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Australia occupies the continent of Australia, which lies south-east of Asia and the island of Tasmania with a number of small islands. It is washed by the Timor Sea in the north, by the Coral and Tasman Seas in the east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south and west.
"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia. Created by the Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick, the song was first performed in 1878, and was sung in Australia as a patriotic song. It replaced "God Save the Queen" as the official national anthem in 1984, following a plebiscite to choose the national song in 1977. Other songs and marches have been influenced by "Advance Australia Fair", such as the Australian vice-regal salute. The national anthem of Australia. The "Australia Fair Grand Concert Street Organ", which automatically plays "Advance Australia Fair" Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil, Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in Nature’s gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In history’s page, let every stage Advance Australia fair! In joyful strains then let us sing, «Advance Australia fair!» Beneath our radiant southern Cross, We’ll toil with hearts and hands; To make this Commonwealth of ours Renowned of all the lands; For those who’ve come across the seas We’ve boundless plains to share; With courage let us all combine To advance Australia fair. In joyful strains then let us sing «Advance Australia fair!»
Australia is the most droughty continent on the earth. About one half of its territory is occupied by deserts and semideserts. It is also the land of great plains. The main part of Australia lies in tropics. Southwestern parts of the country are situated in subtropics. December, January and February are summer months in Australia. The average summer temperature there is from 20 to 30 degrees above zero. Winter comes in June, July and August. Then the average temperature is from 12 to 20 degrees above zero. Droughts are common in Australia. The rainfall in the country is rather small, and that’s why a special plan was worked out for irrigation of plains. The largest rivers in Australia are the Darling and the Murray. In the middle part of Australia there are salt lakes, such as Lake Eyre and Torrence. Australia is an agricultural country. Cattle-breeding is highly developed in Australia. It exports sheep wool, wheat, meat, butter and cheese, and raw materials. Its major partners are Japan, the USA and Great Britain. The climate and the nature of Australia
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Australia was part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, which also included South America, Africa,India and Antarctica. Most of the modern Australian flora had their origin in Gondwana during theCretaceous when Australia was covered in subtropical rainforest. Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago (MYA);. As Australia drifted, local and global climate changehad a significant and lasting effect. These conditions of geographic isolation and aridity led to the development of a more complex flora. From 25-10 MYA pollen records suggest the rapid radiation of species like Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Allocasuarina, Banksia and the pea-flowered legumes, and the development of open forest; grasslands started to develop from the Eocene. Collision with the Eurasian Platealso led to additional South-east Asian and cosmopolitan elements entering the flora like the Lepidium andChenopodioideae. Flora of Australia
The red kangaroo is the largestmacropod and is one of Australia's heraldic animals, appearing with the emu on the coat of arms of Australia. The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; some 83% of mammals, 89% of reptiles, 24% of fish and insects and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to Australia. . A unique feature of Australia's fauna is the relative scarcity of native placental mammals. Consequently, themarsupials—a group of mammals that raise their young in a pouch occupy elsewhere in the world. Australia is home to two of the five known extant species of monotremes and has numerous venomous species, which include the platypus, spiders, scorpions, octopus, jellyfish, molluscs, stonefish, and stingrays. To target threats to the survival of its fauna, Australia has passed wide-ranging federal and state legislation and established numerous protected areas. Fauna of Australia
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy comprising six states and several territories. The monarch of Australia
Geologically Australia is the most ancient of the continents. But for many centuries it was marked on the maps as “terra incognita”. The first man who reached the Australian coasts was Willem Jansz, a Dutch seaman. He landed on the northern coast of the continent in 1606. The northern and western coasts were investigated by the Dutch in the 17th century. The sailors named the continent New Holland. In 1770 James Cook, a British navigator, reached the coasts of Australia. He was the first to investigate Australia and named a lot of its mountains and bays. The beginning of the British colonization of Australia was connected with the loss of the thirteen American colonies during the War of Independence. The British government lost the right to send criminals from England to North America. The loss was compensated by seizing new territories. The first group of criminals arrived in Australia in 1787 and founded a settlement named Sydney. And only in 1793 the first group of settlers who were not convicts came to Australia. The 50s of the 19th century were the turning point in the history of Australia. The deposits of gold were found then, and it led the country to the rapid economic development. Till that time Australia had held the first place at the world wool market. Since that time the industry started to develop in the country. The discovery of gold also led to a large wave of immigrants to the country. In 1900 the British colonies got the rights of states. In 1901 they united in a single state. That was the beginning of the modern Australia. From the history of Australia
Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS,Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic CooperationPacific Islands Forum. Australia today
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