Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
«Крымский федеральный университет им. В.И. Вернадского»
Научно-методическая работа по теме
«Ключевые фигуры Крымской войны»
Студентка группы 452
4 курса Института иностранной филологии
Лукина Анастасия Александровна
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte)
He was the last king to rule France, although Napoleon III, styled as an emperor, would serve as its last monarch. From the beginning of the Empire Napoleon III sought an alliance with Britain; he had lived there in exile, and saw Britain as a natural partner in the projects he wanted to accomplish. He soon had an opportunity; in early 1853, Czar Nicholas I of Russia put pressure on the weak Turkish. Turkey, backed by Britain and France, refused the Russian demands. On 27 March 1854 Britain and France declared war. A joint British-French fleet was sent to support Turkey.
The Crimean War had two important diplomatic consequences; Alexander II became an ally of France, and Britain and France were reconciled. In April 1855 Napoleon III and Eugénie went to England and were received by the Queen; in turn Victoria visited Paris, the first English monarch to do so in centuries.[The defeat of Russia and the alliance with Britain gave France increased authority and prestige in Europe. This was the first war between European powers since the close of the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, marking a breakdown of the alliance system that had maintained peace for nearly half a century. It encouraged Napoleon III to make an even bolder foreign policy venture in Italy.
Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud
(20 August 1798 – 29 September 1854) was a French soldier and Marshal of France. After serving in the French Foreign Legion in Algeria from 1837, he was one of the generals summoned from Africa by Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III). As minister of war, Saint-Arnaud supported bloody repression of workers' resistance to the coup Napoleon III rewarded him by creating him a senator and a marshal of France. In 1854 he resigned his ministerial post and, although seriously ill, accepted command of the French forces in Crimea. Saint-Arnaud planned the landing at Evpatoria (September 14); and, with the assistance of the British forces under Lord Raglan, he won the Battle of the Alma (September 20). He died on board ship because of cholera, shortly after commanding at the Battle of the Alma
François Certain de Canrober
(27 June 1809 – 28 January 1895), was a marshal of France.
The future Marshal was educated at Saint-Cyr; he received a commission as sub-lieutenant in 1828, becoming lieutenant in 1832. Sent to Algeria in 1835, he served in the expedition to Mascara, at the capture of Tlemcen, and in 1837 was promoted to captain and then captain adjudant-major. In the same year he received the Légion d'honneur for courageous conduct. In 1849 he displayed both courage and energy in reinforcing the blockaded garrison of Bou Saada, and in command of one of the attacking columns at Zaatcha (December 1849). For his valour on the latter occasion he received the rank of general of brigade and the commandership of the Legion of Honour. Summoned to Paris, he was made aide-de-camp to the president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, and took part in the coup d'état of December 2, 1851. In the Crimean War he commanded a division at the Battle of Alma, where he was twice wounded. He held a dormant commission entitling him to command in case of Saint-Arnaud's death, and he thus succeeded to the chief command of the French army a few days after the battle. He was slightly wounded and had a horse killed under him at Inkerman, when leading a charge of Zouaves. Disagreements with the British commander-in-chief, Lord Raglan, and in general, the disappointments due to the prolongation of the siege of Sevastopol led to his resignation of the command, but he did not return to France, preferring to serve as chief of his old division almost up to the fall of Sevastopol.
Aimable-Jean-Jacques Pélissier, 1st Duc de Malakoff
(6 November 1794 – 22 May 1864), was a Marshal of France. Educated at the military schools of La Flèche and Saint-Cyr, Pélissier was commissioned as an artillery second lieutenant in 1815. After brief service in Algeria in 1830, he returned there in 1839 to take part in the campaign against the patriot emir of Mascara, Abdelkader. After the battles of October and November 1854 before Sevastopol, Pélissier was sent to the Crimea, where on 16 May 1855 he succeeded Marshal Canrobert as commander-in-chief of the French forces before the Siege of Sevastopol. His command was marked by relentless pressure of the enemy and unalterable determination to conduct the campaign without interference from Paris. His perseverance was crowned with success in the storming of the Tower of Malakoff on 8 September which ended the Siege of Sebastopol, crowning the Anglo-French Crimean War against Russia with victory. On the 12th he was promoted to marshal.
François Achille Bazaine
(13 February 1811 – 23 September 1888) was a French general and from 1864, a Marshal of France. He was promoted to Brigadier General at Gallipoli in 1854, en route to the Crimea and led a Brigade (the combined 1st and 2nd Regiments of the Foreign Legion) in the Crimean War. He fought several decisive actions at the Battle of the Alma in 1854 and during the siege of Sebastopol (1854/55) where he maintained his reputation and for which he was mentioned in dispatches on several occasions. The way in which he conducted the left wing of the French forces in the final Allied assault on Sebastopol on 8 September 1855 (wounded, shell fragment in left hip, his horse killed under him), received acclaim of the highest order from the Allied Command and he was subsequently promoted to Major General (General de Division) on 22 September 1855 and selected from all the Allied Generals to assume the Governorship of Sebastopol. At 44, this made him the youngest General in the French Army. In October 1855, Bazaine was chosen to give the coup de grâce. With a mixed French and British Force, he sailed to Kinburn at the mouth of the Dnieper to attack the remaining Russian forces to the North of Sebastopol. At Sebastopol, on 25 June 1856 he was invested by the British Commander in Chief, Lord Gough, with the Order of the Bath, for his conspicuous contribution to the Allied campaign during the Crimean War. On his return to France in 1857, he was appointed Inspector General of the Army.
Marshal Marie Esme Patrice Maurice
(13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France. MacMahon won national renown and the presidency on the basis of his military actions in the war against the Germans. MacMahon was a devout conservative Catholic, a traditionalist who despised socialism and strongly distrusted the secular Republicans. MacMahon served in the Army as aide-de-camp to General Achard, and participated in the occupation of Algiers in 1830. Designated regimental commander in 2nd Foreign Regiment of the Foreign Legion in 1843, he was promoted to Divisional General in 1852.
In the Crimean War, MacMahon distinguished himself in the Battle of Malakoff at Sevastopol (8 September 1855), during which he reputedly uttered the famous quotation now attributed to him: ''J'y suis, j'y reste'' (fr) ("Here I am; here will I stay"). He was offered the top French Army post after the war but declined, preferring to return to Algeria. MacMahon was appointed to the French Senate in 1856.
Omar Pasha Latas
(1806–1871) was an Ottoman general and governor. He was born in Austrian territory, to Orthodox Christian parents, and was initially an Austrian soldier. When faced with the charges of embezzlement, he fled to Ottoman Bosnia and converted to Islam, and then joined the Ottoman army where he quickly climbed in ranks. He crushed several rebellions throughout the Empire, and was a commander in the Crimean War. Omar Pasha, writing to the Sultan (1854), reporting the first major encounter, to what would become the Crimean War: ”In this battle many Russians were killed while our Imperial Army sustained 30 martyrs, and 150 wounded. With the grace of God, and the inspiration of the Prophet, and the sacred power of the most glorious Sultan, this commencement of war gave great honor to the sublime state, and to all the people of Islam”
(1814–1861), was a Polish-Ottoman military officer and general. He served in the Army of Roumelia under Omar Pasha. He was a prominent figure in the military campaign. When the Crimean War broke out in 1853, he was charged with organizing and training the irregular troops (the bashi-bazouks) along the Danube. In the following year, Iskender Pasha's fierce and daring style in commanding successful cavalry raids on Russians brought him acclaim and he was soon promoted as Colonel. Early 1855 he was posted in the Eupatoria Garrison in Crimea commanding a 400-strong cavalry regiment. His unit made a critical contribution in successfully repulsing a strong Russian assault on the town, which was threatening the rear of the Allied army besieging Sebastopol .This victory brought him a second promotion in a year, making him a Pasha (General). The same year he commanded the advance guard of an expedition army under Omar Pasha which landed at Sukhumi, in the hope of relieving the Eastern Anatolian fortress-city Kars from a Russian siege (see: Siege of Kars). The city fell to the Russians, however, before the two armies could engage.
Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha
(1807–1883) was an Ottoman military commander, born in Chirpan, Ottoman Bulgaria. He graduated from the military academy in Istanbul and was sent to Vienna to continue his education (1836–1841). He was the commander of the Ottoman forces based in eastern Anatolia during the Crimean War where he led many assaults against the Russian forces based in Gyumri. He assumed the command of the fortress at Kars and won the Battle of Bayandir. But after a military failure by Ahmet Pasha, he was blamed and subsequently discharged from his position and replaced by Ahmet Pasha in January 1854] After the war he was appointed as the governor of Thessaloniki. He was elected to the constitutional parliament in 1876 as a senator, though he retained his position in the army and dealt with several riots in Serbia in 1877. Because of his success in dealing with these riots, he was appointed as the commander of a division of the Danube forces during the Russo-Turkish War. After several command failures in this war, he was court martialed and exiled to the island of Rhodes, where he died.
Vladimir Ivanovich Istomin
(21) February 1810 – 7 (19) March 1855) was a Russian rear admiral (1853) and hero of the Siege of Sevastopol.In 1827, Vladimir Istomin graduated from the Naval College. That same year, he then took part in the Battle of Navarino and later in the blockade of the Dardanelles (1828-1829). In 1836, Istomin was transferred from the Baltic Fleet to the Black Sea Fleet. In 1850, he was appointed commander of the battleship Paris, which would participate in the Battle of Sinop in 1853. During the siege of Sevastopol, Vladimir Istomin was in charge of the defense of the Malakhov Mound and nearby redoubts, setting an example of bravery and tenacity. He was killed by a cannonball on the Kamchatka redoubt on March 7, 1855. Vladimir Istomin was buried in the Admirals' Burial Vault in Sevastopol.
Count Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy
(19 July 1802 – 12 March 1874) was a Russian lieutenant-general, senator, and governor of Taganrog, Kaluga and Penza. He received home education and in 1819 enrolled to serve in the Uglitsk regiment. In 1826, Count Tolstoy participated in the Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828, serving as aide de camp to Mayor-General Prince Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov. On April 21, 1827 Tolstoy was appointed aide de camp to the Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. During the campaign of Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829, he was awarded with an Order of St. George of the 4th degree and the rank of colonel for the action in the siege of Anapa. He was awarded with a golden sword for the restoration of the communication between the main army and the corps of general Loggin Rot in July of the same year. In 1835 Count Tolstoy received an appointment at the Ministry of Interior and gave his resignation in 1840. In April 1851, he was appointed governor of Kaluga, and on April 27, 1854 - governor-general of the city of Taganrog. Tolstoy held this office until September 1856 and participated in the defense of the city from bombardments and landing operations during the Siege of Taganrog in 1855. On August 31, 1859 he was appointed governor of Penza and on August 4, 1861 - Russian senator. In 1870, Tolstoy was decorated with an Order of St. Alexander Nevsky for the 50 years of service.
Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov
(05.07.1802-12.07.1855) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War. During the Crimean War Nakhimov distinguished himself by annihilating the Ottoman fleet at Sinope in 1853. His finest hour came during the siege of Sevastopol, where he and Admiral V. A. Kornilov organized from scratch the land defense of the city and its port, the home base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. As the commander of the port and the military governor of the city, Nakhimov became in fact the head of the Sevastopol naval and land defense forces. On July 10, 1855, while inspecting the forward-defense positions on Malakhov Kurgan he was fatally wounded by a sniper and died two days later. Nakhimov was buried inside St Vladimir's Cathedral in Sevastopol along with Mikhail Lazarev, V.A. Kornilov and Vladimir Istomin. There is a monument erected in his memory.The Order of Nakhimov was preserved as one of the highest military decorations in Soviet Union and, upon its dissolution, in Russia.
Vasily Stepanovich Zavoyko
(5 July 1809 – 16 February 1898) was an admiral in the Russian navy. In 1854, during the Crimean War, Zavoyko led the successful defence against the Siege of Petropavlovsk by the allied British-French troops commanded by Rear Admirals David Price and Auguste Febvrier Despointes. Zavoyko managed to repel the superior allied forces and even captured the British banner. In the winter of 1855, Zavoyko was in charge of the transfer the main Russian Pacific naval base from Petropavlovsk to the Amur estuary. The fleet managed to make its way through despite the frozen seas and the superior enemy fleet awaiting them near the Amur inflow. In two months sailors built the Nikolayevsk-on-Amur city that served as the base for the fleet.In 1856, Zavoyko returned to Saint Petersburg, where he served as the Naval General-Auditor.
Vice Admiral Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov
(13 February 1806 – 17 October 1854) was a Russian naval officer who took part in the Crimean War. In 1853, with his flag hoisted aboard the 11-gun steam frigate Vladimir (commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Grigory I. Butakov) met a 19-gun Turkish Vessel, the Pervaz-ı Bahrî, when they were cruising close to Penderakli. Kornilov gave the order of engaging the enemy and the Vladimir joined battle against Pervaz-Bahri. The Ottoman ship had no bow and stern artillery, so every time it employed its side artillery, Butakov manoeuvred to rake its stern. Considering that the battle was taking too long, Kornilov gave the order to speed the sinking of the enemy. Cpt. Butakov ordered to speed up the ship and approaching the enemy to around 100 meters, fired canister rounds from all his side guns. The Pervaz-Bahri had suffered heavy casualties in the 3 hour long battle and hauled its flag. The ship was transported to Sevastopol where it was commissioned to the Russian Navy as Kornilov. Action between Russian steam frigate Vladimir (ship, 1848) and Ottoman-Egyptian steamer Pervaz-ı Bahrî of November 5, 1853 – first in the history action between steam ships by Alexey Bogolyubov
During the Crimean War, Kornilov was responsible for the defence of Sevastopol. He was killed early in the siege and was buried in the Admirals' Burial Vault.
(1828-1882) was a sailor of Black Sea Navy Fleet during the Crimean War. During the Siege of Sevastopol was directed to the seacoast to reinforce the defenders of Sevastopol. He battled on the squadron 15 with lieutenant Perekomsky. He took part in 18 outfalls as a volunteer. He was known as a brave, quick-witted person especially in the scout or while capturing enemies. During one of the raids, armed only with a knife, he captured three French soldiers, while another soldier being under enemy fire dug close to the enemy trenches buried waist-deep in the ground, saw the dead body of a Russian minesweeper and took him to the 3rd Bastion. The body of sapper was hit with 5 bullets. And one of the cases, when Koshka showed his immediate reaction and quickness was immortalized in the famous Kornilov monument, at the Malakhov hill. In front of numerous witnesses, next to the Admiral a bomb fell. Peter wasn’t confused: he grabbed the bomb and threw it into the pot of porridge where the wick went out. Kornilov thanked his Savior heartily, and he he replied modestly with a phrase that later became a quote: "a Kind word and a nice Cat". On 17January, 1855 Koshka was hurt by hawser fastening but his inward parts of body weren’t damaged, in August 1855, he was hurt again. For his exploits he was awarded with the highest Military honor. In January 1855 he was made a non-commissioned officer rank of quartermaster.
Pirogov Nikolay Ivanovich
was a famous physician, surgeon, member of the Siege of Sevastopol in 1855. Pirogov’s contribution to medicine and science is invaluable. He created anatomical atlases. He first came up with the idea of plastic surgery, has put forward the idea of bone grafting, used anesthesia in military surgery, for the first time put a plaster cast in the field suggested .N. I. Pirogov called upon to give up early amputation because of gunshot wounds of the limbs injuries to the bones. He designed a mask for ether anesthesia that is used in medicine until now. Pirogov was one of the founders of the service of the sisters of mercy. All of his discoveries and achievements saved lives of thousands of people. He never refused his assistance and devoted his life to the unlimited people service.
She was sixteen and a half, when the Crimean war began. She had lost her mother, and her father, a sailor, defended Sevastopol. Dasha decided that she should have tried something to help soldiers — and her father also. She got vinegar and old rags and with some other women worked in unit transport. Women cooked and washed for the soldiers. And Dasha transformed her wagon into a dressing station. When the position of the troops got worse, many women left Sevastopol, they went to North, to safer areas. But Dasha left. She found an old house, cleaned it and turned it into a hospital. Then she took her horse, and the whole day she went to the front, to take two or more wounded. News about the girl that transported the wounded from the battlefield and provided them with medical care, spread around the Crimea. And soon Dasha had associates. However, these girls were afraid of going to the front as Dasha, but they dressed and caried for the wounded.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston
(20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century. On 28 March 1854 Britain and France declared war on Russia for refusing to withdraw from the principalities. The war progressed slowly, with no gains in the Baltic and slow gains in Crimea at the long Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855). Dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war was growing with the public in Britain and in other countries, aggravated by reports of fiascoes and failures, especially the mismanagement of the heroic Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava. The health and living conditions of the British soldiers was notorious and the press. When Parliament passed a bill to investigate by the vote of 305 to 148, Aberdeen said he had lost a vote of no confidence and resigned as prime minister on 30 January 1855. Derby offered Palmerston the office of Secretary of State for War which he accepted under the condition that Clarendon remained as Foreign Secretary. Clarendon refused and so Palmerston refused Derby's offer and Derby subsequently gave up trying to form a government. The Queen sent for Lansdowne but he was too old to accept: so she asked Russell; but none of his former colleagues except Palmerston wanted to serve under him. Having exhausted the possible alternatives, the Queen invited Palmerston to Buckingham Palace on 4 February 1855 to form a government.
FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan
(30 September 1788 – 29 June 1855) was a British Army officer. As a junior officer he served in the Peninsular War and the Hundred Days, latterly as military secretary to the Duke of Wellington. Raglan became commander of the British troops sent to the Crimea with the temporary rank of full general on 21 February 1854 and was promoted to the substantive rank of full general on 20 June 1854. While Raglan's primary objective was to defend Constantinople he was ordered by the Duke of Newcastle, who was at the time Secretary of State for War, to besiege the Russian Port of Sevastopol. An Anglo-French force under the joint command of Somerset and General Jacques St. Arnaud defeated General Alexander Menshikov's Russian army at the Battle of Alma in September 1854.
At the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854, Raglan issued an order to the Earl of Lucan, his cavalry commander. Despite an indecisive result at Balaclava the British and French allied army gained a victory at the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 and Raglan was promoted to the rank of field marshal on 5 November 1854.
Raglan was blamed by the press and the government for the sufferings of the British soldiers in the terrible Crimean winter during the Siege of Sevastopol owing to shortages of food and clothing although this, in part, was the fault of the home authorities who failed to provide adequate logistical support. A piecemeal allied assault on Sevastopol on 18 June 1855 was a complete failure. The anxieties of the siege began to seriously undermine Raglan's health and he died from a mixture of dysentery and clinical depression on 29 June 1855.
General Sir James Simpson GCB
(1792 – 18 April 1868) was a British Army officer of the 19th century. He commanded the British troops in the Crimea from June to November 1855, following the death of Field Marshal Lord Raglan. Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Simpson was commissioned into the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards on 3 April 1811. In February 1855 he was sent out to the Crimea to act as chief of staff to the army commander Lord Raglan. Raglan died on 28 June, and Simpson reluctantly took command of the army. He resigned on 10 November, and was succeeded by Sir William Codrington.
General Sir William John Codrington, GCB
(26 November 1804 – 6 August 1884) was a British Army officer and politician who served in the Crimean War. As a general commanding a brigade and absolutely without experience of war, Codrington went into action in his first battle, the Battle of Alma. The light division got too far ahead and fell into confusion in crossing the Alma, and Codrington, seeing that his men could not lie still and be slaughtered by the Russian guns, boldly charged the great redoubt and carried it. But he had soon to fall back before the weight of the Russian column, and ran a risk of being utterly crushed, until the Russian column was broken by the charge of the highland brigade under Sir Colin Campbell. His bravery in this battle showed that Codrington deserved his command, and he again proved his courage at the battle of Inkerman, where he occupied the Victoria Ridge throughout the day, and perpetually sent off all the troops who came up to his help to assist in the real battle on the Inkerman tusk. Sir George Brown, who commanded the light division, was severely wounded in this battle, and after it Codrington assumed the command of the whole division as senior brigadier
Throughout the winter of 1854–55 he remained in command of the division, and on 5 July 1855 he received the reward of his constancy by being made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. Codrington succeeded Sir James Simpson as Commander-in-Chief instead of Sir Colin Campbell, who had much better claims to the succession, and he commanded the force occupying Sebastopol, for there was no more fighting, until the final evacuation of the Crimea on 12 July 1856.
Sir George Brown
(3 July 1790 – 27 August 1865), was a British soldier notable for commands in the Peninsular War and the Crimean War. In 1854, on the despatch of a British force to the East, Sir George Brown was appointed to command the Light Division. This he led in action, and administered in camp, on Peninsular principles, and, whilst preserving the strictest discipline to a degree which came in for criticism, he made himself beloved by his men. At Alma he had a horse shot under him. At Inkerman he was wounded whilst leading the French Zouaves into action. In the following year, when an expedition against Kertch and the Russian communications was decided upon, Brown went in command of the British contingent. He was invalided home on the day of Lord Raglan's death (29 June 1855). He was later promoted general, backdated to 7 September 1855. From March 1860 to March 1865 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Ireland and was the Colonel-Commandant of the 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade from 1855 to 1863.
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde
(20 October 1792 – 14 August 1863) was a British Army officer. n early 1854, shortly after the Crimean War broke out, Campbell accepted the command of the Highland Brigade. He was promoted to brevet brigadier-general on 21 February 1854 and to major-general on 20 June 1854. The Highland Brigade distinguished themselves at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and, Campbell repulsed the Russian attack on Balaclava in October 1854. He was promoted to the local rank of lieutenant general on 23 January 1855 and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 5 July 1855When the Duke of Cambridge returned to England, Campbell took command of the 1st Division (Guards and Highland brigades) and commanded the Division at the Battle of the Great Redan in September 1855. Promoted to the local rank of full general on 28 December 1855and the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 4 June 1856 he remained in the Crimea hoping to take overall command, but when General Sir William Codrington was appointed instead, he returned home in a huff. Prince Albert suggested the army in the Crimea be split into two corps d'armee, and Campbell be given one. Lord Panmure requested Queen Victoria ask Campbell return to command one of these corps, and Campbell agreed. However, by the time he had returned, the war was virtually over. He commanded South-Eastern District from July to September 1856. For his services in the Crimean War, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Sardinian Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus on 11 August 1856.
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