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Three quarters of a life - in navigation Among great figures of a world civilization of very few people it can be compared to Columbus on number of the publications, devoted its life, and simultaneously on an abundance of " white spots » in the biography. More or less confidently it is possible to approve, that by origin it the genoese and nearby 1465 has acted on the Genoa fleet, after a while has received heavy wound. Up to 1485 floated on the Portuguese courts, veins in Lisbon and on islands Madieras and the Mouth-ЯбЎФТ, being engaged in trade, drawing up of cards and self-education. It is not found out, when and where it has made the project western, in its opinion, the shortest sea way from the Europe to India; the project has been based on the antique doctrine about sphericity of the Earth and on miscalculations of scientific 15 century In 1485 after refusal of the Portuguese king to support this project Columbus has got over to Castile where by means of андалусских merchants and bankers has achieved the organization under the command of the governmental sea expedition.
The first expedition (1492-93) in structure of 90 person on 3 courts - «Санта-Мария», «Пинта» and «Нинья» - has left from Палоса on August, 3rd 1492, from Canary islands has turned on the West, has crossed Atlantic ocean, having opened Sargasso sea, and has reached island in the Bahama archipelago, named by the traveller San Salvador where Columbus has landed on October, 12th 1492 (official date of opening of America). Long time the island Uotling was considered (1940-82) San Salvador. However, our contemporary the American geographer Dzh. Джадж in 1986 has processed on a computer all the collected materials and has come to conclusion: the first American ground seen by Columbus was island Samana (120 km юго-to the east Уотлинга). On October, 14-24th Columbus approached to several Bahamas, and on October, 28th - on December, 5th has opened a part of northeast coast of Cuba. On December, 6th has reached island Haiti and has moved along northern coast. On the night of December, 25th leader «Санта-Мария» of villages on a reef, but crew was rescueed. For the first time in history мореходства under Columbus's order under sailor's a cot American Indian hammocks have been adapted. Columbus on «Нинье» on March, 15th 1499 has returned to Castile. A political resonance of navigation of Columbus was « the papal meridian »: the chapter of Catholic church has established the line of demarcation which has specified competed Spain and Portugal various directions for opening of the new grounds in Atlantic.
The second expedition (1493-96) which was headed by admiral Columbus, in a post of vice-king of again open grounds, consisted of 17 courts with crew 1,5-2,5 thousand person. On November, 3-15rd 1493 Columbus has opened islands Dominicas, Guadeloupe and about 20 Lesser Antilles, on November, 19th island Puerto Rico. In March 1494 in searches of gold has made a military campaign in depth of island Haiti, has opened southeast and southern coast of Cuba, isle of Pines and Jamaica in the summer. Within 40 days Columbus surveyed southern coast Haiti which gain has continued in 1495. But in the spring 1496 has sailed home, having finished the second navigation on June, 11th in Castile. Columbus has informed on opening a new way to Asia. The colonization which has begun soon of the new grounds free поселенцами managed to the Spanish crown very dearly, and Columbus has suggested to occupy islands criminals, twice having reduced it term of punishment. With fire and a sword, plundering and destroying the country of ancient culture, by the ground aztecs - Mexico - there have passed Cortes's military groups, by the ground инков - Peru - groups Pisarro.
The third expedition (1498-1500) consisted of six courts, three from which Columbus has led through Atlantic. On July, 31st 1498 has opened island Trinidad, has entered into gulf of Paria, has found out a mouth of the western sleeve of delta Orinoco and peninsula Parija, having begun opening of South America. Having left to Caribbean sea, approached to peninsula Araja, has opened on August, 15th island Margarita and on August, 31st has arrived to Haiti. In 1500 on a denunciation Columbus is arrested and, chained in shackles (which then stored all life), has been sent to Castile where it was waited with clearing.
Having achieved the sanction to continue searches of the western way to India, Columbus on four courts (the fourth expedition, 1502-04) has reached on June, 15th 1502 islands Martiniques, on July, 30th - Гондурасского a gulf where for the first time has met representatives of an ancient civilization майя, but has not given to it value. Since August, 1st 1502 on May, 1st 1503 has opened 2000 km of the Caribbean coast of Central America (up to gulf Ураба). Not having found pass to the West, it has turned on the north and on June, 25th 1503 was wrecked at coast of Jamaica. The help from Santo-Domingo has come only in a year. Columbus has returned to Castile on November, 7th 1504 already hard sick.
Last years of a life and value of opening Illness, fruitless and burdensome negotiations with king about restoration of the rights, безденежье have undermined Columbus's last forces, and on May, 20th 1506 it has died. Its opening were accompanied by colonization of the grounds, the basis of the Spanish settlements, severe enthralment and mass destruction by groups конкистадоров the indigenous population named by "Indians." Columbus was not the pathbreaker of America: islands and coast of Northern America were visited by Normen for hundreds years up to it. However only Columbus's opening had world-wide-historical value. That it has found new parts of the world, has been finally proved Magellan's by navigation.
Columbus as the person Growth Columbus was above an average, strong and fine constitution. Its reddish hair in a youth have early turned grey, why it looked is more senior than the years. On the oblong wrinkled and exposed to the wind person with бородкой alive blue eyes and an aquiline nose were allocated. It the rare practicality, painful vanity and suspiciousness, passion to gold distinguished belief in a divine foresight and omens, and at the same time. It possessed sharp mind, gift of belief and versatile knowledge. Columbus was twice married and had two sons. Its name carry: the state in South America, a province of Canada, Federal district and the river in the USA, capital of Sri Lanka, and also set of the rivers, mountains, lakes, falls, capes, cities, parks, squares, streets and bridges in the different countries. In Barcelona the monument to Columbus (1882-88, architect K.Buichas, sculptors H.Limona and A.Vilanova) is put.
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