Министерство образования и науки Луганской Народной Республики
по теме: “UNITS OF MEASUREMENT IN THE UK AND IN AMERICA”
по техническому переводу для 10 класса
Учитель: Самотугина В.В.
Цель: - ознакомить учащихся с единицами измерения, традиционно используемыми в Великобритании и США; обратить внимание на грамматические аспекты употребления и перевода данных единиц; - учить переводить на русский язык все меры измерения с учетом основных особенностей; - совершенствовать навыки технического перевода, грамматики и осознанного чтения; - развивать память, мышление, логику; - воспитывать стойкий интерес к изучаемому предмету;
Оборудование: таблицы, карточки с заданиями.
Teacher: Good morning, students. How are you today? I hope you are in a high spirit today. What’s the date today? Who is absent? As far as I know all of you are creative and hardworking, so let’s get down to work. But first let’s check your homework. What it was for today?
Student: The homework was to translate the text “Scientific Progress and Man” into Russian. Express the main idea of the text in one sentence. Give synonyms and opposites to the words in bold. (see appendices 1 )
II MAIN BODY
1. Presenting the topic
Teacher: Look at the board, read the words and guess: What is the topic of our today’s lesson?
The words on the board: ounce, mile, Fahrenheit, inch, pound, yard, stone, foot
Teacher: Yes, you are right. The topic of the lesson is “Units of measurement” and today we get know more about the use, translation and grammatical structure of these units. Of course, we will have a chance to practice and improve our skills of grammar and translate.
Teacher: Read and translate the text.
Physics is a science based on exact measurement, so we all must be familiar with commonly used units of measurements. There are four basic concepts: length, mass, temperature and time. The units used to measure them are called fundamental units. There are two widely used sets of fundamental units: the Metric System and the English System. The Metric System or the International System is based on metric units. Using metric units length is usually measured in millimetres, centimetres, metres or kilometres; time is measured in seconds, minutes or hours; and mass is measured in drammes or kilogrammes. The English System uses the foot, yard and mile as units of length; the ounce, pound and ton as units of force and the second as the unit of time. Although the UK and the USA officially adopted the Metric System of units, but in practice they still widely use the English System. The chief advantage of the Metric System is that all units are divided into 10 or 100 parts. It is well known, these units are easier to manipulate in the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. This system was invented in France and accepted universally in science. Scientists have produced a code of standard symbols and to simplify the representation of units a standard list of abbreviations has been adopted. Scales to measure the temperature are also different. Centigrade scale is used mostly in Europe. It is such a scale, in which water freezes at zero and boils at 100 degrees. It is shown by the symbol C. In America, Fahrenheit scale is used to measure the temperature. It is such a scale in which water freezes at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees.
Teacher: Now let’s do some tasks.
Task 1. Translate the words in the list without using dictionaries.
Physics, system, international, metre, gramm, mile, universally, metric, yard, standard, foot, symbol code, Centigrade, kilometres, pounds, measure.
Task 2. Complete the sentences.
1.Fundamental units are …. . 2.The Metric System is based …. . 3.The English System uses … . 4.The advantage of the Metric System is … . 5.For convenient representation of units we use …. 6.To measure the temperature, Americans use … .
Task 3. Answer the questions.
1.What units are used to measure length, mass, temperature and time? 2.What is the difference between the Metric System and the English System? 3.What is the advantage of the Metric System? 4.How can we represent units of measurement? 5.What scales of measuring the temperature do people use in America and Europe?
Task 4.Write full words from the abbreviations.
Ft, lb, s, m, g, kg, min, F, yd, C, i, hr
Task 5. Using the tables (appendices 2) of measurement units convert and calculate the following: 1.Calculate the distance to the Moon in kilomerters if the distance is 239,000 miles.2.Convert 79 cm to the equivalent in inches.3.Convert 19 kg to the equivalent in pounds.4.Calculate the distance to the Sun in kilometres if the distance is 90, 000, 000 miles.5.Convert 600F; -40F;1200Ft to the equivalent in Centigrade.6.Convert 112,12 g to the equivalent in ounces.
Teacher: You should also know some grammar aspects of using units of measurement in plural forms and compound adjectives. Words ounce, pound, ton, inch, mile, yard have plural forms: one inch – ten inches; one mile – four miles; one pound – six pounds; one ton – two tons. The word foot can be used in the plural - feet : six foot tall = six feet tall. The word stone hasn’t the plural form: one stone, 8 stone. Compound adjectives consisting of terms of length, mass, temperature and distance do not have plurals: a two-mile walk, a six-inch ruler, a ten-ton lorry.
Task 6. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the units of measurement.
1.The TU-144 supersonic liner developed a speed of 2,430km per hour at an attitude of 16,960 metres. 2.He had travelled 60 miles to Liverpool and back on business. 3.The smallest spider is less than 1mm in body length and the biggest one can have body length up to 90mm. 4.The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second. 5.Galileo’s telescope had a lens only 2,25 inches in diameter. 6.The Cyclops, a 19,000-ton US ship vanished with its crew from the surface of the ocean without making a distress call. 7.Baby giant pandas are very small, blind, pinkish and weight about 5 ounces at birth.
Task 7. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to the units of measurement.
1. Наш университет находится в полумиле от центра города. 2.Последние модели спортивных автомобилей развивают скорость до 300 километров в час. 3.Огромный 10,000 тонный круизный лайнер отправился в плавание по Средиземному морю. 4.Неопознанный летающий объект, освещаемый ярким светом, парил в воздухе в 50 дюймах от земли около 15 секунд, а затем исчез в полумраке ночи. 5. Клей этой марки обеспечивает надежность склеивания в интервале температур от -60 до 300 градусов по Цельсию, а также стоек к воздействию влаги.
Teacher: What units of measurement do people use in the UK and the USA to measure length, mass and temperature? What grammar aspects should we remember? Thank you for the lesson, your active work and answers. Your marks are …. .Your homework is to render the text from English into Russian, entitle the text and define all the units of measurement from the text (appendices 3)
Scientific Progress and Man
Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before man. The more scientific knowledge man has, the more he is able to use the forces of nature to his advantage. Scientific and technical progress enables man to obtain newer and cheaper sources of energy, to manufacture new man-made materials and to launch artificial satellites into outer space. Let us take, for example, the prospects for accelerating communications. Today with the latest means of transport man can overcome great distances. Rockets transport may solve the problem of far distances in very nearest future. Quantum electronics will have to enable man to transmit comprehensive information over great distances. The possibility to watch what goes on in the world over TV changes people’s way of thinking. People begin to understand that they are neighbours and have to build their relations on the basic of scientific and cultural cooperation. One should remember that it is the scientific cooperation which is to become the foundation of international relations.
Measures of Weights Measures of Length and Distance
1 ounce=28,3g; 1 inch=2,54cm 16 ounces=1 pound; 1 foot=12 inches=30,48cm 1 pound=453,59g; 1 yard=3 feet= 911cm 2,2 pounds=1 kilo; 1 mile=1760 yards=1,609km 14 pounds= 1 stone; 1 stone=6,33kg; 8 stone=1 hundredweight(cwt); 1 hundredweight=50,8kg(the UK)45,36kg(the USA); 20 hundredweight=1 ton;
Centigrade Scale 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -17,8 Fahrenheit Scale 212 194 176 158 140 122 104 86 68 50 32 14 0
Boiling point Freezing point
In 1898 the Curies obtained a new element whose radioactivity was several million times stronger than that of uranium. She named this substance radium. Radium is very expensive, as it is extremely rare. Several tons of rich ore are required in order to obtain one ounce of radium worth many thousands of dollars. Radium possesses many interesting properties. It liberates heat, electrifies the air, it causes many substances to become phosphorescent, it kills bacteria and other tiny organisms. Radium is used for medical purpose, as it helps to locate and diagnose different growths. There are many other applications of radium and more are developing each year.