valentine’s death on this day.

By 1400, people all over Europe celebrated this day as a holiday of love. When the English came to America, they brought the holiday to the New World.


  1. ENGLISH CHARACTERISTICS.


In a nation of many millions of people, there are different kinds, good and bad, honest and dishonest, happy and unhappy. However, we can talk some general things. The best-known quality of the English, for example,

reserve. A reserved person is one who does not talk very much to strangers.

He does not show much emotions. He never tells you anything about himself.If English people are making a journey by train, they will try to find an empty compartment. If they have to share the compartment with a stranger, they may travel many miles without starting a conversation. If a conversation starts, personal questions like “ How old are you?” or even’” What is your name?” are not easily asked. Questions like “Where did you buy your watch?” or “What is your salary?” are impossible.

But the people of the North and West of Britain, especially the Welsh, are much less reserved than those of the South and East.

Closely related to English reserve is English modesty. If a person is, let us say, very good at tennis and someone asks him if he is a good player, he will probably give an answer like “I’m not bad”, or “I think I’m quite good”, or “Well, I’m very keen on tennis”.

The famous English sense of humor is well-known. “He is a man of humor” or “He has no sense of humor” is often heard in Britain.


F. THE HORSE GUARDS


You have read a lot about places of interest in London. But London is a great city, and there is always something new to see or to read about.

One of the sights of London is the Horse Guards. The word “Horse Guards” means both the eighteenth century building in the street called Whitehall and the queen’s cavalry. The building is at the back of a very large closed square called the Horse Guards Parade.

Today, horses are not seen as often as they were in the past, especially in towns. They are not used very much now. Machines, motor cars and lorries have taken their place. But you can see horses, horsemen and cavalry in the British capital every day.

Early in the morning, you may see horsemen and horsewomen riding in the parks, but not so often as in the past. However, the horse guards are more interesting to tourists than these horsemen.

Outside the Horse Guards in Whitehall at the gates into the Horse Guards Parade there are always two horse guards on duty. They wear red and white uniforms with big black riding-boots and big silver helmets. They carry swords. In winter they wear red greatcoats. From 10 o’clock in the morning till 4 in the afternoon they are on horseback; at other time they are on foot.

Every day people come to see the Horse Guards. Groups of tourists stand around and take pictures. Neither men nor horses move, they stand like statues, and people discuss whether a horse or a man will move first. Sometimes children are held up to touch the head of one of the horses. The guard is changed every hour. This is an interesting ceremony to watch.


Closed — замкнутый

silver — еребряный

motor car — автомобиль

greatcoat — шинель

outside — снаружи

G. TIME FOR TEA.


The British and tea are inseparable. 8 out of 10 people in Britain drink tea every day and Britain imports about 20 % of all the world’s tea. Tea makes up about half of all that a British person drinks. Tea has even played a part in British literature and history.

Do you remember the Mad Hatter’s tea party in “Alice in Wonderland”? And there was the “Boston Tea Party” when a group of Americans threw a delivery of tea from the ships into the waters of Boston harbour because the ruling British government wanted to tax it. This particular tea party marks the beginning of the movement to make America independent.

They didn’t come to Europe until 1610 and was introduced to Britain in 1657 by Catherine of Braganza, King Charles II’s wife. But by the 1800s, the exotic drink became so popular that special ships (“clippers”) were designed to bring it Quickly from China.

Most people in Britain drink tea with black leaves although now herbal teas which do not contain caffeine are becoming more popular.

The taste of teas can be very different even if they are from the same farm and expert tea-tasters nave to blend them to ensure that packets of tea which have the same label taste the same when you buy them in a shop.

The British are very fussy about how their tea is made. The teapot must be warmed before the tea is put in, the water must be boiling properly, the right quantity of tea “one spoon for each person and one for the pot”-must be used and the tea must be brewed for three minutes. They see the drinking of tea as the opportunity to relax for a few minutes. It’s also regarded as a great comforter. If you’ve just suffered a misfortune in Britain and you call on a friend, you’re likely to be told, “Oh well, just sit down and I’ll make you a nice cup of tea”!


Часть 4.

SPORTS IN BRITAIN.


  1. Прочтите текст.


Тhе British have a reputation for being mad about sports. In fact they

like watching sports more than playing them. The British are spectators

and the most popular spectator sports are cricket and football.

Football is the most popular game. Football, or soccer, is an example of a professional game. The game of football was first played in Britain, and later people began to play football in other countries.

There are many amateur soccer players in Britain who play the game on Saturday or Sunday afternoon. Amateur clubs often play against professionals.

Almost every school has its football team and every boy in Britain knows a lot about the game. He can tell you the names of the players in (he most important teams, he has pictures of them and knows the results of many matches.

Rugby is another popular British sport which is played in other countries. It is also called rugby football. The story is told that in 1823 boys at Rugby school in England were playing football in the normal way, when suddenly one boy picked the ball up and ran with it That was how a new game was born. There are two forms of rugby football: the amateur game and the professional game. The two games have different rules.


Football is the favorite winter game in Britain and cricket is the favorite summer sport. Amateur cricket has the same rules as the professional game. A typical amateur cricket match takes place on a village green, an open space in the centre of the village. It is played between two teams -the "home" team and the "visitors" who come from another village.


  1. Переведите текст письменно.


  1. Составьте к тексту 10 вопросов.


  1. Выпишите из текста предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено глаголом – связкой, составьте и запишите отрицательную форму этих предложений


NATIONAL SPORTS.


  1. Прочтите текст.

Mаnу kinds of sports originated from England. The English have a proverb "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy". They do not think that play is more important than work, they think that Jack will do his work better if he plays as well, so he is encouraged to do both. Association football, or soccer is one of the most popular games in the British Isles played from late August until the beginning of May. In summer the English national sport is cricket. When the English say: "that's not cricket" it means "that's not fair", "to play the game" means "to be fair".

Golf is Scotland's chief contribution to British sport. It is worth nothing here an interesting feature of sporting life in Britain, namely,: its frequently close connection with the social class of the players or spectators except where a game may be said to be-a "national" sport. This is the case with cricket, in England which is played and watched by all classes. This is the true of golf, which is everywhere in the British Isles a middle class activity. Rugby Union, the amateur variety of Rugby football, is the Welsh national sport played by all sections of society whereas, elsewhere, it too is a game for the middle classes. Association football is a working-class sport as are boxing, wrestling, snooker, darts and dog-racing. As far as fishing is concerned it is apart from being the most popular British sport from the angle of the number of active participants, a sport where what is caught determines the class of a fisherman. If it is a salmon or trout it is upper-class, but if it is the sort of fish found in canals, ponds or the sea, then the angler is almost sure to be working-class.

Walking and swimming are the two most popular sporting activities, being almost equally undertaken by men and women. Snooker (billiards),pool and darts are the next most popular sports among men. Aerobics(keep-fit exercises) and yoga, squash and cycling are among the sports where participation has been increasing in recent years.

There are several places in Britain associated with a particular kind of sport. One of them is Wimbledon-a suburb to the south of London where the All-England lawn Tennis Championships are held in July(since 1877). The finals of the tournament are played on the Centre Court. The other one is Wembley - a stadium in north London where international football matches, the Cup Finals and other events have taken place since I923. It can hold over 100,000 spectators. The third one is Derby, the most famous flat race in the- English racing calendar, which has been run at Epsom near London since
1780.

  1. Переведите письменно 1 и 2 абзацы текста.

  2. Найдите по словарю и запишите значения следующих слов и выражений:

Originated, proverb, makes, encouraged, association, cricket, fair, contribution, feature, spectators, everywhere, middle class activity, Rugby Union, snooker, darts, active participants, salmon, trout, undertaking, tournament, take place.

  1. Составьте диалог о национальных видах спорта (7 – 8 реплик).


Часть 5.

FAMOUS ENGLISHMEN.


  1. Прочтите и переведите тексты.

A.

London has been the home of many famous Englishmen. Some were born there. Some lived there all their lives. Others lived in London only for a short time but all gave something to this great city. One of first names of importance is that of Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet. He lived most of his life in London. He knew the courts of King Richard ell and King Henry IV. His most famous work is “The Canterbury Tales”. Chaucer held official posts in London and is buried in Westminster Abbey. William Shakespeare also lived in London. He lived there for more than twenty years. He acted at the Globe Theatre and wrote his plays in London. But London’s famous men are not only writers. Sir Christopher Wren, the architect, spent most of his life in London. He be signed many beautiful churches, including St. Paul’s Cathedral. He also designer palaces and fine houses. Music is represented by a very interesting figure. This is George Frederick Handle. He came to London from Hanover in 1710. He lived for a time at Burlington House, Piccadilly, now the Royal Academy. After some success and some failure he at last became famous. This happened when he composed “The Messiah”, and “The Music for the Royal Fireworks. “ Like Chaucer and many other great artists, Handle is buried in Westminster Abbey.

Another famous London figure is one of England’s greatest Squares: The monument consists of a very tall column. On top of it stands a figure of Nelson. It is called Nelson’s Column. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. This was the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde Park Corner. It is sometimes known as Number One, London. Like Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral.


WORDLIST

Admiral Lord Nelson – адмирал лорд Нельсон. Burlington – Берлингтон.

Christopher Wren – Кристофер Рен – английский архитектор-классицист.

Design – проектировать.

Failure – неудача, провал.

Hanover – Ганновер (город в Германии).

King Henry IV – Английский король Генри IV.

Piccadilly – Пикадили (площадь в Лондоне).

Represent представлять

Richard II – Ричард II.

Waterloo – Ватерлоо (город в Бельгии).

William Shakespeare – Уильям Шекспир (Английский поэт и драматург).


B.

Orville and Wilbur Wright

The Wright brothers invented, built, and flew the first airplane on December 7, 1903, at

Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

They reported their flight in a letter to government officials in Washington, D. C, but such an achievement was considered impossible. Therefore, their letter was ignored. It was not until 1908 that the Wright brothers gained worldwide fame.

You can see the Kitty Hawk Flyer on display at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington,

  1. С


Henry Ford (1863 – 1947)

Henry Ford was born in 1863. He was a man who transformed the world. The car he built changed the lives of people everywhere. In 1896, Ford succeeded in building an automobile powered by a gasoline engine. He built this engine in his kitchen sink. In 1903, Henry Ford established the Ford Motor wanted to make a car that everyone would be able to afford. He was able to lower the price of the Model T from $850 to $360 by introducing mass production assembly line techniques. On an assembly line each person has one specific job and, therefore, can do it faster and more efficiently


Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)


Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1847. He invented the first telephone in 1876 and became a citizen of the United States in 1882.

Bell was a modest humanitarian who once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone. Both his mother and his wife were deaf. In tribute to Scotland and America, the inscription on Bell’s grave reads: “Born in Edinburgh… died a citizen of the United States of America”.

/ wonder what the world would be like today ij the telephone hadn’t been invented, “

Sash thinks to himself.


New Words

Official – должностное лицо.

То achieve – достигать.

Achievement – достижение.

То ignore – игнорировать.

Display – выставка.

То transform – преобразовать

Powerful – сильный, мощный

Engine – двигатель, мотор.

То lower – снижаться.

Assemble – монтировать.

Modest – скромный.

Grave – могила.


C.

OUTSTANDING SCIENTISTS OF THE WORLD.


The world knows the names of many great scientists: mathematicians, physicians, chemists, biologists, linguists, historians, etc. A lot of discoveries have been made by them in different fields of science and engineering. But the greatest event of the 20th century was the. Flight of Kan into space.

Special merit here belongs to Russian scientists. Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky is one of them. K.Tsiolkovsky was born in 1879 in a small Russian village near Ryazan. Through all his life he had been working on the problem of interplanetary travel. He worked out the theory of cosmic flights. K.Tsiolkovsky believed that “mankind will not remain on Earth forever”, and he dreamed to see that. Eut he died in 1935.

The man who was standing behind Soviet space strategy from the 1930 was Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. An outstanding scientist, he devoted all his life to rocket research, constructing artificial satellites.

The first artificial sputnik was launched on October 4, 1957. The Russians have every right to be proud of it.

Some years later the most remarkable event in the history of cosmonautics took place. On April 12, 196I the spaceship “Vostok”, piloted by Yuri Gagarin, went up. It is due to Korolev’s genius and some other top engineers’ talent that Russia became the world leader in conquering space.

Yuri Gagarin was the first man who made his historic flight into space. The whole world applauded this handsome young man. He orbited the earth once, staying in space for only 108 minutes, but he was the first to fly to stars. Mankind will always remember him. In commemoration of Gagarin’s flight April 12th has been made the International Day of Cosmonautics.

With Gagarin’s flight to cosmos Tsiolkovsky’s “Utopian” dreams came true. A new age of space exploration began.


  1. Составьте рассказ об одном из выдающихся деятелей Великобритании, будьте готовы выступить устно.


Раздел 3.

Часть 1.


FOREIGN TRADE OF THE U.K.


1. Прочтите текст.

In the 19th century Britain dominated in international trade. Early in the 20th century its position changed. The volume of world's exports increased but the percentage of British exports in world trade declined. But still foreign trade is vital to Britain's livelihood. With a large population, small land area, and few natural resources, the country must depend on foreign trade to supply the raw material for English factories and to provide a market for the sale of the thousands of types of manufactured goods produced by English industries.

The United Kingdom's principal exports are vehicles, machinery, manufactured goods and textiles. Her main imports are food staffs and most of the raw materials for industry. Britain imports half the food its needs.

Britain has got very sound economic ties with various countries of the world, especially the Commonwealth countries. The Commonwealth of Nations has grown out of the British Empire which came to an end with the second World War. The Commonwealth countries are Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many other small countries and territories.

The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Free Trade Association since 1959, and a member of the European Economic Community since 1973.


Livelihood - жизнедеятельность

Vehicle - транспортное средство

Food staff - пищевые продукты.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. Who dominated in international trade in the nineteenth century?

  2. Is foreign trade still vital to Britain’s livelihood?

  3. Why must the country depend on foreign trade?

  4. What are the main imports of the country?

  5. What country has been a member of the European Free Trade Association since 1959, and a member of the European Economic Community since 1973?


  1. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова:


  1. The volume of world's exports … but the percentage of British exports in world … declined.

  2. The United Kingdom's … exports are vehicles, machinery, manufactured … and textiles.

  3. Britain has got very … economic ties with various countries of the world, especially the … countries.

( sound, Commonwealth, principal, increased, goods, trade ).


  1. Определите функции окончания –s в следующих предложениях; является ли оно показателем множественного числа существительных, притяжательного падежа существительных или окончанием глагола 3 лица, единственного числа в настоящем времени. Предложения переведите на русский язык.


  1. Britain has got very sound economic ties with various countries of the world, especially the Commonwealth countries.

  2. The volume of world's exports increased but the percentage of British exports in world trade declined.

  3. With a large population, small land area, and few natural resources, the country must depend on foreign trade to supply the raw material for English factories and to provide a market for the sale of the thousands of types of manufactured goods produced by English industries.


  1. Переведите текст письменно.


Часть 2.


ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES.


1. Прочтите тексты.

A. Canada

Canada consists of almost all of the North American continent north of the US except Alaska. Its total land area of more than 9 mln sq. km makes it the second largest country in the world.

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area covering half the country. Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 month, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes.

The total population according to the 1981 census was about 24 mln people with an average population density of 2.8 per sq. km.

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status, rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 northern territories. The federal Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government.

The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Quebec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code.

Canada is a world leader in the production of asbestos, nickel and other elements, forestry products, and ranks first in the world in export of minerals. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole. Canada is among the world's leading wheat producers and is second in the export of wheat.

Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy. A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of US corporations and investors.


2.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. What can you say about the climate of Canada?

  2. What is its political status?

  3. Does Canada have one official language?

  4. What is the jurisdiction of Canada like?

  5. Describe Canada's economy.


Часть 3.

B. New Zealand.


New Zealand is an independent state. It has got a total area of 269, 000 square kilometers. It is situated to the south-east of Australia. Nearly 3.5 million people live in the country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. It has been the capital since 1865. The official language is English. The climate of New Zealand is wet. New Zealand is rich in minerals. There are some important industries in the country, for example, the iron and the steel industry. The country has gas and petroleum. There are many mountains in New Zealand. The highest is Mount Cook (12,349 feet).

There are many rivers and lakes in the country. The chief rivers are the Waikato and the Wairu. You have heard of the country’s native animals. One of them is the kiwi. This interesting bird lives in the wet areas of the thick bush. In the day time the bird does not go out. It comes out only at night to find food. Kiwis cannot fly. Many years ago kiwis were hunted for food. Now the government does not permit the hunting of kiwis. The kiwi is now the symbol of the New Zealand people. Small children are often called kiwis.

New Zealand is a self-governing state. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of Representatives. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.

There are several political parties in New Zealand. They are: The Labour Party, the National Party, the Party of Socialist Unity and others.

New Zealand has heavy industry. There are many plants in the country. The paper and rubber industries are developed too. New Zealand exports apples and honey.

There are several big cities such as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin and Nelson. Auckland, Dunedin and Wellington are the country’s main ports.

The capital of the country is Wellington. It is a financial centre too. The city was founded in 1840.

There are several educational and cultural institutions in Wellington. They are the University of New Zealand, Victoria University College and others. Victoria University was established in 1897.

New Zealand is a very interesting and beautiful country.


Words:

  1. moist – влажный

  2. wet – мокрый, дождливый

  3. export – экспортировать

  4. rich – богатый

  5. situated – расположенный

  6. climate – климат

  7. iron – железо

  8. honey – мед

  9. main, chief- главный

  10. rubber – резина

  11. permit – разрешать

  12. hunt – охотиться

  13. petroleum – нефть

  14. native – местный, туземный


2.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. What kind of state is New Zealand?

  2. What is the total area of New Zealand?

  3. Is the capital of New Zealand Wellington or Auckland?

  4. Has New Zealand any mineral resources?

  5. Name the chief rivers in the country.

  6. What is the most interesting bird in the country?

  7. Does the Parliament consist of one House only?

  8. Who is the head of the government?

  9. How many political parties are there in New Zealand?

  10. Does New Zealand export apples and honey?

  11. Name some big cities in New Zealand.


Часть 4.

C. The United States of America.


The USA is one of the largest countries in the world. It is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The area of the USA is over nine million square kilometers. Its oceans are the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic.

The population of the United States is nearly 250 million people. Most of people live in towns.

People of different nationalities live in the USA.

There are a lot of rich people in the USA but the life of many coloured people is yery difficult. Some Americans live in poverty and some people can’t get work.

The official language of the country is English. The capital of the country is Washington. It was named in hohour of the first President, George Washington. As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in different regions. For example, the Pacific coast is a region of mild winters and warm, dry summers but the eastern continental region has a rainy climate. The region around the Great Lakes has changeable weather.

There are many.mountains in the USA. For example, the highest peak in the Cordilliers in the USA is 4,418 meters.

The country’s main river is the Mississippi but there are many other great rivers in the USA: the Colorado in the south and the Columbia in the north-west. There are five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada.

The USA produces more than 52 percent of the world’s corn, wheat, cotton and tobacco.

There are many big cities in the country. They are Washington (the capital of the country), New York (the city of contrasts and the financial and business centre of the USA), Boston (which has three universities), Chicago (one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA), San Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit (one of the biggest centres of the automobile industry) and Hollywood (the centre of the US film industry).

The USA has an Academy of Sciences. There are many scientific institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and other interesting places in the USA.

It is a highly developed industrial country. The USA is rich in mineral resources, such as aluminium, salt, zinc, coppers and others. The country is rich in coal, natural gas, gold and silver, too. It holds one of the first places in the world for the production of coal, iron, oil and natural gas.

Such industries as machine-building and ship-building are highly developed there.

American agriculture produces a lot of food products: grain, fruit and vegetables.

The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fifty states. Each of these states has its own government. Congress is the American parliament which consists of two Chambers.

The President is the head of the state and the government. He is elected for four years. There are two main political parties in the USA. They arte the Democratic Party (organized in the 1820s) and the Republican Party (organized in the 1850s).


  1. State – государство, штат

  2. government – правительство

  3. elect – выбирать

  4. iron – железо

  5. corn-зерно

  6. peak – пик, вершина

  7. resources – ресурсы, средства

  8. copper-медь

  9. coast – побережье

  10. Chamber – парламентская палата

  11. poverty – бедность

  1. developed – развитый

  2. agriculture – сельское хозяйство

  3. industry – промышленность

  4. The Pacific Ocean – Тихий океан


2.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. Is the USA one of the largest countries in the world?

  2. How big is the USA?

  3. What do you know about the population of the United States of America?

  4. The capital of the country is Washington, isn’t it?

  5. Are there many mountains in the country?

  6. What rivers do you know in the USA?

  7. The USA is a highly developed country, isn’t it?

  8. What big cities do you know in the USA?

  9. What does American agriculture produce?

  1. Is the USA a federal republic?

  2. How many states are there in the USA?

  3. Who is the head of the state?

  4. How many parties are there in the USA? What are they?


Часть 5.

    1. The Commonwealth of Australia.


The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-governing federal state. It has six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania and two internal territories.

It is situated in the south-west part of the Pacific Ocean.

The area of this country is 7,687,000 square kilometers. Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent. The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the east coast of Australia.

Nearly twenty million people live in Australia.

The capital of the country is Canberra. The city became the capital in 1927. Federal Government works in Canberra in the governmental buildings. It is interesting to know that there are no industrial plants in Canberra.

The population of Canberra is about 300,000 people.

There are many things to see in the city. They are the building of the Australian Academy of Sciences, the Australian National University and others. There are two big industrial cities in Australia: Sydney and Melbourne.

Australia's climate is dry and warm. Australia is situated in the southern hemisphere and that's why they have their summer, when we have our winter and they have their winter, when we have our summer. It is interesting to know that January is the hottest month in Australia.

Australia differs from other countries. The animals in Australia are very original and interesting.

The dingo is one of Australia's wild animals. It is reddish, brown or yellow. The dingo is a wild dog, which kills other animals at night, for example sheep. They can kill hens, chickens and small dogs.

Kangaroos live there. The kangaroo has got a pouch in which she carries her babies. There are many birds in the country, too. You can see parrots and cockatoos. The emu is the most interesting bird in Australia. It is big and can't fly.

There are many rivers and lakes in this country.

Australia is an industrial country. It has coal, nickel, zinc and gold. There are several factories and plants in the country. Australia is one of the most important producers of metals and minerals. It exports wool products, meat, fruit and sugar.

The country is surrounded by the ocean. Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane are the country's ports.

There are many universities, theatres and museums in Australia.

There are several political parties in Australia: The Liberal Party, The Labour Party and the Socialist Party of Australia. Australia has the same head of state as the United Kingdom.


  1. commonwealth - государство

  2. Pacific Ocean - Тихий океан

  3. Canberra - г. Канберра (столица Австралии)

  4. hemisphere - полушарие

  5. internal - внутренний

  6. wild-дикий

  7. sights - достопримечательности

  8. pouch - мешочек, сумка (у животных)


2.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. Is Australia a big country?

  2. Where is it situated?

  3. What is the capital of Australia?

  4. Are there any industrial plants in Canberra?

  5. Are there any lakes in Australia?

  6. There are many rivers in the country, aren't there?

  7. How many sights are there in the country?

  8. Have you read anything about Australia?

  9. Have you been to Australia?

  10. Are there any political parties in Australia? What are they?


Тест.

  1. Ответьте на вопросы:


  1. What country is situated in the central part of the North American continent?

  2. What is the area of the USA?

  3. What is the official language in the USA?

  4. What are the USA rich in?

  5. How many states are there in the USA?

  6. What is the capital of Australia?

  7. When did the English Capitan James Cook discover the east part of Australia?

  8. What is Australia`s climate?

  9. What are the country ports?

  10. Where is New Zealand situated?

  11. New Zealand is self-governing state isn`t it?

  12. When was Wellington founded?

  13. What country is the second in the export of wheat?

  14. What is the political status of Canada?

  15. What is the jurisdiction of Canada like?

  1. Найдите английские эквиваленты следующих выражений:


  1. Экспортирует яблоки и мёд.

  2. Является столицей с 1865г.

  3. Киви не умеют летать.

  4. Январь самый жаркий месяц в Австралии.

  5. Динго одна из представителей мира диких животных Австралии.

  6. Национальный Австралийский Университет.

  7. Регион мягкой зимы и теплого лета.

  8. Высоко развита.

  9. Средняя плотность населения.

  10. Малое количество осадков.

  1. Has been the capital since 1865

  2. January is the hottest month in Australia.

  3. The dingo is one of Australia`s wild animals.

  4. The Australian National University.

  5. Exports apples and honey.

  6. Kiwis cannot fly.

  7. A region of mild winter and warm summer.

  8. Highly developed.

  9. An average population density.

  10. Little precipitation.


  1. Определите о каком англо-язычном государстве идет речь.

(Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States of America)


1. ...an ice-scoured area covering half the country.

2. The paper and rubber industries are developed too.

3. The highest peak in the Cordilliers is 4,418 meters.

4. The chief rivers are the Waikato and the Wairu.

5. ...produces more than 52 percent of the world`s corn, wheat, cotton and tobacco.

6. ...has Victoria University college.

7. ...has the same head of state as the UK.

8. English and French are the official languages of the state.

9. Such industries as machine building and ship-building are highly developed there.

10. there are no industrial plants in Canberra.





Литература


  1. Р. В. Резник. «Грамматика английского языка» 2006г. С упражнениями.

  2. Т. Ю. Журина. «Английский язык» 2005г.

  3. М. Г. Рубцова. «Полный курс английского языка» самоучитель 1998г.

  4. Ю.Б. Голицынский США, 2004 г. Пособие по страноведению.

  5. Ю.Б. Голицынский, Великобритания , 2004 г. Пособие по страноведению.

  6. Г.Л. Кубарьков. Английский без проблем. 2005 г.




Самые низкие цены на курсы профессиональной переподготовки и повышения квалификации!

Предлагаем учителям воспользоваться 50% скидкой при обучении по программам профессиональной переподготовки.

После окончания обучения выдаётся диплом о профессиональной переподготовке установленного образца (признаётся при прохождении аттестации по всей России).

Обучение проходит заочно прямо на сайте проекта "Инфоурок".

Начало обучения ближайших групп: 18 января и 25 января. Оплата возможна в беспроцентную рассрочку (20% в начале обучения и 80% в конце обучения)!

Подайте заявку на интересующий Вас курс сейчас: https://infourok.ru/kursy

Автор
Дата добавления 16.10.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Просмотров397
Номер материала ДВ-068011
Получить свидетельство о публикации

УЖЕ ЧЕРЕЗ 10 МИНУТ ВЫ МОЖЕТЕ ПОЛУЧИТЬ ДИПЛОМ

от проекта "Инфоурок" с указанием данных образовательной лицензии, что важно при прохождении аттестации.

Если Вы учитель или воспитатель, то можете прямо сейчас получить документ, подтверждающий Ваши профессиональные компетенции. Выдаваемые дипломы и сертификаты помогут Вам наполнить собственное портфолио и успешно пройти аттестацию.

Список всех тестов можно посмотреть тут - https://infourok.ru/tests

Похожие материалы

Включите уведомления прямо сейчас и мы сразу сообщим Вам о важных новостях. Не волнуйтесь, мы будем отправлять только самое главное.
Специальное предложение
Вверх