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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическая разработка урока по английскому языку "Cooling and storage of milk."
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  • Иностранные языки

Методическая разработка урока по английскому языку "Cooling and storage of milk."

библиотека
материалов

Сабақтың жоспары

План урока


Пән

Предмет

Prof. Engl.

Күні

дата






сабақтың

занятия


Топ

группа






Тақырып Тема

Cooling and storage of milk.

МақсатЦели

Білімділік Дидактическая •to fasten lexical and a writing skills on the topic

Дамытушылық Развивающая to develop monologue speech

ТәрбиелікВоспитывающая to bring up interest in the study of English.

Сабақтын типі (тұрпаты)

Тип урока

Lesson formation of reading skills.

Сабақтын әдісі

Метод обучения

Practical method.Collage.

Корнекілік Оснащение

Text,tasks

Сабақтын барысы Ход урока

1. Бағдарлану – мотивациялық блок Мотивационно – ориентировочный блок

Сабақтың тақырыбын шығу, жазу

Выход на тему, запись темы урока

Good morning, boys and girls! Nice to meet you! Sit down, please! What can you say about Cooling and storage of milk.?

Оқу мақсатын қою

Постановка цели, задач урока

formation of writing skills.

Сабақтың барысымен танысу Знакомство с ходом урока

Білім жаңғыртуы Актуализация знаний

Cooling and storage of milПрямая со стрелкой 26Прямая со стрелкой 25k

2. Жана материалды мазмұндау (баяндау) Изложение нового материала

Read and translate: Cooling and storage of milk.

Storage of Milk: Importance and Methods of Cooling!

Importance:

Milk drawn from a healthy cow is sterile but it contains bacteria that have entered the teat canal through the teat opening. They are pushed out during milking process. The number of bacteria varies from animal to animal. For milk contains greater number of bacteria than stripping (Singh and Prasad, 1987).

Milk gets easily contaminated with dirt, bacteria and odours. Milk furnishes an excellent medium for the growth of bacteria, particularly when not properly cooled. They produce chemical changes rendering it unpalatable.

Pathogenic bacteria can also very well multiply in milk. Therefore, milk may serve as a medium for dissemination of infectious diseases. Hence the quality and conditions of production of milk can be judged on the basis of microbial contents.

I.S. 1479 (Part III) 1982 prescribed the following standards for the bacteriological quality of raw milk:

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Therefore great care in production and handling of milk is necessary to put it in the hands of consumers in a satisfactory condition.

Handling the Milk Prior To Storage:Milk should be removed to the milk house immediately after it is drawn because the contamination may also take place if it is left in the barn, the milk should then be strained into cans. If the cows are carefully milked, straining may not be necessary.

It is impossible to strain bacteria out of milk. However, it is desirable to filter the milk to remove hairs, particles of feed or bedding or dirt, etc. that may have into milk during the production. A single service pad type strainer may be used for this purpose.

Necessity of Cooling Milk before Storage:It is impossible to produce milk without some bacteria. Therefore efforts should be to prevent multiplication of the bacteria that have gained access.- This can be achieved by cooling the raw milk.

Principles and Practices of Dairy Farm Management:This is of utmost importance specially when considerable time lapses between production and pasteurization. Even before it is transported to long distances the rails is cooled. The influence of temperature of storage on the bacterial density in fresh milk as reported by Ayres et al. (1918) is given in Table 18.1.

Table 18.1: Bacterial Count in Fresh Milk of Storage (Average of 20 Samples from Cows Clean & Bedded, Small Top Pails, Sterile Utensils):

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From the observations of Ayres et al. (1918) it is clear that milk should be stored at 4.5°C to arrest the growth of bacteria and milk will not become sour. Cooling to milk has a special significance in the tropical climate specially in summer. Therefore milk should be cooled to below 10°C. Freshly drawn milk is at about 38°C which is highly suited for bacterial growth.

Methods of Cooling:

1. Indigenous method:Milk venders who collect milk from villages are issued licence on the agreement that they will put the wet cloth around the can of milk to keep milk cool during the period of transportation by bicycle or cart, etc.

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2. Scientific method:

There are four methods used under this. These are as follows:

1. Use of surface coolers/surface tubular coolers. (See Fig. 18.1)

2. Cabinet coolers in vertical position.

3. Plate type chillers,

4. Double tube coolers.

The different cooling media used are as follows:

(a) Cold water to cool down pasteurized milk up to 15.5° to 21.1°C.

(b) Ammonia refrigerant to cool down milk up to 3.3°C to 4.3°C (35° to 40°F).

(c) Brine solution is effective in bringing temperature of milk to 3.3°C (35°F).

Storage of Milk in Tanks:

Modern storage tanks for milk are of two type’s viz. horizontal and vertical cylindrical shape of 10,000 litre capacity. In countries of temperate climate where milk is not stored for more than 24 hrs. the insulation of tanks is not necessary. In tropical regions of warmer climate 7 to 10 cm cork insulation is desirable to maintain minimum temperature 4°C. Milk kept at low temperature will have longer keeping quality suitable for processing in dairy plant.
Objectives of having Bulk Milk Cooling Units:
1.To enhance the keeping quality of milk and also to avoid economic losses to farmers due to spillage/sourage of milk.
2.To produce improved quality products for export as well as to meet the domestic requirements.
3.To reduce the transportation cost by regulating transportation of the milk on alternative days and also through reduction in expenditure on purchase and maintenance of cans.
Thus,BMCUs provides a viable option for reducing the transportation cost as also maintaining the milk quality.
Beneficiaries of Bulk Milk Cooling Units (BMCUs) are Milk collection Agents,Village Milk Cooperative Societies of Cooperative Milk Union or Milk Collection Centers of private Dairies.
The operations involve collection and chilling of milk to a temperature of 4 Degrees C.
Advantages of using stainless steel Bulk Milk Cooler or Milk Chillers in modern dairy industry:
1.Elimination of souring/curdling of milk because of cooling at the collection center itself.
2.Adulteration of milk and spillage from cans can be eliminated during transport.
3.Transportation cost of milk can be brought down by regulating transportation to the main dairy either on alternative days or once in a day.
4.Saving of initial investment on purchase of cans and subsequent maintenance cost (Repairs, cleaning etc.) of those cans.
5.Improved quality of milk can be supplied to the main dairy to manufacture quality products for domestic as well as export markets.
6.Flexibility in milk collection time results in increase in volume of milk collected at the centers.
7.Farmers will get better returns for the quality of milk.
8.Chilling at the Main dairy can be avoided.

Economics of buying Bulk Milk Coolers:
Based on the various techno commercial parameters,the economics of the purchase of new Bulk Milk Coolers is very positive. The items of income include reduction in souring/curdling of milk, spillage and pilferage of milk, saving of expenditure on transportation, purchase and maintenance of cans and chilling cost received from the union while the expenditure includes the operational cost of cooler (fuel/power), repairs, maintenance and additional manpower.

3. Рефлексия бақылау блогы

Рефлексивно – оценочный блок

Білімдерін бекіту Закрепление знаний

Read and translate: Cooling and storage of milk.

Storage of Milk: Importance and Methods of Cooling!

KWL

Нәтижелерді жинақтап, қортындылау

Обобщение результатов, подведение итогов Conclusion of the lesson.

РефлексияCollage.

Үй тапсырмасы

Домашнее задание retelling the text

қолы ___________________

подпись ________________










Автор
Дата добавления 08.01.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Просмотров179
Номер материала ДВ-315084
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