ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ИРКУТСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
«Ангарский техникум строительных технологий»
Тексты для специальности «Информационные системы»
Методическое пособие по учебной дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для обучающихся СПО специальности «Информационные системы»
Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК
протокол №__ от____2015 г.
___________ В.Н. Леснов
Рассмотрено и одобрено
на заседании методического совета
Протокол №_____ от _____________
Председатель методического совета
_____________ О.Н. Ермакова
Автор: Нестерова Ю.П., преподаватель иностранного языка ОГАОУ СПО «Ангарский техникум строительных технологий»,
Рецензент: Платунова Елена Викторовна, преподаватель иностранного языка ИКЭСТ
Основной целью изучения учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» в учреждениях среднего профессионального образования является практическое владение иностранным языком для использования его в общении при решении бытовых, учебных и социокультурных задач. Именно акцент на лексику позволит обогатить терминологический словарь и будет способствовать развитию иноязычной компетенции.
Цель данных методических указаний ввести студентов в область иноязычного письменного общения по специальности и помочь усвоению минимума содержания программы и в выполнении ими контрольных работ.
Методические указания по теме «Повседневная жизнь» по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» соответствует программе по английскому языку для студентов 1 курса всех специальностей.
Методические указания содержат лексику, а также закрепляющие упражнения на местоимения английского языка направленные на формирование у студентов коммуникативных компетенций по данной тематике.
Методические указания также нацелены на развитие и закрепление как диалогических, так и монологических навыков и умений, необходимых для чтения и понимания оригинальной литературы и применения этих знаний при сдаче дифференцированного зачета.
ЗАДАНИЕ1. Прочитайте данные слова, обращая внимание на ударение: phenomenal, process, influence, control, machines, signalling, industries, analogue,
develop, effect, society, restructuring, to record, record
ЗАДАНИЕ 2: прочитайте выражения, соблюдая ударение
information technology; the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and communication of information; at extremely fast rate; health care; environmental protection; railway signalling; labour-intensive work; automated labour; analogue and digital television; complete encyclopedias; rapidly developing interactive multimedia computers; strategic planning
ЗАДАНИЕ 3: Запишите данные слова в свой словарь
the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and communication of information - сбор,
хранение, поиск, анализ и передача информации;
circuit - схема; integrated circuit - интегральная схема
chip - кристалл; микросхема; чип
application - применение, использование, прикладная задача
to process (data) - обрабатывать (данные)
digit - цифра; digital - цифровой.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4. Запишите слова в словарь, выучите их значение и переведите предложения на русский язык
1) to define - определять
13) to entertain - развлекать
definition - определение
14) environment - окружение,
2) to provide - обеспечивать,
15) skill - навык, умение
3) image - образ, изображение
16) screen - экран
4) to invent
17) to record - записывать
record - запись
5) network - сеть
18) to measure - измерять, мерить
6) device - прибор, устройство
measure - мера, измерение
7) way - путь, способ
19) to predict - предсказывать
8) research - исследование
20) to require - требовать
to do research - проводить
21) requirement - требование
22) to approach - подходить
11) influence (impact) - влияние,
approach - подход
23) to mean - значить, означать,
to influence - влиять
иметь в виду
1. The powers of the judge are defined by law. 2. To give a definition of a word is more difficult than you think. 3. The hotel will provide us with food. 4. Can your shop provide tents for 20 campers? 5. She is the very image of her father. 6. Research has shown that these digital devices are not reliable enough. 7. Look at this picture on the screen! Isn’t it beautiful? 8. I can’t see anything on the screen. Is something wrong with the monitor? 9. I don’t like some new records. And what about you? 10. The music has been badly recorded. 11. Keep a record of how much you spend. 12. You are required to take this course to get a degree. 13. This machine doesn’t meet ecological requirements. It’s dangerous for the environment. 14. As the cops approached, all the children ran away. 15. I’m afraid, but your approach to strategic planning isn’t perspective. 16. Did he mean Uncle Charles when he was talking about genius people? 17. What do you mean by saying that he is your business partner? - I mean to say that we’ll cooperate in doing research work.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5. Прочитайте текст
The definition of information technology (IT) is as follows: the use of technology to provide the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and communication of information, which can be done either in the form of data, text, image or voice.
With the invention and exploitation of the integrated circuit or ‘chip’ since the 1960s, the growth of applications using electronics has been phenomenal. Modern electronic computers can process data, graphics and speech at extremely fast rates. The microprocessor is at the heart of what is known as the IT revolution.
Information and communications technologies are changing the way we work, study, do research, and educate our children and ourselves. They are influencing the way we do our banking, pay our bills, entertain ourselves and do business. New options (choices) are being provided for us in the field of health care, education, environmental protection, culture, and business. Computers control washing machines, cookers, televisions, telephones, home computers, cameras, video games, digital watches and many other devices.
Offices and factories now use microprocessors in the everyday life, as do cars, fax machines, aircraft fly control, railway signalling, police computer databases, etc.
The aim of the IT revolution has been to transform labour-intensive work, such as mining, agriculture, iron, steel and cotton industries, hardware manufacturing, etc., into an industry where a few highly-skilled workers manage large factories with mainly automated labour.
The influence of the Multimedia is part of the IT revolution. The change from analogue to digital television made it possible to develop special effects, such as the original full screen television image which could be shrunk (уменьшить) to occupy a small portion of the screen.
Compact discs can record complete encyclopedias, as well as provide sound and pictures.
The impact of this information revolution on our society cannot yet be fully measured or predicted at this time. The combination of new and rapidly developing interactive multimedia computers and applications with electronic networks will require a restructuring of our traditional approach to strategic planning and organisational structure. It also means a considerable (great) change in the way we interact with each other, with business and with government.
ЗАДАНИЕ 6. Найдите синонимы. Составьте предложения с выделенными словами.
rate, choice, great, fast, impact, speed, speech, image, picture, use, exploitation, growth, sound, rapid, voice, option, influence, considerable, increase
ЗАДАНИЕ 7. СОЕДИНИТЕ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ КОЛОНКИ А И В. ПЕРЕВЕДИТЕ ПОЛУЧЕННЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
Modern electronic computers can....
a) record complete encyclopedias.
Computers control ...
b) Information Technology revolution.
The microprocessor is at the
c) process data, graphics and speech.
d) the way we work, study, do research and
Compact disks can ...
educate our children and ourselves.
Information and communication.
e) part of the TV revolution.
technologies are changing...
f) washing machines, television, telephones,
The influence of the Multimedia is
ЗАДАНИЕ 8. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту
What is Information Technology? 2. When was the integrated circuit invented?
What can modern electronic computers do? 4. What is the heart of the Information Technology revolution? 5. In what way (how) are information and communication technologies changing our life? 6. In what fields are information and communication technologies used nowadays? 7. What is the aim of the Information Technology revolution? 8. What was the result of the change from analogue to digital television? 9. Is it possible to record large books on compact disks?
ЗАДАНИЕ 2.1. Прочитайте текст, переведите его
The invention of the compact disc (CD) was the result of research carried out on the video disc by the Dutch electronics company Philips NV. Under a joint licensing agreement by Philips and the Japanese company Sony, the CD was first developed in 1979. A process of digital recording is used, rather than the analogue recording process. The signal is coded in binary form, using series 0 and 1. The sound is reproduced by a laser beam. The compact disc has a diametre of 5 inches and can hold 75 minutes of music or sound on one side.
The CD was first marketed in 1983, and by 1991 had outstripped both traditional forms of recorded music - records and tapes - in terms of unit sales and values. In the space of a few years, the CD has achieved incredible success, and its applications are many and varied. In 1984 Philips and Matsushita brought out the prototypes of decoders that enabled fixed images, which had been stored on CDs alongside an audio signal, to be viewed on television. In 1985 the extensive storage capacity of CDs was applied to computers. CD players now have the capability of running a disc at twice the normal speed, which makes it possible to record an hour-long disc onto a cassette in just 30 minutes.
A SHORT HISTORY
OF COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
ЗАДАНИЕ 3.1. Потренируйтесь прочитать данные выражения:
the first mechanical computer; in his father’s tax office; adding and subtracting; long columns of figures; multiplication and division; the first universal automatic calculator; to control the programme; an arithmetic unit; tabulating population statistics; an early analogue computer; for solving differential equation; sequence-controlled calculator; Bell Laboratories.
ЗАДАНИЕ 3.2. запишите новые слова в ваш словарь и запомните их.
1) to add - прибавлять, складывать
10) output unit - устройство вывода
to subtract - отнимать, вычитать
to multiply - умножать
11) to solve equation - решать
to divide - делить
gear - приводной механизм
12) sequence-controlled calculator -
punched card - перфокарта;
вычислительное устройство с
7) unit - блок, устройство, узел
control unit - блок управления
tube - трубка
9) input unit - устройство ввода
decimal - десятичный
ЗАДАНИЕ 3.3. запишите данные слова в словарь, выучите
1) to design - проектировать, improvement - улучшение,
design - проект, конструкция 6) hole - отверстие
2) similar - похожий 7) to denote - обозначать
3) to cope with - справляться с чем-л. 8) sophisticated - совершенный,
4) tax - налог сложный
5) to improve - улучшать,
1. The sign «=» denotes that the two things are equal. 2. The word «lion» denotes a certain kind of animal. 3. He is designing all the furniture for his house. 4. The first mechanical calculator was designed by Blaise Pascal in 1642. 5. The two houses are very much similar. 6. His job is similar to mine, but his salary is much higher. 7. Do you have something similar but not as expensive? 8. I can’t cope with this difficult task without your brother’s help. 9. Jean felt unable to cope with driving in heavy traffic after her accident. 10. He has improved the look of his house by painting it white. 11. His grades (results) were bad, but they are improving now. 12. There’s a hole in my sock. 13. Look! There’s a hole in your pocket, you may lose your keys and your money. 14. You always have to pay tax on money you earn. 15. No one likes paying taxes. 16. More and more sophisticated machines are being designed nowadays.
A SHORT HISTORY
OF COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
There is almost a 300 years gap1 between the invention of the first mechanical computer and the invention of the first electronic computer. In 1642, Blaise Pascal, in France, who was 19 at the time, grew tired of adding long columns of figures in his father’s tax office and he designed a mechanical device consisting of a series of numbered wheels with gears for decimal reckoning, which could add and subtract the long columns of figures. Thirty years later, a German, Gothfried Leibniz, invented the Leibniz wheel using similar principles which could not only do subtraction and addition, but also multiplication and division.
Almost a hundred years passed before Sir Charles Babbage designed the first universal automatic calculator. Again, it was a mechanical device using counting wheels, coping with 1000 words of 50 digits each, but with one vital difference: he used punched cards to control the programme. Punched cards were also used as input and output devices. The machine contained all the functions necessary in a modern computer - an input unit, a store or memory, an arithmetic unit, a control unit and an output unit.
Improvements were made by Pehr Schuetz in Sweden and a machine similar to Babbage’s was built in 1854, which was capable of printing out its own tables. Almost forty years passed before H.Hollerith, in America, developed a machine for tabulating population statistics for the 1890 census 2. Holes in punched cards were used to denote age, sex, etc., and the size of the cards were made the size of a dollar bill. Another forty years later, Vannevar Bush in the USA, developed an early analogue computer for solving differential equations, and analogue computers were built by several universities (e.g. Manchester University in the UK in 1934).
First electronic digital computers were not purely electronic but electromechanical. In 1937 Howard H. Aiken of Harvard university designed an electromechanical automatic sequence-controlled calculator which was built by IBM and presented to Harvard 7 years later. A relay-operated computer was built by Stibitz, of Bell Laboratories, about the same time.
The first truly electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic Numerator Integrator and Computer) begun in 1942 by the University of Pennsylvania and completed in 1946. It used 18 000 tubes, was 51 feet long and 8 feet high. The numbers used in this machine could be added in 200 microseconds and multiplied in 2300 microseconds, this was the fastest calculator developed up to this time. From the middle 1940s, a series of computers were built each using later electronic techniques as they were developed3, i.e. tubes to transistors, transistors to integrated circuits, each becoming smaller and smaller, until4 present microcomputers were produced.
NOTES: 1) gap - пропасть; 2) census – зд.: перепись населения; 3) as they were developed – по мере того, как они разрабатывались; 4) until – до тех пор пока
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.1. ПЕРЕВЕДИТЕ ДАННЫЕ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ СОГЛАСНО ПЕРЕВОДУ ТЕКСТА:
1) tabulating population statistics for the 1890 census; 2) a relay- operated computer; 3) the first truly electronic computer; 4) the fastest calculator; 5) to control the programme.
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.2. Составьте синонимичные пары
to consist of, to present, counting, store, to display, to finish, to comprise, vital, to show, to complete, reckoning, memory, to be composed of, to exhibit, very important, storage, to contain, to include
ЗАДАНИЕ 4.3. Укажите какие высказывания верны или неверны согласно тексту
1. The first mechanical computer was designed in France by Charles Babbage. 2. Blaise Pascal was a teacher. 3. Pascal’s calculator used a series of numbered wheels for calculating. 4. The first universal automatic calculator was designed in about 1772. 5. This device used punched cards to control the programme. 6. Pehr Schuetz in Sweden designed a machine capable of printing its own tables. 7. First digital computers were purely electronic. 8. The first electronic computer was produced at Harvard University. 9. This computer used tubes and was very large in size. 10. From the middle 1940s, a series of computers were being built, each using more and more sophisticated techniques.
Задание 5.1. Потренируйтесь прочитать новые лексические единицы:
peripherals; keyboard; to control the functions; inexpensive; at incredibly high speed; architecture; the arithmetic and memory processes; programming languages; suitable binary codes; complicated actions; to specify the program; high storage capability
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.2. Запишите данные слова в свой словарь:
7) drum store - ЗУ на магнитном
1) hardware - аппаратное (схемное)
cell - ячейка
2) software - программное
9) pattern - шаблон, комбинация
3) peripheral - периферийное
10) pulse - импульс
(внешнее) устройство компьютера
11) binary - двоичный
keyboard - клавиатура
flow chart (flowchart) - блок-
to feed - подавать, питать
6) core store - запоминающее
ROM - постоянное ЗУ
устройство (ЗУ) на магнитных
RAM - оперативное ЗУ.
A modern computer comprises two basic parts - the hardware and the software. The hardware comprises the computer and all its peripherals. This includes the monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, etc. The software are the ‘instructions’ to control the functions of the computer. Software is generally stored on magnetic disks, CDs or tapes. Software can be subdivided into ‘control’ or ‘operating system’ software. In small modern PCs, the operating system may be ‘DOS’ (Disk Operating System) or ‘Windows’. Software is not inexpensive.
All digital computers operate by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing numbers at incredibly high speeds. The architecture or arrangement of a basic computer consists of an input device to feed in the data, a device to hold temporary results until they are required (an accumulator), an arithmetic and logic unit to perform calculations, a memory to hold data and the program as required, and an output device to display or print data. A control unit is used to decode instructions from a program to control the arithmetic and memory processes.
Great advances have been made in the storage or memory system of a computer since the invention of the first calculator. Instead of the earlier systems such as magnetic tapes, cores and drums disc storage is used in modern computers. Digital compact discs, invented in 1978 by Philips, are unaffected by dust, scratches and fingerprints and are now widely used because of their high storage capability.
The integrated circuit memory chip consists of many thousands of transistors. It is able to store and extract a given pulse or bit when required. The chip is composed of a number of cells. Each cell contains a byte (a number composed of eight bits). There are two kinds of chips: ROM (Read Only Memory) and RAM ( Random Access Memory) chips. They can give out their stored programs when needed. In the case of the ROM, this data is fixed, whereas the RAM chip can be instructed to remember patterns.
Calculations are normally performed by using arithmetic. Two numbers only are used - 0 and 1 in binary system instead of 0-10 in the decimal system.
As the computer operates in binary code, for a programming language it is necessary to convert words or instructions into suitable binary codes. As for initial low-level languages, every action of the computer there has to be described in detail, but with modern high-level languages, a simple instruction can result in complicated actions. To make sure that instructions are presented in a logical order a flow chart is used sometimes to specify the program.
A number of programming languages were developed and put into service to make the work of the programmer easier, among them FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) for scientific use, COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) for commercial use and BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Code) for teaching.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.3. Переведите следующие слова согласно тексту:
1) to decode instructions; 2) low-level languages; 3) high-level languages; 4) in a logical order; 5) to make the work easier.
ЗАДАНИЕ 5.4. В каждом вопросе ошибки. Найдите их.
What main parts a modern computer comprise?
What is the hardware? What of does it consist?
Where the software is generally stored?
Why digital compact disks are used widely now?
What the chip consists of?
What the difference between ROM chip and RAM chip?
What operating systems there are in small modern PCs?
What is the more expensive: hardware or software?
What main devices of a basic computer?
ЗАДАНИЕ 6.1. Переведите текст
The mouse is a small device that slides in all directions on a desk which makes it possible to interact naturally with the computer. Its use was popularized by Apple with the Lisa and the Macintosh models in 1983. However, it was the little-known American inventor Douglas Englebart who conceived and designed the mouse at the Stanford research institute in the mid-1960s. His brilliant idea was to have the computer operator place his or her hand on a small box or mouse. A sphere on the underside of the mouse is used to measure movements which are then transmitted to the computer via a lead - the tail of the mouse. These movements are translated to the cursor on the screen: if the mouse is pushed to the right the cursor goes to the right; if the mouse is pushed away from the user the cursor moves up, and so on. This revolutionary input device, originally found only on Apple computers, was adopted by IBM in 1987.
ЗАДАНИЕ 7.1. Потренируйтесь прочитать слова
vacuum tube; primarily; the Census Bureau; appliance; comparatively; even though; underestimated; prestigious; although; simultaneously; computer industry; microprocessor; obstacles
1) to install - устанавливать,
9) to expand - расширяться,
2) to accept - принимать,
expansion - расширение,
3) to estimate - оценивать,
10) to compare - сравнивать;
11) staff - персонал, штат
advance - успех, прогресс
12) to staff - укомплектовывать
to judge - судить
obstacle - препятствие
13) capacity - способность,
to appear - появляться
in spite of ...- несмотря на ...
The first generation (1951-1959). The first generation of computers is usually thought of as beginning with the UNIVAC I in 1951. First-generation machines used vacuum tubes, their speed was measured in milliseconds (thousandths of a second), and the data input and output was usually based on punched cards. First-generation computers typically filled a very large room, and were used primarily for research.
In early 1951 the first UNIVAC-1 became operational at the Census Bureau. When it displaced IBM punched card equipment at the Census Bureau, Thomas J. Watson, the son of IBM’s founder reacted quickly to move IBM into the computer age. The first computer acquired for data processing and record keeping1 by a business organization was another UNIVAC- 1, installed in 1954 at General Electric’s Appliance Park in Louisville, Kentucky. The IBM 650 entered service in Boston in late 1954. A comparatively inexpensive machine for that time, it was widely accepted. It gave IBM the leadership in computer production in 1955.
In the period from 1954 to 1959, many businesses acquired computers for data processing purposes, even though these first -generation machines had been designed for scientific uses. Nonscientists generally saw the computer as an accounting tool, and the first business applications were designed to process routine tasks such as payrolls2. The full potential of the computer was underestimated, and many firms used computers because it was the prestigious thing to do. But we shouldn’t judge the early users of computers too harshly. They were pioneering in the use of a new tool. They had to staff their computer installations with a new breed of workers, and they had to prepare programmes in a tedious3 machine language. In spite of these obstacles, the computer was a fast and accurate processor of mountains of paper.
The second generation (1959-1964). The invention of the transistor led to computers that were both smaller and faster. During this period they were about the size of a closet, and operated in microseconds (millionths of a second). Internal memory was magnetic, and magnetic tapes and disks as well as punched cards were used for input, output, and storage. Computers were still fairly specialized: although computers could now be used for business as well as scientific applications, one computer could not perform both tasks.
The computers of the 2nd generation which began to appear in 1959, were made smaller and faster and had greater computing capacity. The practice of writing applications programmes in machine language gave way to the use of higher-level programming languages. And the vacuum tube, with its relatively short life, gave way to transistors that had been developed at Bell Laboratories in 1947 by John Bardeen, Willliam Shockley, and Walter Brattain.
The third generation and beyond. There is general agreement that the third generation began in 1964 with the introduction of the IBM System 360, which could handle both scientific and business computing. Computers shrank to the size of a large desk, and processing time shrank to nanoseconds (billionths of a second). Instead of individual transistors, as in the second generation, third -generation computers used integrated circuits, or ICs, which combined hundreds or even thousands of transistors on a single silicon chip. Instead of having a single operator and doing just one task at a time, the computer could work with different people giving them different tasks simultaneously.
Innovation and expansion have continued in the computer industry, but it is hard to tell a date of specific development which marked the end of the third generation and beginning of the fourth generation. Advances in chip design led to further modernisation, and ICs gave way to the microprocessor, the so-called «computer on a chip».
In the mid-1970s the personal computer revolution started, in the last few years more and more PCs have begun to be connected to other PCs and minicomputer systems.
NOTES: 1) record keeping - ведение отчетности; 2) payroll - платежная ведомость; 3) tedious - скучный
ЗАДАНИЕ 8.1.Прочитайте и переведите данный текст
IВМ (INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES)
Это крупнейшая в мире фирма по производству ЭВМ. Она была основана в
1911гoду под именем Computing Тabulating Recording Company в результате слияния (merger) трех компаний, одна из которых принадлежала Холлериту. Свое нынешнее название она получила в 1924 году. Фирма IВМ выпускает разнообразные ЭВМ, от настольного ПК до большой ЭВМ 3090 емкостью ЗУ 256 М байт. Частью фирмы IВМ является корпорация ROLM, выпускающая телекоммуникационное оборудование. На предприятиях фирмы IВМ работает более 390 тыс. человек. Эти предприятия расположены более чем в 100 странах мира.
Это крупная японская фирма, производящая разнообразные изделия (оборудованиe), в том числе ЭВМ, программно совместимые (compatible) с машинами фирмы IВМ, т.е. способные работать с одинаковым программным обеспечением.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.1. Потренируйтесь прочитать новую лексику:
programming languages; actual practice; its correspondence to the switches; above all; human beings; a series of electrical impulses; the central processing unit; very tedious and difficult; for most commercial applications, primarily; general-purpose programming; through an interpreter; by the manufacturer of the machine; a binary equivalent; a separate compiler
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.2. Запишите данный слова в свой словарь:
1) switch - переключатель 4) compiler - компилятор
2) main storage - оперативное 5) systems programming - системное
запоминающее устройство программирование
3) general-purpose programming - 6) character - символ, знак
Most courses in the programming begin with a lesson on the binary system, although most programmers seldom have to use the binary number in actual practice. The reason for studying the binary system is to understand the nature of the computer and the way it operates. Understanding the binary system and its correspondence to the switches inside the machine helps to take the mystery out of computers. Above all, it is the programmer who must realize that the machine is controlled by human beings - and that he is the one who is going to control and direct it.
We know that the machine reacts to a series of electrical impulses that can be represented in binary numbers. This is called machine language, and the central processing unit has been designed to execute instructions given to it in machine language. We also know that all data are translated into binary code before being stored in main storage. It would, however, be very tedious and difficult to write all information in binary code. Most programmers therefore use one or more of the standard programming languages to prepare their programmes. These programming languages use a combination of numbers, characters, and other symbols that is more convenient and easier to work with than machine language.
There are many programming languages. They are known by such names as FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, PL/1, and APL. FORTRAN is used primarily for scientific work, and COBOL is used for most commercial applications. COBOL and FORTRAN are the most common of the programming languages. Of the others, ALGOL and APL are used primarily for scientific work, while PL/1 is employed for general-purpose programming.
How does the machine understand instructions in one of these languages if the only language to which the machine can react is machine language? It understands them by means of interpreter, just as an American diplomat at the United Nations communicates with a Chinese diplomat through an interpreter. The interpreter for a computer is a systems program. The systems programmes are part of the software, but they are supplied by the manufacturer of the machine. One of the systems programmes is called the compiler. The computer takes each instruction in the programm and translates it into machine language - that is, into a binary equivalent. It is this translated programm that activates the millions of switches in the machine during processing. There is a separate compiler for each of the standard programming languages.
ЗАДАНИЕ 9.3. Переведите выражения согласно тексту:
1) to take the mystery out of computers; 2) the nature of the computer;
a combination of numbers and other symbols
Задание 10.1. Переведите на русский язык
Это машинно- ориентированный высокоуровневый язык программирования, предназначенный (to mean - предназначать) для машин серии GEC 4080. Этот язык поставляется изготовителями машин и заменяет ассемблер.
Это простой язык программирования, разработанный в середине 1960-х годов для изучения возможности интерактивного использования ЭВМ с удаленного (remote) терминала. В то время BASIC был очень простым языком, и многие люди могли его выучить и освоить( to master). Простота BASICa сделала его наиболее подходящим (suitable) языком программирования для первых микро ЭВМ. В настоящее время он является основным языком программирования для персональных ЭВМ. К сожалению, почти каждая машина имеет свой собственный диалект BASICa, поэтому довольно трудно обеспечить мобильность программ на
Это язык программирования, разработанный Конференцией по языкам информационных систем. Сейчас он является стандартом в области обработки коммерческой информации. Первая программа на языке Cobol была написана в 1960г. В настоящее время используются стандарты Cobol- 68, Cobol - 74 и Cobol-85
TYPES OF COMPUTERS
ЗАДАНИЕ 11.1. потренируйтесь прочитать данные слова. Соблюдайте ударение
occur; numerically, simultaneously; parallelism; however; accuracy; microprocessor; efficiently; analyse; parametres; purpose; hepatitis
ЗАДАНИЕ 11.2. запишите слова в свой словарь:
mainframe (main frame) - универсальная вычислительная машина
computer-aided design - компьютерное (автоматизированное) проектирование
central processing unit (CPU) - центральный процессор
processing element - элемент процессора
circuit board - монтажная плата
printed circuit board - печатная плата
At present, there are four general categories of computers which vary widely in cost and performance.
The Supercomputer. In the first and most expensive category are the ‘super’ computers, such as the GRAY where not only is computation done at very fast speeds, but many computation processes occur in parallel enabling a great amount of work to be done.
These computers are used for tasks where an extremely large number of mathematical equations need to be solved numerically in a reasonably short time, often involving the simultaneous input of large volumes of data; such a task is, for example, weather forecasting.
The Main Frame. In the second category are the so-called ‘main frame’ computers; examples of these are the IBM 3033, Univac 90/30 and ICL 2900. In these machines computations are performed fast but with little parallelism. These machines are used for large payrolls and other accounting tasks, factory management, financial planning and for scientific and design problems where a large number of equations need to be solved.
The Minicomputer. In the third category are the minicomputers; calculations in these machines are still reasonably fast; however, the basic word length is short, typically 32 bits, therefore the accuracy of calculation for some purposes has to be improved by using several programming steps. These machines are used in the main1 for tasks of moderate complexity in the accounting, scientific and computer-aided design fields. They are also used for controlling large chemical plants, steel rolling mills2 and other complex continuous processes. Examples of these machines are VAX 750, GEC 4080 and HP 1000.
The Microcomputer (usually called the PC). In the fourth category are the microcomputers; their central processing unit is usually on a single chip. These computers have a wide range of occupations, and today both computers and microprocessors are widely distributed throughout businesses. Microprocessors are the heart of home video games, and are used as the main processing element in many automatic machines, such as store checkout tills3 and industrial robots.
Computer Aided Design (CAD). Computer Aided Design means using computers to aid the designer to do his job efficiently; for example, in the electronic industry, computers are used to analyse the parametres of proposed circuits, and translate that design onto a printed circuit board. Computers are widely used in the design of integrated circuits.
For mechanical design, computers are used for mathematical representing of solid objects allowing to evaluate such properties as mass, centre of gravity, etc. They can also be used to analyse stresses in components and assemblies; for example, bridges, aircraft components and structures.
NOTES: 1) in the main - mainly; 2) steel rolling mill - прокатный стан; 3) store checkout till - кассовый аппарат
ЗАДАНИЕ 11.3. переведите на английский язык
1. Современные компьютеры значительно отличаются от вычислительных машин, спроектированных 300 лет назад. 2. Использование компьютеров позволяет улучшить многие технологические процессы. 3. Я не думаю , что это задача средней сложности. Поэтому помогите мне, пожалуйста. 4. Чтобы провести это научное исследование, вы должны привлечь различные научные источники (sources). 5. Какова цель вашего визита? 6. Эти компьютеры могут выполнять различные задачи. 7. Я не буду подписывать этот документ - это только проект! 8. Современные технологии позволяют изменить нашу повседневную жизнь - то, как мы учимся, работаем , проводим научные исследования. 9. Чем вы занимаетесь? (Где вы работаете?) 10. Internet - это всемирная компьютерная сеть, которая включает миллионы пользователей во всем мире.
THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS ON PEOPLE
ЗАДАНИЕ 12.1. Потренируйтесь прочитать данные слова:
society; employee; certainly; lawyer; precedent; product; repetitive; crucial; productivity; quality; mixture; exhaust; specifications; surroundings; agencies; bureaucratic; inquires; thorough; identify; psychological; entertainment; inanimate; illusion; transfusion; hepatic; emergency; precedent
ЗАДАНИЕ 12.2. запишите слова в свой словарь:
engineering workstation - автоматизированное рабочее место (APM);
computer-aided manufacturing - автоматизированное производство
specifications - спецификация, технические условия (требования)
1) benefit - польза, выгода promising - перспективный
to benefit - извлекать пользу, 9) duty - обязанность
выгоду 10) to subject to - подвергать
2) to consume- потреблять (воздействию, влиянию)
consumer- потребитель 11) to dial - набирать номер по
3) society- общество телефону
4) employee- служащий 12) to contribute to - содействовать
5) to restrict- ограничивать чему-либо
restriction- ограничение contribution - содействие, вклад
6) to allow, to permit- позволять, 13) to prevent - предупреждать;
7) otherwise - в противном случае, 14) to damage - повреждать
иначе damage - повреждение, ущерб
8) to promise - обещать 15) emergency - авария
promise - обещание
THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERS ON PEOPLE
P A R T I
The computer is one of the most powerful forces in society today. It’s being used everywhere - in homes and in organisations of all sizes - and no one can doubt that this usage is having a strong impact on many people.
Many people enjoy careers in computer departments as managers, systems designers, programmers, and operators. But we all benefit from computer usage. We benefit on the job even though we aren’t computer specialists. We benefit as consumers of the goods and services provided by computer-using organisations. And we benefit at home by using personal computers for work and for play.
Each day, computers help millions of people do their jobs more effectively. For example, they can help managers decide on a future action (the planning function) , and they can then help control the performance to see if planned goals are being achieved ( the control function). And managers may not need to spend as much time in controlling when a computer can respond with a quick report if actual performance varies from what was planned. The time saved in controlling may allow managers to give more attention to employee problems.
But employment benefits certainly aren’t restricted to managers. Health care researchers and other scientists now use computers to conduct research into complex problem areas that couldn’t otherwise be studied. Lawyers use legal data banks to locate precedent cases in order to serve clients better. Sales people can receive more timely information about products, can promise customers that their sales orders will be handled promptly, and can thus improve their sales performance because of computer systems. And the job duties of some office and factory workers have changed from routine, repetitive operations to more varied and interesting tasks through computer usage. For example, office workers who understand text processing, computer, and data communications, usually have vital roles and are given crucial office functions to perform.
People also benefit as the consumers of the goods and services provided by computer-using organisations. Here are some examples:
Greater efficiency. Because businesses have avoided waste of time and have improved efficiency through the use of computers, the prices we now pay are less than they would otherwise have been. Computer uses can improve productivity - the amount of goods and services that people and machines can produce from a given amount of input.
Higher-quality products. Computers may also help improve the quality of the products and services we receive. Computer-aided design (CAD) means the use of computers and graphics-oriented software for the purpose of automating the design and drafting process. An engineer at a CAD site - often called an engineering workstation - can design a three-dimensional machined part, analyse its characteristics, and then subject it to different stresses. If the part fails a stress test, its specifications can be changed. All these steps occur as the engineer works with the CAD hardware and software. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) means the use of computers in the production process. The CAM process picks up where CAD leaves off. During this production phase, robots (devices programmed to physically manipulate their surroundings) and other computer-controlled devices are used to produce higher-quality products.
Better service. People may now receive better service from government agencies. In contrast to the bureaucratic runaround that often accompanies a call to city hall, computer system allows citizens to dial a single number, get the right city department, and be guaranteed a response. The service benefits people receive from business computers include (1) shorter waiting lines at banks, airline ticket offices, and hotel and car rental desks, (2) faster and more accurate answers to the inquiries of people served by the businesses, and 3) more efficient customer service. And the service benefits people receive from companies in health care include (1) faster and more thorough testing to detect and identify disease, (2) more accurate methods of physiological monitoring, and (3) better control of lab test results and the dispensing of drugs.
Entertainment and educational benefits. Some businesses are using computers only to amuse and entertain us. Personal computer game programmes are being prepared by hundreds of producers. Computer animation firms are writing programmes that give the illusion of movement to inanimate objects. The results of this animation are now seen regularly in movies and on TV. And the potential for computers in education has barely been tapped.
Improved safety. Computer usage contributes to improving quality as well as personal safety in many ways. For example, microcomputers installed in motor cars now provide a more efficient means of controlling the engine’s fuel mixture, ignition timing, and exhaust emissions. Computer-controlled antilock braking systems in aircraft and cars help prevent dangerous skids and produce optimum stopping distance in all weather conditions. Wheel-speed sensors detect if a wheel is stopping too quickly. A microcomputer then automatically reduces hydraulic brake pressure at the wheel until the danger has passed. And computers permit gas utility companies to do a better job of managing and controlling the pipeline leaks that can seriously damage the environment.
• Better information retrieval. A New York surgeon contacted a medical library when a sick woman lapsed into a hepatic coma. He needed immediate information on exchange blood transfusions for the woman. Using a computer terminal and a retrieval programme, the librarian searched more than a half-million medical documents in a few minutes to get the information the surgeon needed to perform an emergency blood transfusion. The patient recovered fully from the hepatitis. Most information retrieval tasks obviously don’t involve life-or-death decision, but quick computer-assisted retrieval saves time for many people.
МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ФЕДЕРАЦИЯ ПО ОБРАБОТКЕ ИНФОРМАЦИИ
(INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR INFORMATION PROCESSING)
Эта организация была создана в 1954 году. Cвой официальный статус (status) она получила в 1960 году как МФОИ. Ее штаб-квартира (headquaters) находится в Женеве. Целью организации является развитие информатики и ВТ, развитие международного сотрудничества в области обработки информации, стимулирование научных исследований, связанных с разработкой и применением средств обработки информации, а также подготовка специалистов в области обработки информации.
Management Information Systems. Ed. By Elias M. Awad. N.Y., 1996.
Business for the 21st Century. Boston, 1992.
Keegel, John. The Language of Computer. N.Y., 1995.
Computers Today. Ed. By D. H. Sanders. Boston, 1994.
Computers in Society. N. Y., 1997.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. London, 1978.
Swan M., Walter C. How English Works. A Grammar Practice Book. Oxford, 1997.
Толковый словарь по вычислительным системам./Под ред В. Иллингоурта.
|Включите уведомления прямо сейчас и мы сразу сообщим Вам о важных новостях. Не волнуйтесь, мы будем отправлять только самое главное.|