При обучении иностранному языку в колледже предусматривается и осуществляется профессионально-ориентированное обучение будущих специалистов. Его назначение – заложить основы практического владения иностранным языком в своей профессии. Все упражнения и задания построены на знакомом грамматическом материале для активного овладения лексическим минимумом профессиональной направленности. Итогом каждой темы является умение учащихся вести беседу на элементарном уровне и умение составить диалоги, краткий рассказ по данной теме. Весь материал пособия носит информативный характер, что повышает мотивацию изучения английского языка профессиональной
* acid rains
Water Pollution * holes in the ozone layer
* rivers, seas and lakes are * smoke from factories
important for life * industrial and human waste
* people can’t live without * car exhaust fumes
water * aerosol sprays
* water shortage *global warming
* dirty air, land and water *too much noise
pollution HOW TO SAVE
* chemical wastes into THE PLANET
rivers and seas *plant more trees and
*save water and energy
* don’t waste resources
E C O L O G Y * save animals
* protect forests
* recycle paper, bottles
* use litter bins (banks)
Damage to wilflife * keep streets clean
* forest damage
* forests are under threat
* cut down forests Nuclear pollution
* forest fires * nuclear stations
* birds and fish die * nuclear weapon tests
* birds and fish are getting * radiation is not seen
contaminated * Chernobyl problems
* protect plants and animals * no winners in nuclear wars
* animals can disappear
* rare animals killing
POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENT
People are more worried about the environment (the air, water and land around us) as a result of the harmful (dangerous, damaging) effects of human activity. Some of these activities cause pollution (dirty air, land and water) and some are destroying the environment. Here are some of the problems:
The ozone layer: a layer of gases which stop harmful radiation from the sun reaching the earth; recent research shows that there is now a hole in parts of the ozone layer.
Global warming: an increase in world temperature caused by an increase in carbon dioxide.
Acid rain: rain that contains dangerous chemicals; this is caused by smoke from factories.
B. The “Greens” Because of these problems, there are many groups of people whose aim is
conservation ( the protection of natural things, e.g. plants and animals). They are often
referred to as greens, e.g. “Greenpeace” and “Friends of the Earth”.
Common causes of damage: -- smoke from factories,
– car exhaust fumes,
– dumping (throwing away) industrial waste (unwanted
-- aerosol cans (usually called sprays). Some of these
contain CFC3 ( a chemical) which can damage the
-- cutting down tropical rain forests. This increases carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere.
D. How can we help? --Don’t throw away bottles, newspapers, etc. Take
Them into a litter bin and then they can be recycled.
-- Plant more trees.
-- Don’t waste resources (use badly) e.g. water,gas.
Try to save them.
NOTE: natural resources, e.g. water, gold, gas etc.
Human resources, e.g. knowledge and skills.
Exercise 1. Fill the gaps using words from the box:
tropical, ozone, global, bin, resources, acid, exhaust, industrial or human
the ----- layer.
---- ----- waste.
a bottle --- .
----- rain forests.
natural or human ----- .
Exercise 2. Complete the definitions, given below..
1.Conservation is the protection of natural things, e.g. ----- and ----- .
2.Acid rain is rain that contains dangerous chemicals. It is caused by --- --- --- .
3. The ozone layer is a layer of gases that stops dangerous radiation from the Sun from
4. Global warming is an increase in world temperature caused by a increase in ---- ---- .
5. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) is a chemical which ----- ---- ---- .
A. carbon dioxide
B plants and animals
C destroys the ozone layer
D smoke from factories
E the Earth
Exercise 3 If we want to look after the environment, there are certain things
We should and should’t do. Complete these two lists in suitable ways.
We should We should’t
----- paper, bottles and clothes ----- paper, bottles and clothes
---- ---- ---- tropical rain forests ----- the ozone layer
---- more trees ----- water and energy
----- water and energy ----- tropical rain forests
Recycle, cut down, throw away, waste, plant, save, destroy, save, keep, protect
UNIT ONE POLLUTION
Exercise 1 Read and translate the following international words:
Planet, problem, result, balance, atmosphere, ozone, technology, machine, comfortable, activity, catastrophe..
Exercise 2. Translate the words paying attention to suffices:
To design – designer; technology – technological – technologically; ecology – ecological;
comfort –comfortable; efficient – efficiency – efficiently; danger – dangerous.
Exercise 3 Read words and word combinations and try to remember them.
1 pollution -- загрязнение
2 up-to-date -- современный
3 carry (goods) -- перевозить (товары)
4 to contaminate -- загрязнять, заражать
5 to get sick -- заболевать
6 wastes -- отходы
7 to destroy -- разрушать
8 dangerous -- опасный
9 acid -- кислота.
10 to be concerned about -- быть озабоченным
11 to affect -- влиять, воздействовать
12 dirty -- грязный
13 to result (in) -- привести к результату
Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.
People have designed and produced up-to-date machines and technologies to make their life easier and more comfortable. But all these activities result in air and water pollution..
One of the most important problems is the oceans. A lot of ships crossing the oceans and seas, especially those that carry oil, put their wastes into water, and the water becomes dirty. As a result many birds and fish die because of polluted water, others are getting contaminated and people may get sick from eating them.
The second problem is air pollution. Cars and plants pollute the atmosphere with their wastes.
They destroy the ozone layer which protects us from the dangerous light of the Sun. They destroy forests which are dying from acid rains.
Now people begin to realize the danger of their activities. People are concerned about the air and the water used by everyone, they are also concerned about the future of the planet because they understand that these activities affect the balance of nature.
In order to make our life not only easier but better and healthier we must learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from pollution. Our planet belongs to our children and if we want our children to live in a healthier world we must do everything to protect them from the catastrophe
Exercise 5 Find in the text the answers to the following questions:
1.What do people’s activities result in?
2. What happens to birds, animals, fish and people because of polluted water?
3. What do wastes of cars and plants destroy?
4. What must we do if we want our children to live in a healthier world?
Exercise 6. Choose the right answer and continue the sentence.
1.People have produced new machines to make their life easier…..
a) but all these activities did not result in air and water pollution.
b) but all these activities result in water and air pollution
c) but all these activities do not affect the balance of nature.
2. A lot of ships crossing the oceans, especially those that carry oil, put their wastes into water. As a result …..
a) they destroy the ozone layer.
b) they destroy forests which are dying from acid rains.
c) they pollute water and many fish and birds die..
3 People are concerned about the air and the water used by everyone because they
understand that their activities….
improve and make their life healthier.
improve machines and do not affect the balance of nature.
Result in air and water pollution and affect the balance of nature.
4 .The wastes of cars and plants pollute the atmosphere…
a) but do not destroy the ozone layer and forests.
b) and destroy the ozone layer and forests which are dying from acid rains.
c) but do not affect the balance of nature.
Exercise 7. Choose the Russian equivalents for:
up-to-date machines 1.быть озабоченным
to protect 2. опасные лучи солнца
wastes .3 современные машины
activities 4 загрязнение
to design 5 консервировать
to affect the balance of nature 6 привести (к результату)
pollution 7 отходы
dirty 8 загрязнять атмосферу
ozone layer 9 защищать, охранять
a dangerous lights of the Sun 10 загрязнять
to pollute the atmosphere 11 грязный
to result (in) 12 деятельность
to contaminate 13 озоновый слой
to die from acid rains 14 погибать от кислотных дождей
to be concerned about 15 влиять на баланс природы
Exercise 8 Make up special questions, using the words in brackets:
People have designed and produced up-to-date machines and technologies to make their life easier and more comfortable. (What for?)
Many birds and fish die because of polluted air and water. (Why?)
Cars and plants pollute the atmosphere with their wastes.(What?)
People begin to realize the danger of their activities. (What?)
We must learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from pollution in order to make our life better and healthier. (What?)
Exercise 9 Translate into English:
1 Люди озабочены загрязнением воды и воздуха.
2 Суда, сбрасывая отходы в океаны и моря , загрязняют воду.
3 Рыба в загрязнённой воде умирает или становится ядовитой.
4 Машины и заводы загрязняют воздух и разрушают озоновый слой землию\.
5 Леса погибают от кислотных дождей.
6 Мы должны научиться бережно использовать окружающую среду.
UNIT TWO THE PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENT
Exercise 1. Read and translate the following international words:
Energy, natural, radio, industry, television, sort, plastics, problem, service, resources, eczema, materials, asthma, atmosphere, serious, chemical.
Exercise 2. Read the words and word combinations and try to remember them.
environment pollution 1.загрязнение окружающей среды
to consume goods 2 потреблять товары
expensive 3 дорогостоящий, дорогой
chemical wastes 4 химические отходы
traffic 5 уличное движение
industrial enterprises 6 промышленные предприятия
substance 7 вещество
to reduce 8 сокращать
to replenish 9 восполнять
to absorb 10 поглощать
to destroy 11 разрушать
preservation of environment 12 охрана окружающей среды
activities 13 деятельность
to face the problem 14 столкнуться с проблемой
Exercise 3. Read and translate the text.
THE PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENT
One of the greatest problem of all modern cities is the environment pollution. Every year people consume more goods. Production of goods and services uses energy and natural resources (oil, gas, coal, wood, etc.) All these things are used faster than they can be replenished. Natural resources and energy are getting more expensive, and air and water are becoming seriously polluted. The problem of environmental pollution is well-known to most people. We have heard about it on television and radio, and have read in newspapers and magazines.
The worst environment pollution is caused by the manufacturers who put chemical wastes into rivers and seas. Another problem is air pollution. The air is polluted by traffic and smog from industrial enterprises.
The word smog comes from smoke and fog. Smog is a sort of fog with other substances mixed in it, which can be harmful, even deadly. Such diseases as eczema and asthma are linked to air pollution.
Materials like paper and glass can be reused, but, unfortunately, many materials, especially plastics cannot be reused and cannot be absorbed by the earth again. Some plastics cannot even be destroyed. As a result of this people face the problem of preservation of our environment.
All these things are very serious and people must realize what will happen if they don’t do everything possible to reduce man-made atmospheric pollutants and smog.
Exercise 4. Find in the text the answers to the following questions:
Who is the worst environment pollution caused by?
What diseases are linked to air pollution?
What materials can be reused?
What materials cannot be absorbed by the earth?
What problem do people face?
Exercise 5 Translate the sentences into Russian, using the words and word combinations
from exercise 1.
1. The problem of environmental pollution is well-known to most people.We have heard
about it on television and radio, and have read in newspapers and magazines.
2. Production of goods and services uses energy and natural resources (oil, gas, wood,etc.)
3.Natural resources and energy are getting more expensive and air and water are becoming
4 The worst environment pollution is caused by the manufacturers who put chemical
wastes into rivers and seas.
Unfortunately, many materials, especially plastics cannot be reused and cannot be
absorbed by the earth again. Some plastics cannot even be destroyed.
Exercise 6. Choose the right answer and continue the sentence.
The worst environment pollution is caused by manufacturers …..
who reuse chemical wastes.
who put chemical wastes into rivers and seas.
who don’t put chemical wastes into rivers and seas.
Many materials like paper and glass…..
Many materials, especially plastics …
can be reused.
cannot be reused.
cannot be absorbed by the earth again.
People face the problem of preservation of environment because…..
many materials like paper and glass can be reused.
air and water are becoming seriously polluted.
natural resources and energy are getting more expensive.
Exercise 7. Translate the text, using the dictionary.
Atmospheric pollution raises problems of several types. First, there are local problems
Due to the production of smoke and offensive gases by factories. Secondly, there are
regional problems created by industrial agglomerations which may spread the same
harmful effects over whole areas. Thirdly, there are some types of pollution, such as those
arising from nuclear explosives, which cover a considerable portion of the globe.
UNIT THREE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (I)
Exercise 1. Read and translate the following international words:
Economy, result, gas, ozone, limit, atmosphere, fact, territory, economic, protect, natural.
Exercise 2. Read the words and word combinations and try to remember them:
environmental protection 1.защита окружающей среды
to absorb 2 поглощать
to supply the economy with resources 3 обеспечивать экономику ресурсами
to pollute 4 загрязнять
to reduce the resources of forests 5 сокращать лесные ресурсы
to suffer an environmental problem 6 сталкиваться с проблемой
damage to wildlife 7 вред дикой природе
timber 8 строевой лес, древесина
an unlimited source of resources 9 неисчерпаемый источник ресурсов
wastes 10 отходы
to damage the resources 11 наносить ущерб ресурсам
water shortage 12 нехватка воды
Exercise 3. Read and translate the text.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (I)
People have thought that the environment is an unlimited source of resources, that the atmosphere, forests, rivers and seas are capable of absorbing all wastes. The environment supplies the economy of any country with its resources such as timber, minerals and oil. As a result, natural resources are becoming reduced, air and water are polluted, and the environment is unable to absorb all its wastes.
For example, waste gases cause acid rains; this leads to forest damage and therefore reduces the resources of forests. Another problem is water shortage resulting from unlimited use of it.
The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from plants and cars.
One more problem is damage to wildlife. It is possible that some kinds of animals can disappear due to people’s activities.
Some territories in Russia are also suffering environmental problems. Many of these problems have been caused by economic activities. Many forests in the north of European Russia and the Far East are under threat.
If we want to live in a healthier world we must learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by our activities. Otherwise very soon we will have no world to live in.
Exercise 4. Find in the text the answers to the following questions:
1 What leads to forest damage?
2 What destroys the ozone layer of th Earth?
3 Why can many kinds of animals disappear?
4 What environmental problems is Russia suffering?
5 What is it necessary to do in order to live in a healthier world?
Exercise 5 .Find in the text the English equivalents for:
Неисчерпаемый источник ресурсов; под угрозой; нехватка воды; некоторые виды животных; поглощать все отходы; кислотные дожди; озоновый слой Земли; вред дикой природе; природные ресурсы сокращаются; деятельность людей.
Exercise 6. Choose the right answer and continue the sentence:
1 The environment supplies the economy of the country with its resources but air and water are
polluted, and the environment is …
unable to absorb all its wastes.
able to absorb all its wastes.
able to affect the balance of nature.
2 Waste gases cause acid rains and therefore….
a) reduce the resources of forests.
b) do not reduce the resources of forests
c) protect the resources of forests
3 Plants and cars wastes pollute the air….
a) but do not destroy the ozone layer of the Earth.
b) and destroy the ozone layer of the Earth.
c) but do not affect the nature.
4. People must learn to use the environment carefully and …
a) affect the balance of nature
b) make their life easier
c) protect it from damages caused by their activities.
Exercise 7. Translate into English:
1 Окружающая среда – это не неиссякаемый источник ресурсов.
2 Люди озабочены загрязнением воды и воздуха.
3 Выбросы отходов в воздух разрушают озоновый слой Земли.
4 Загрязнение окружающей среды сокращает ресурсы промышленности.
5 Мы должны научиться бережно использовать окружающую среду.
Exercise 8. Translate into Russian, using the dictionary.
Recent scientific research suggests that the protective layer of ozone around our planet is under severe attack In 1982 researchers in the Antarctic first identified a yawning (зияющий)
hole over the Antarctic where the ozone layer is the thinnest.
This was the first sign of a hole. Five years later it was reported that the hole had grown to an area the size of the United States.
The major cause of this weakening of the ozone layer is the increasing amount of harmful chemicals that are being released into the atmosphere.
There is the need for an international agreement that would completely stop its production
UNIT FOUR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (2)
Exercise 1 .Read and translate the following international words:
Area, economy, atmosphere, industry, agriculture, problem, activity, protect, minerals.
Exercise 2 .Read the words and word combinations and try to remember them:
environment 1. окружающая среда
environmental protection 2 защита окружающей среды
an unlimited source of resources 3 неисчерпаемый источник ресурсов
to absorb smth 4 поглощать
to be closely related 5 быть тесно связанным
to supply the economy with resources 6 обеспечивать экономику ресурсами
timber 7 лес, древесина
waste products 8 отходы
pollution 9 загрязнение окружающей среды
to damage the resources 10 нанести вред ресурсам
to pump waste gases 11 выбрасывать отработанные газы
to cause acid rains 12 вызывать кислотные дожди
to lead to forest damage 13 привести к повреждениям
to reduce the resources of 14 сократить ресурсы
a consequence of 15 последствие чего-либо
water shortage 16 нехватка воды
to result from 17 быть результатом чего-либо
abuse of arable lands 18 неправильное использование земель
destroying the ozone layer 19 разрушение озонового слоя
damage to water and soils 20 вред водам и почвам
damage to wildlife 21 вред дикой природе
species of animals and plants 22 виды животных и растений
to arise from 23 возникать вследствие чего-либо
to suffer an environmental problem 24 сталкиваться с проблемой окружающей
Exercise 3. Read and translate the text.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (2)
Economists have long thought of the environment as an unlimited source of resources. They have thought that the atmosphere, forests, rivers and seas are capable of absorbing all the rubbish the economy throws into them. In fact, the economy and the environment are closely related, The environment supplies the economy with all its resources, such as water, timber, minerals and oil. The environment has to absorb all its waste products.
Nevertheless, some economies have always argued that pollution damages the resources. For example, pumping waste gases from a power station does not get rid of them. The waste gases cause acid rain; this leads to forest damage and therefore reduces the resources of forestry industry.
There are many consequences of damaging the environment. One of the is acid rain.
Another one is water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants. The fourth problem is damage to water and soils. The fifth one is damage to wildlife: numerous species of animals and plants can disappear. Lastly, the most serious danger arising from damaging the environment is the result of the above-mentioned consequences. This is the danger for the life and health of the man.
The territories of the former Soviet Union are suffering many environmental problems.
Many of these problems have been caused by economic activities. Apart from the effect of the Chernobyl disaster, the worst problem is probably in the area around the Aral Sea. Cotton growing in the region has used huge quantities of water, and the sea’s level has fallen by 14 yards. This destroyed fishing industry and led to a damage in soils, crops and wildlife. Many forests in the north of European Russia and the Far East are under threat. A system of dams on the Volga has caused damage to fish
If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in.
Exercise 4. Find in the text the English equivalents for:
Вызвать кислотный дождь; защита окружающей среды; загрязнение окружающей среды; осторожно использовать окружающую среду; нанести вред ресурсам; нанести вред водам и почвам; нанести вред дикой природе; нехватка воды; разрушение озонового слоя; сталкиваться с проблемой окружающей среды.
Exercise 5. Find in the text the answers to the following questions:
What have many economists thought of the environment?
Why do some economists think that pollution damage the resources?
What are the consequences of damaging the environment?
What could happen if we don’t learn to use the environment carefully?
There are many consequences of …..
The waste gases cause acid rain: this leads …..
3 One of the consequences of damaging the
environment is water shortage…..
There is damage to wildlife…..
The environment supplies the economy with…..
The most serious danger arising from
damaging the environment is …
A system of dams on the Volga…....
... resulting from abuse of arab lands in agriculture .
… all its resources such as water, timber, minerals and oil.
… has caused damage to fish.
… the danger for the life and wealth of the man.
… damaging the environment.
… numerous species of animals and plants can disappear.
… to forest damage and therefore reduces the resources of forestry industry.
Exercise 7. Translate into English. ( Review I.)
1 Окружающая среда обеспечивает экономику ресурсами, но она не может поглощать все отходы, которые экономика выбрасывает.
2 Люди изобретают машины и новые технологии, чтобы сделать жизнь легче и лучше, но иногда их деятельность наносит вред окружающей среде и природе.
3 Машины и заводы загрязняют воздух и разрушают озоновый слой земли.
4 Суда, сбрасывая отходы в моря и океаны, наносят вред рыбной промышленности.
5 Некоторые виды птиц и рыбы не только погибают и мутируют, но и исчезают навсегда.
6 Люди озабочены состоянием воды, воздуха и почвы.
7 Существует серьёзная опасность жизни и здоровью людей.
8 Люди должны научиться защищать землю, воду и воздух от загрязнения.
9 Мы должны сохранить баланс в природе.
Exercise 8 Translate into English. (Review II )
1 Окружающая среда – это не неиссякаемый источник ресурсов.
2 Загрязнение окружающей среды сокращает ресурсы промышленности.
3 Суда, сбрасывая отходы в моря и океаны, загрязняют воду, поэтому рыба
становиться заражённой и вызывает у людей болезни.
4 Люди озабочены загрязнением воды и воздуха.
5 Выбросы отходов наносят вред воде, почве и дикой природе.
6 Выбросы отходов в воздух разрушают озоновый слой земли.
7 Неправильное использование земель в сельском хозяйстве ведёт к нехватке
8 Глобальное потепление или парниковый эффект -- это самая большая угроза
стоящая перед миром.
9 Мы должны научиться бережно использовать окружающую среду.
HOW TO HELP OUR PLANET
Exercise 1 .Read and translate the text, using the vocabulary and give your own opinion answering the questions.
3.делать всё возможное
8. принимать меры
12. усилие, попытка
15.общество (по охране…)
26.заботиться о ч-либо, к-либо
Today environmental issues are much spoken about on TV, radio and in newspapers.
If people want to survive, they must do their best to solve these problems. Fortunately, it's not too late to save our planet. We understand that our environment is not just our home town but the whole Earth. The protection of the environment requires the cooperation of all nations. Governments should take measures that will help improve the environment.
There are a lot of environmental groups and international organizations whose main goals is to strengthen cooperation among environmentalists from different countries. The most famous of them is “Greenpeace”, which combines the people’s efforts for peace with huge movement for nature conservation. “The World Wildlife Fund (WWF)” is the name of another international organization that appeared in 1961. It has created or given support to National Parks in five continents. You may also join “Friends of the Earth Trust”, which is an educational charity set up help people of all ages become aware of the threats to our environment.
However, there are a lot of simple things we should all do to stop the destruction of the environment. First of all, we must keep our cities and town clean. That means, we mustn’t drop litter in public places. If we see litter on the ground, we must put it into a litter bin. Besides,
we shouldn’t dump our rubbish without thinking which things, such as bottles and paper, can be recycled. And of course, we mustn’t draw or paint on pavements, walls and trees.
We must stop using aerosol sprays because the stuff they contain destroys the ozone layer. We should take care of birds and animals. We can help to plant trees and create parks for endangered species. We can clean rivers and canals and create footpaths. But first of all we must change people’s attitude towards the environment.
If we take action now, there might be some hope for the future. If we do nothing, we are heading for disaster!
How can people protect our planet?
How can we save natural resources?
Should we reject the technological progress?
How can we safeguard the world’s wildlife?
What is the aim of ecological organizations?
What ecological organizations do you know?
Do you have environmental programmes in your city?
What can you personally do to keep the world healthy?
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, using the vocabulary and give your own opinion answering the questions
17.for the sake
24. acid rain
19.допустимый уровень, предел
45.in pursuit of
45.в погоне за
Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the modern world and environmental protection has become a vital necessity for all people.
Our planet is in serious danger. One of the most important environmental problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Industrial pollution has made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and even seas have become poisonous. Thousands of fish die every year as a result of the illegal dumping of waste in rivers by factories all over the world.
Lake Baikal is one of he world’s largest and most beautiful lakes. It contains rich variety of fish and plants, including 1,300 rare species that do not exist anywhere else in the world. However, they are being killed by the massive industrial waste, which some factories still pour into the lake every day. A few years ago people thought that the supply of clean water was limitless. Now clean water is scarce, and we are beginning to respect this precious resource.
We must protect the clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren
Air pollution is another important problem. In hundreds of cities and towns the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level. Every day a huge number of plants and factories emit lots of harmful substances in the atmosphere of big cities. The great increase in the use of motor cars in the last quarter of the 20th century has caused an increase in
a new kind of air pollution. Pollution from factories and cars poisons the air we breathe and is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.
The acid rain can damage life in lakes and rivers and destroy forests. Greenhouse effect may also have disastrous consequences for our planet. It is already affecting several areas of the world with unusual weather causing droughts or heavy storms. The world’s temperature is going up and the climate is changing. Cutting down on emissions from large plants and exhaust fumes from vehicles could help to solve the problem. I think we should try and use alternative energy such as solar energy and wind energy, and design plants and cars that run on electricity, a much cleaner fuel than petrol.
One of the most alarming environmental problems is depletion of the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun. Because of the ozone holes the dangerous rays get through the atmosphere, causing skin cancer and other serious diseases. Many scientists think that these ozone holes are the result of air pollution.
In my opinion, the most urgent ecological problem today is the environmental safety of nuclear power stations. Nuclear pollution can’t be seen but its effects can be terrible. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. Nuclear waste also endangers people’s lives. People all over the world protest against nuclear tests and nuclear weapons. If we do not take any action, the possibility of a global nuclear disaster is very real.
Of course, we can’t help mentioning such burning issues as destruction of tropical forests and wildlife, overpopulation and shortage of natural resources. The list of serious ecological problems could be continued.
In short, people have destroyed our environment by building huge cities and power stations, developing industries, cutting down trees and excavating mountains. In pursuit of new inventions and discoveries, as well as higher and higher profits, man has forgotten about nature, and it has led him to the edge of ecological catastrophe. Ignorance about ecology may lead to further destruction of nature and worsen living conditions for all living beings.
Why is our planet in serious danger?
What ecological problems are urgent now?
What is the influence of pollution on people’s health?
What is happening to our forests?
What are the consequences of nuclear disasters?
Was life better a hundred years ago?
What ecological problems exist in your home place?
How can we save our planet?
What can you personally do to help our ecology?
Exercise 1.Read and translate the text, using the vocabulary and give your own opinion answering the questions.
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION MUST BE GLOBAL
That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an international problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer air pollution.
However, our scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it possible to eliminate it if people use good will (1) and make considerable investments for that purpose. The development of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint.(2) Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.
At present scientists in industrially developed countries are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experiment, one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before.
The essential feature in the environment protection is that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community.(3) Therefore, the planning of protection against pollution by human society as a whole(4) is imperative today and in the near future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scientists and special public organizations that can deal with the problem and take necessary measures to protect the environment.
It is still a big job and much remains to be done.(5) However, scientists are confident that planned actions of all countries can eliminate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.
1.good will – добрая воля
2. standpoint – точка зрения
3.community -- сообщество
4.as a whole – в целом
5. much remains to be done – еще многое предстоит (остается) сделать
Answer the following questions:
1.What is this text about?
2.What is ecology.
3.How does water (air) become polluted?
4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem?
Exercise 2 Make a sentence out of the two parts.
Some experts consider that it is practically impossible to protect the big cities from pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) studied air pollution around the world for over eight years. It measured two things: the level of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the air and the level of smoke. Sulphur dioxide and smoke pollute water and have serious effect on forest, buildings and health of people.
In the WHO report it is shown that the cities with the most considerable level of CO2 in the air are Milan, Teheran, Prague, Santiago. However, some cities with clean air get worse in winter. Helsinki, for example, becomes one of the cities with the largest proportion of it in the air in winter. This must be connected with the heating of houses. One cam also mention Glasgow and Warsaw which suffer in the same way.
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CARS
Read and translate the text.
Many of the world’s cities lie under a permanent blanket of smog. People are concerned about global warming, and fuel prices just keep going up and up. In recent years car manufacturers have been put under pressure to invent a vehicle that is both cheaper to run and better for the environment.
One of the first ideas which car manufacturers tried, was to replace engines which run on fossil fuels with electric motors. Unfortunately, these vehicles had several drawbacks and they didn’t sell very well. The problems were that the batteries of these electric cars ran out very quickly and took a long time to recharge.
Car manufacturers have improved the concept so that environmentally friendly cars can now be efficient and economical as well. The hybrid car, which has both an electric motor and
a traditional petrol engine, comes in. The electric motor never needs to be recharged and it is much better for the planet than a traditional car.
In a hybrid car, the engine is controlled by a computer which determines whether the car runs on petrol, electricity, or both. When the car needs maximum power, for example, if it is accelerating or climbing a steep hill, it uses all of its resources, whereas at steady speeds it runs only on petrol. When slowing down or braking, the electric motor recharges its batteries.
Hybrid cars are made using materials such as aluminium and carbon fibre, which makes them extremely light. Hybrid cars are better for the environment because they use far less petrol than normal cars, so they produce less pollution.
Of course, hybrid cars aren’t perfect; they still run on fossil fuel an so pollute the environment to some extent. However, they may be the first step along the road to cleaner, ‘greener’ cars. Car manufacturers are already working on vehicles which run on hydrogen. The only emission from these cars is harmless water vapour. These are still some way in the future, though, as designers need to think of cheap and safe ways of producing, transporting and storing hydrogen, but at last, it looks like we might be heading in the right direction.
I. MATCH A-L WITH 1-12 .
1 -- работать на ископаемом топливе --
2 -- длительное время для перезарядки --
3 -- традиционный автомобиль --
4 -- при замедленном движении или торможении --
5 -- невероятно легкий --
6 -- гораздо меньше бензина --
7 -- до определенной степени --
8 -- первый шаг на пути к --
III COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH THE CORRECT VARIANT.
1.Car manufactures are trying to invent a new vehicle because
a)today’s cars produce too much poisonous gas;
b)today’s cars produce too much power;
c)today’s cars moves too fast.
2.Vehicles which ran on electric motors
a)moved too slowly
b)were not very popular;
c)had to have their engines replaced.
3.The electric motor in hybrid cars
a)doesn’t need to recharge its batteries;
b)had its own petrol engine;
c)takes a long time to be recharged.
4.The computer in a hybrid car
a)helps the car to go up hills;
b)keeps the car running at a steady speed;
c)decided how the car should be powered in any given time.
5.Hybrid cars are better for the powered in any given time.
a)they use different fuels;
b)the electric motor is smaller than a normal engine;
c)they produce less harmful gases.
IV CORRECT MISTAKES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.
1.Car manufacturers are trying invent a vehicle that is better for the enviroment.
2.One of a first ideas was to use electric motors.
3.Cars can now to be efficient and economical.
4.In hubrid cars engines are controlled from a computer.
5.Hybrid cars use far least petrol than traditional cars.
6.Cars with electric motors are harmlesser to the environment than traditional cars.
V Say why modern cars are considered unfriendly to the environment.
Do you know any models which could be called environmentally friendly?
UNIT EIGHT THE GREATEST KILLER
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text, using words given below:
Air Crashes… Fires… Traffic accidents… Poison… Falls… The death statistics are frightening. Accidents kill more people than the six deadliest diseases combined.
The greatest killer is the car. Every year, more than 300,000 people are killed in car crashes throughout the world. Millions are seriously injured. Many are crippled for life.
Every ten minutes, on the average, there is a traffic death. While you are reading this page, cars are crashing into each other and people are dying.
Most of those who lose their lives on the roads are young people. According to statistics, young drivers are responsible for about two-thirds of all accidents.
Why do young drivers crash? They are healthier than older drivers, have better eyesight and quicker reflexes… They have recently got their licences, and they should know the latest traffic regulations. Unfortunately, their lack of experience – and in some cases, lack of good judgement – often outweighs these advantages.
Very often crashes are the result of making wrong turns, driving in the wrong lane, and following other cars too closely.
Speeding is another serious problem. It greatly increases the risk of death or injury in accidents. It is especially dangerous if the road is wet or icy, or if the visibility is poor.
More accidents than usual happen at night. There is a risk of falling asleep or losing concentration. Distances are more difficult to judge, and road hazards are harder to see.
About 40 per cent of traffic deaths are the result of drunken driving. Alcohol slows
a driver’s reflexes, reduces concentration, impairs vision and clouds judgement.
Of course, we are making some progress. The cars have become safer, the roads have become better. We double the number of cars and do not double the number of accidents. But the progress is not a satisfying one. When so many people die unnecessarily, something is wrong. AND WHAT DO YOU THINK?
1.accident 1 несчастный случай
2 death statistics 2 статистика смертности
3 to injure 3 ранить, повредить
4 to cripple 4 калечить
5 to crash 5 разбить(ся)
6 advantage 6 преимущество
7 licence 7 водительское удостоверение
8 traffic regulations 8 правила дорожного движения
9 lack of good judgement 9 неумение принять правильное решение
10 wrong turn 10 неправильный поворот
11 speeding 11 превышение скорости
12 poor visibility 12 плохая видимость
13 road hazard 13 опасные ситуации на дорогах
14 to impair 14 ухудшать
Exercise 2. Write down the answers to the questions from the text:
1 Are the death statistics frightening? Why?
2 Why do young drivers crash? Give the reasons.
3 Why do more accidents happen at night?
4 What is the result of drunken driving?
5 Why the progress is not satisfying?
6 Is the car the greatest killer? What is your opinion?
Exercise 3. Choose the right answer and continue the sentence:
Accidents kill more people than …..
The young drivers crash buy they …..
Very often crashes are the result …..
Speeding is …..
According to statistics, young drivers are responsible for …..
Alcohol slows …..
about two thirds of all accidents.
Are healthier than older drivers, have better eyesight, and quicker reflexes.
Greatly increases the risk of death or injury in accidents.
Making wrong turn, driving in the wrong lane, and following other car too
e) the six deadliest diseases combined
Exercise 4. Give English equivalents for:
Несчастный случай; самые смертельные болезни; автокатастрофы; получить водительское удостоверение; молодые водители погибают на дорогах; мокрые дороги; гололедица; плохая видимость; опасные ситуации на дорогах; количество несчастных случаев удвоилось;
Exercise 5. Translate into English.
Каждый год более чем 300,000 людей погибают в автокатастрофах во всём мире.
Миллионы людей ранены и покалечены на всю жизнь.
Большинство людей, которые погибают на дорогах – это молодые люди.
Очень часто автокатастрофы являются результатом отсутствия опыта, неумение принять правильное решение, превышение скорости, а иногда и вождение в пьяном виде.
Количество автомобилей увеличивается с каждым годом, но, к сожалению, количество автокатастроф не уменьшается.
Автомобиль друг или враг? А как думаешь ты?
QUESTIONS TO THE TOPIC (ЗАЧЁТ)
1.THERE ARE MANY GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHOSE AIM IS CONSERVATION (THE
PROTECTION OF NATURAL THINGS.) THEY ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS
“GREENS”, E.G.”GREENPEACE” AND “FRIENDS OF THE EARTH “
IN WHAT WAY DO THEY DEFEND THEIR IDEAS?
WHAT ARE THEIR METHODS OF STRUGGLE?
WHAT DO THEY STRUGGLE AGAINST?
2.WHAT ARE COMMON CAUSES OF DAMAGE? HOW CAN WE HELP?
3. PEOPLE ARE MORE WORRIED ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AS A RESULT OF THE
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY. SOME OF THESE ACTIVITIES CAUSE
POLLUTION AND SOME ARE DESTROYING THE ENVIRONMENT.
NAME AND EXPLAIN THESE PROBLEMS.
4.IF WE WANT TO LOOK AFTER THE ENVIRONMENT, THERE ARE CERTAIN THINGS
WE SHOULD AND SHOULDN’T DO. PUT DOWN WHAT WE SHOULD AND
WHAT WE SHOULDN’ DO.
5. NOW PEOPLE BEGIN TO REALIZE THE DANGER OF THEIR ACTIVITIES. PEOPLE
ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE AIR AND WATER USED BY EVERYONE. WHAT
MUST PEOPLE DO TO PROTECT THE WATER FROM POLLUTION ?
6. NOW PEOPLE BEGIN TO REALIZE THE DANGER OF THEIR ACTIVITIES. PEOPLE
ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE AIR AND WATER USED BY EVERYONE. WHAT
MUST PEOPLE DO TO PROTECT THE AIR FROM POLLUTION ?
7. ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION RAISES PROBLEMS OF SEVERAL TYPES.
WHAT ARE THEY?
8. THERE ARE SOME TYPES OF POLLUTION SUCH AS THOSE ARISING FROM
NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES. WHAT IS NUCLEAR POLLUTION?
EXPLAIN BY EXAMPLES..
9.PEOPLE HAVE THOUGHT THAT THE ENVIRONMENT IS AN UNLIMITED SOURCE
OF RESOURCES. BUT NATURAL RESOURCES ARE BECOMING REDUCED, AIR
AND WATER ARE POLLUTED AND THE ENVIRONMENT IS UNABLE TO ABSORB
ALL ITS WASTES. GIVE THE REASONS HOW TO SAVE THE PLANET.
10. SOME ECONOMISTS HAVE ARGUED THAT POLLUTION DAMAGES THE
RESOURCES. THERE ARE MANY CONSEQUENCES OF DAMAGING THE
ENVIRONMENT . WHAT ARE THEY?
11.THERE ARE MANY CONSEQUENCES OF DAMAGING THE ENVIRONMENT. ONE
OF THEM IS DAMAGE TO WILDLIFE. WHY CAN MANY KINDS OF ANIMALS
DISAPPEAR? NAME AND EXPLAIN THE REASONS.
12.THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT ARE CLOSELY RELATED. WHY DO
SOME ECONOMISTS THINK THAT POLLUTION DAMAGE THE RESOURCES?
13 THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT ARE CLOSELY RELATED. WHAT IS IT
NECESSARY TO DO IN ORDER TO LIVE IN A HEALTHIER WORLD ?
14 WE MUST LEARN TO USE THE ENVIRONMENT CAREFULLY AND PROTECT IT
FROM DAMAGE CAUSED BY MAN’S ACTIVITIES. WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL
PROBLEMS IS RUSSIA SUFFERING?
15. THE PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENT ARE VERY SERIOUS AND PEOPLE MUST
REALIZE WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF THEY DON’T DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE
TO REDUCE MAN-MADE ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANT AND SMOG.
WHAT PROBLEMS DO PEOPLE FACE?
KEYS TO THE EXERCISES
Pollution and environment
Ex.1 1.ozone; 2 acid; 3.industrial or human; 4 bin (bank) 5 global 6 exhaust 7 tropical
Ex 2 1 plants and animals 2 smoke from factories 3 the earth 4 carbon dioxide
5 the ozone layer
Ex 3 We should: recycle paper, bottles and clothes
save, keep, protect tropical rain forests
plant more trees
save water and energy
We shouldn’t: throw away paper, bottles and clothes
destroy the ozone layer
waste water and energy
cut down tropical forests
Unit One Pollution
Ex. 5 1. People’s activities result in air and water pollution.
2 Many birds, animals and fish die of polluted water; others are getting contaminated and people may get sick from eating them.
3 Wastes of cars and plants destroy the ozone layer which protects us from the sun.
4 We must learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from the pollution.
Ex.6 1-b; 2-c; 3-c; 4-b
Ex.7 1-3, 2-9,3-7, 4-12, 5-5, 6-15, 7-4, 8-11, 9-13, 10-2, 11-8, 12-6, 13-10,14-14, 15-1.
Ex 8 1 What have people designed and produced up-to-date machines and
2 Why do many birds and fish die?
3 What do cars and plants do with their wastes?
4 What do people begin to realize?
5 What must we do to make our life better and healthier?
Ex 9 1. People are concerned about water and air pollution.
2 Ships putting wastes into oceans and seas pollute the water.
3 Fish in the polluted water dies or becomes contaminated.
4 Cars and plants pollute air and destroy the ozone layer of the Earth.
5 Forests are dying from acid rains.
6 People begin to realize the danger of their activities.
7 People must learn to use the environment carefully.
Unit Two The problems of environment
Ex.4 1. The worst environment pollution caused by manufacturers who put
chemical wastes into rivers and seas.
2 Such diseases as eczema and asthma are linked to air pollution.
3 Materials like paper and glass can be reused.
4 Plastics cannot be reused and cannot be absorbed by the earth again.
5 People face the problem of preservation of environment.
Ex.6 1-b; 2- a; b,c 3-b,c
Unit Three Environmental Protection (1)
Ex.5 -- Unlimited source of resources, -- under threat, -- water shortage, --some kinds of animals, --to absorb all its wastes, --acid rains, --the ozone layer of the Earth, --damage to wildlife, natural resources are becoming reduced, -- people’s activities.
Ex.6 1-a; 2-a; 3-b; 4-c.
Ex.7 1.The environment is an unlimited source of resources.
2 People are concerned about water and air pollution.
3 Pollution in the air destroys the ozone layer of the Earth.
4 Pollution reduces the industrial resources.
5 We must learn to use the environment carefully.
Ex 8. Недавние научные исследования полагают, что защитный слой озона вокруг нашей планеты находится под серьёзной угрозой. В 1922 году научные исследователи в Антарктике впервые установили зияющую дыру над Антарктикой, где озоновый слой является самым тонким. Это было первым знаком дыры. Пять лет спустя
было заявлено, что дыра разраслась по площади сравнимой с Соединёнными Штатами
Главнвя причина ослабления озонового слоя – это возрастающий объём вредных химикатов, которые выбрасываются в атмосферу. Нужно международное соглашение, которое полностью остановит их производство.
Unit Four Environmental Protection (2)
Ex.4 To cause acid rains; environmental protection; pollution; to use the environment carefully; to damage the resources; damage to water and soils; to reduce the resources of..;
Ex.5 1.Economists have long thought of the environment as an unlimited source of resources.
2. Some economists think that pollution damages the resources.It reduces th natural resources; the resources of forestry and fish industry and leads to a damage in soils and wildlife.
3. There are many consequences of damaging the environment .One of them is acid rain. Another one is water shortage resulting from abuse of arable lands in agriculture. The third one is destroying the ozone layer of the Earth through pollution from factories and plants. The fourth problem is damage to water and soils. The fifth one is damage to wildlife; numerous species of animals and plants can disappear. This is the danger for the life and health of the man.
4 If we are unable to learn to use the environment carefully and protect it from damage caused by man’s activities, very soon we’ll have no world to live in. If we want our children to live in a better and healthier world, we must learn to protect the water, the air and the earth from pollution.
Ex.6 1-e; 2-g; 3-a; 4-f; 5-b; 6-d; 7-c.
Ex 7. (Review 1)
1.Environment supplies the economy with resources, but it is unable to absorb all the wastes the economy throws into it.
2 People invent machines and new technologies to make their life easier and better, but sometimes people’s activities damage the environment and nature.
3 Cars and plants pollute air and destroy the ozone layer of the Earth.
4 Ships putting wastes (waste products) into the oceans and seas damage the fishing industry.
5 Some species of birds and fish not only die and mutate but disappear for ever.
6 People are concerned about water, air and soil.
7 There is a serious danger to the life and health of the man.
8 People should learn to protect the soil, water and air from pollution.
9 We must keep the balance of nature.
Ex.8 (Review 2)
1.The environment is an unlimited source of resources.
2 Pollution reduces the industrial resources.
3 Ships putting wastes into oceans and seas pollute the water, therefore, fish
becomes contaminated and causes peoples’ diseases.
4 People are concerned about water and air pollution.
5 Pollution damages water, soil and wildlife.
6 Pollution in the air destroys the ozone layer of the Earth
7 The abuse of arable lands in agriculture result in water shortage.
8 Global warming or the greenhouse effect is the greatest threat facing the world.
9 We must learn to carefully use the environment.
Unit eight The Greatest Killer
Ex.2 1 The death statistics are frightening. Every year more than 300.000 people
Are killed in car crashes throughout the world.
2 Young drivers crash and they are responsible for about two-thirds of all accidents.
Unfortunately, their lack of experience -- and in some cases, lack of good
judgment; making wrong turns, driving in the wrong lane, following other
cars too closely; speeding, road hazards and drunken driving.
3 There is a risk of falling asleep or losing concentration. Distances are more
difficult to judge, and road hazards are harder to see.
4 Alcohol slows a driver/s reflexes, reduces concentration, impairs vision and
5 The progress is now satisfying when so many people die unnecessarily.
6 The car is the greatest killer.
Ex.3 1-e, 2-b, 3-d, 4-c, 5-a, 6-f.
Ex.4. Accident, deadliest diseases, car crashes, to get the driver’s licence, young drivers
are dying on the roads, wet roads, icy roads, poor visibility, road hazards, the number of .
accidents are doubled.
Ex 5 1. Каждый год более чем 300,00 людей погибают в автокатастрофах во всём
2 Миллионы людей ранены и покалечены на всю жизнь.
3 Большинство людей, которые погибают на дорогах – это молодые люди.
4 Очень часто автокатастрофы являются результатом отсутствия опыта,
неумение принять правильное решение, превышение скорости, а, иногда, и
вождение в пьяном виде.
5 Количество автомобилей увеличивается с каждым годом, но, к сожалению,
количество автокатастроф не уменьшается.
6 Автомобиль друг или враг? А как думаешь ты?