Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Учителям 1-11 классов и воспитателям дошкольных ОУ вместе с ребятами рекомендуем принять участие в международном конкурсе «Законы экологии», приуроченном к году экологии. Участники конкурса проверят свои знания правил поведения на природе, узнают интересные факты о животных и растениях, занесённых в Красную книгу России. Все ученики будут награждены красочными наградными материалами, а учителя получат бесплатные свидетельства о подготовке участников и призёров международного конкурса.
ПРИЁМ ЗАЯВОК ТОЛЬКО ДО 21 ОКТЯБРЯ!
Конкурс "Законы экологии"
Исследовательская работа на тему "Воздействие музыки на подростков"
State Institution of Government
Administration of Simferopol city
The Crimean Republic
The second town conference of students research works and creative projects
“The pupil of the 21st century : trying our forces and showing our abilities”,
which is devoted to the 70th anniversary of the World War II
(section of foreign languages)
Music and Teen’s Psycho-
Emotional and Physiological State
The work is done by
Alie Ebasirovna Tolokova
Teacher of English
Part 1.History of Music…………………………………......................................4-7
Ancient Resources …………………………………………………………….4
The Development of Music Therapy ……………………………...…………..5
Music Therapy in Russia ……………………………………………..……….7
Part 2.The Influence of Music on Human Body………………...............................8
Part 3.Scientific Research .…………………………..……...………………….9-11
Part 4.My Questionnaire……………………………………..………………..12-14
Part 5.Conclusion ……….………………………………..………………………15
Part 6. Resources …………………………………………………………………16
The reason I have chosen to investigate the topic “Music and Teens’ Psycho-Emotional and Physiological State” is that many people listen to the music of different styles and genres, not even thinking about its impact on their psyche and behavior. The urgency of the project is in great popularity of music among teenagers. It is interesting to research the impact of different kinds of music on classmates' mental state and find out peers' musical preferences. I shall analyze the information about physiological aspects of music therapy and its history.
Everyone has felt the magic of the music. One recollection of favorite songs can elevate your mood and give a feeling of joy. Playing an instrument or singing are also special pleasure and even the feeling of happiness, common recovery.
Amazing music interested people long time before. It attracted people’s attention because of its unknown force that could influence human behavior. A person enters the world of healing sounds, comes out of it , his psychological state is qualitatively different, calm, refreshed, just like after a walk in the woods, swimming in the sea or talking with a close friend. ‘Who can penetrate the mystery of composing music? The sound of the sea, a horizon line, the wind in foliage, birds’ singing cause a variety of impressions in us. And quite of a sudden, without asking our permission, one of these memories expresses itself in the language of music’, wrote Claude Debussy.
Humankind has known the method of treating patients with the help of musical sounds for thousands of years. Ancient healers knew of the ability of music to influence the mental and physiological processes in the human body. In ancient times, no therapeutic session was managed without music, and various forms of healing rituals were kept as a secret magical knowledge. The earliest parable, the remedial effect of music is presented in the Old Testament: David playing the harp healed Saul from nervous depression.
In China, Egypt, ancient Greece, Rome, already in the first theoretical manuscripts, written by the great philosophers of antiquity, music was seen as a type of activity (i.e. practice) at the same time close to the science, craft and a religious cult.
PART 1. History of Music
1.1 Ancient Resources
Since time immemorial, man has been surrounded by sounds. Moreover, there was no music, but it was the song of birds, the murmur of a Brook, the rustle of brushwood and the rustle of leaves. All these sounds were encircled and informed him about the surrounding space. Based on innate and acquired experience, humans could perceive sounds differently. For example, a high-pitched squeal was a wake-up call. At the same time, there were soothing sounds-the sounds of rain, rustling leaves, singing birds.
Different frequency sounds affect people. Scientists determined that it is directly connected with the rhythms of the brain. Each person's rhythms have their own frequency. Therefore, people have different tastes in music.
Music therapy is first mentioned in the Bible. Therefore, King Saul, who was tormented by an evil spirit, called David, who could skillfully play the harp. David played and played the harp and soon Saul was better. The Bible also says that the singing and playing of the shepherds have a positive effect on the growth of the herd.
In the culture of ancient Greece music therapy was well developed. The great Homer described how melodic songs contributed to healing the wounds of heroes. In Parthia in the 3rd century BC with the help of specially selected tunes, people were treated from melancholy, nervous disorders and heart pains. Humankind has known the method of treating patients with the help of musical sounds for thousands of years. Ancient healers knew of the ability of music to influence the mental and physiological processes in the human body. In ancient times, no therapeutic session was managed without music, and various forms of healing rituals were kept as a secret magical knowledge.
In the time of great Homer, melodic songs contributed to healing the wounds of heroes. In Parthia in the 3rd century BC with the help of specially selected tunes, people were treated from melancholy, nervous disorders and heart pains.
The teachings of Pythagoras is widely known as eurhythmy, which means a person's ability to find the right rhythm in all life forms — not only in singing, dancing and playing musical instruments, but also in thoughts, actions, speeches. Thanks to the right rhythm, which later crystallized in ethics in such a widespread notion of "tact", a person could get in the rhythm of a body, environment, Nature. Afterwards a man could enter the rhythm of Space.
Pythagoras, according to his students, determined the melodies and rhythms, which could affect the souls of young people. They were the tunes against immoderate passions, despair and emotional wounds, irritation, anger and other mental ailments. Pythagoras in his school had a special class for choral performance of the songs, because he felt the harmony in music brought forth harmony in the soul. There is the evidence that Pythagoras was the first to collect the healing music book of recipes, where each disease had its melody.
Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used music therapy. In ancient Egypt, it reduced the birth pains.
Plato said that the power of the State depends on what kind of music is popular in it. According to Plato, there is no worse way to destruction of morals than avoiding humble and shameful music. Due to the shameless rhythms and melodies, the souls of people become dissolute.
Aristotle described the musical modes, leading to a change of mentality in either direction. Some musical sounds make a man pitiful and tender. Meanwhile other sounds cause irritation or excitement.
In the works of the Greeks, we find ample evidence of how music has an effect on the mental state of a person. In the Odyssey, there is a description of the way music and singing stopped bleeding of Odyssey’s wounds. The ancient Greek hero Achilles calmed his rage by singing and playing the lyre. The famous Orpheus not only softened the character of people by singing, but also tamed wild animals and birds. Lycurgus, King of Sparta, composed music for his troops and never went to battle if his soldiers were not fighting to the sounds of trumpets and drums.
1.2 The Development of Music Therapy
American Indians of the Ojibwa tribe believed that sounds magically combined the forces of heaven and Earth. They healed the sick, sitting around them and singing songs to the sounds of pumpkin rattles. Drums and rattles were used to enhance the healing power of plants and for direct therapeutic effect.
In the middle ages, music therapy got out of fashion. However, in 1621, an English scholar ′Robert Berton wrote the book "The Anatomy of Melancholy". He suggested that music could be very useful for treating various nervous disorders.
In 1729, Richard Brown wrote the famous work "Medicina Musica".
In the 19th century many European their patients with calm relaxing music. There was a real music therapy boom in the West in the mid-20th century. Psychologists claimed that music could treat not only nervous disorders but other diseases, as well. Many musical therapy centers appeared in different countries. Serious books and specialized magazines were written.
Today music therapy has become one of the most popular methods of treating patients in the Western world. In 1993, it became one of the most popular treatments in the United States. Dr. Shulman cured patients, offering them to listen to audio tape of the sounds of various internal organs: heart, lungs, stomach and intestines. In his view, the sick organism, "listening" to the harmonious sound of healthy bodies begins to recover.
American nutritionists and drug experts began to market audio cassettes to lose weight, tobacco and alcohol abuse. Music therapy Institute (Arizona, United States) practices this kind of therapy to grow hair for bald patients. It is also widely used in hospitals, especially in the wards for military and mental health patients.
China has produced musical albums like "Digestion", "Insomnia", "Migraine". There are also "liver", "light", "heart" albums. The Chinese "take" these musical pieces, like pills or herbs. Such collected albums are issued in Japan.
In India ancient doctors widely used music as a remedy. In the healing system of "BidžaMantras" six sounds: «hraam», «hriim», «hrajm», «hruum "," hraum " and magic sound" om "were used to treat many diseases. Vibrations that occurred in the body when mantras were being pronounced lead to recovery. Therefore, the "hraam" mantra was prescribed for lungs diseases. They help to get rid of such illnesses as asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis. Hruum's mantra was prescribed for liver, spleen, stomach and intestinal diseases. The mantra "hrajm" treated kidneys. Also in India, the folksongs are used as a prophylactic in many hospitals. Music is good for healing mind, character and soul. In Madras, they even opened a special Centre for training music-therapeutics. They have found musical plays for the treatment of hypertension and some mental diseases to which traditional medicine is often powerless.
1.3 Music Therapy in Russia
In Russia, music therapy is not very popular; however, some research in this area is conducted. In Moscow medical-physical clinic № 4 prevention and treatment of childhood, the pediatrician Mikhail Lazarev does asthma. He does something that was categorically prohibited before makes children play sports, move, run, and play outdoors, go to the sauna. The most important fact is that he heals asthma with the help of music, singing and playing wind- instruments. So babies get rid of breath fears. They are so carried away by the game that they inhale and exhale fearlessly. “The treatment of asthma”, said Mikhail Lazarev,-“if there is any potential risk of it, should be carried out before birth in the mother's womb. MOM should sing, of course. It is still and breathing exercises-ventilation. Sounds reach the infant, stimulate the correct motor activity. He dances and moves to the beat of the music. As a result of normal metabolism, the risk of the disease is reduced to the minimum.
According to the research, if in the fixed time, for example, before having meals, the woman sings or listens to music, and then one day suddenly she forgets to do it, the kid gets restless. It turns, bumps, as if asking,” Where is the song?” The baby needs music more than food. It calms down when the melody sounds. To conclude, we can say that music therapy effects are really essential.”
PART 2. Music Influence on Human Body
Numerous ancient teachings represent the impact of music on animals, plants and humans. There are three areas of music influence on human body:
Music can cheer up, calm down, abate pain and even heal a disease. Since the 19th century, science has accumulated a lot of vital information on the effects of music on human and living organisms. Experimental studies were carried out in the following ways:
the influence of musical instruments on living organism
the influence of great geniuses’ music on mankind
the effects of selected composers’ pieces of music
the effects of folk and modern music
Gradually accumulated scientific data proved that music is a powerful source of energy that affects humans.
PART3. Scientific Research
In the 19th century, the scientist Dogel carried out a lot of scientific research. He found out that under the influence of music, blood pressure was changing and heart muscles were contracted. The rhythm and depth of breathing became different. It was true both for animals and humans. The famous Russian surgeon, B. Petrovsky used music during complex operations. According to his observations, human body worked more harmoniously under the influence of music.
The sounds of music were used in the treatment of diabetes. It was found out that there is a certain interaction of blood sugar levels and mental state. Thus, changing and adjusting mental state, a person can alter blood sugar levels. For example, the creator of musical pharmacology, an American scientist Robert Kofler prescribed therapeutic listening to his patients. All the symphonies by Tchaikovsky and Mozart's Overtures, as well as "Forest King" by Schubert were beneficial for treating diabetes. The scientist proved that listening to these pieces of music contributed a lot to the recovery of diabetes patients.
In psychology, there is a term "aural pathway." This is the path from the start of the sound to the result. The result is achieved by one or more brain nerve centers stimulation. Each sound has its auditory pathway. For example, their auditory pathways know door creak or sand scratch on glass. The result of them is strong irritation and unpleasant feeling, desire immediately to stop these sounds.
Classical music has its auditory pathways. Mainly, it is written to heartbeat, which is approximately 60-70 beats per minute. These pathways beneficially affect the basic functions of the whole organism. Some works and musical phrases, penetrating into the brain, calm down the excited nerve centers. Such negative feelings as anger or frustration are substituted by emotional discharge and body relaxation. Exchange processes are improved.
In China music albums with titles: "Digestion", "Insomnia", "Migraine" are produced. There is also "liver", "light", "heart" music. The Chinese "take" these musical pieces, like pills or herbs. Such compilations are issued in Japan.
Metal music has its own impact on a person’s psyche. It is characterized by:
Rhythm is one of the most powerful ways of influence on human body. Simple but powerful rhythms force people to move to them. A person can pass from ecstasy to hallucinations of tantrums, from hysterics to loss of consciousness.
If the rhythm is multiple to one and a half strokes per second and is accompanied by strong pressure from ultra-low frequencies, it can cause ecstasy. When the rhythm is equal to two strokes per second at the same frequencies, a listener falls into trance. The over-abundance of both high and low frequencies seriously injures the brain. At metal concerts often, there are sound concussions, loss of hearing and burns.
Our ear is tuned to perceive normal sound in the 55-60 decibels. Loud sound is 70 decibels. However, turning over all the thresholds of normal perception, extremely intensified sound causes incredible auditory stress. The sound volume at the metal concerts, reaches 120 DB and in the middle of the concert ground, it is up to 140-160 DB. (120 DB corresponds to the volume a roaring jet aircraft flying up in the immediate vicinity, and the average values of the player with headphones is 80-110 DB).
What are the effects of metal music on a listener’s behavior?
As I have said, every sound has its own "auditory pathway" and it changes human behavior. If the nerve cells are associated with negative emotions, then it is immediately reflected on the behavior. Psychologists point out the following negative effects of metal music on human brain:
The state of trance
Adolescents have these tendencies at the age of 11-12. If they continue listening to metal music, these features of teenage psyche are provoked or much amplified in older age. This, of course, does not mean that a person, who has a passion for rock music, is sure to have all of these qualities. In fact, he has a great disposition to them.
As it was previously mentioned, the therapeutic effects of music on human body have been known since ancient times. In antiquity and in the middle ages, the belief in the curative effect of music was exceptionally great. Goethe said in his time that he always worked better after listening to Beethoven's Violin Concerto. The lyrical melodies of Tchaikovsky, Mazurkas by Chopin, Liszt’s Rhapsody can help overcome difficulties, overcome pain, gain emotional strength. After listening to Mozart’s music tests were better done. In our complicated world, every phenomenon has both positive and negative features. Music is not an exception.
The widespread use of music to influence the human state is now almost total. The music affect is applied now in therapy sessions, advertising, film, etc. American scientist-physician David Elkin proved that high-pitched sound volume helps to precipitate protein (a raw egg at the show three hours later became soft-boiled). "Heavy metal" halts the growth of plants and in some cases contributes to their deaths. Fish, undergone rock processing with simultaneous flashing of light, died and rose to the surface of a pond.
In general, plants and animals prefer harmonious music. For example, dolphins love to listen to classical music and plants and flowers quickly spread their leaves and petals. While classical music accelerates the growth of wheat, metal music, on the contrary, causes their fade. As for cows, they refuse to eat to metal music. Of course, human nature is unlikely to undergo strong modifications, if a person hardly ever listens to metal music. We are talking about music lovers, those who cannot live without these rhythms, for whom much of the perceived sound is the music.
Music therapy is one of the most interesting and so far unexplored areas of traditional medicine. Therapeutic effect of this technique is based on frequency oscillation of musical sounds, resonating with private bodies, systems or the human organism as a whole. Specialists have identified specific songs you want to listen to with certain ailments, as well as to prevent the same ailments.
reduce feelings of anxiety and uncertainty (Chopin’s Mazurkas and Preludes, Strauss’s waltzes);
reduce irritability and insomnia ( Beethoven’s, Bach’s works, "Cantata No. 2" in particular and Tchaikovsky’s "Barcarolle";
relieve the symptoms of high blood pressure and tension in relations with other people (Bach’s "Concerto in do minor for violin and" Cantata No. 21 and Bartok’s " Quartet No. 5 ";
fast treatment for headaches (Mozart’s "Don Giovanni", Gershwin’s "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1", "an American in Paris";
reduce the feelings of hurt and anger (Bach’s "Italian Concerto" and Hydn’s "Symphony".
Part 4.My Questionnaire
This is the questionnaire I used to find out how music influences peers’ psycho-emotional and physiological state. Twenty-seven teens from the10th form answered the questions.
Do you play any musical instruments? If yes, what?
Do you like to sing?
Put music genres in order of importance to you:
The significance level
The kind of music
Do you play any musical instruments? If yes, what?
Most of them play the guitar or the piano, others do not do it.
Do you like to sing?
The majority of the respondents gave positive answers.
The results of the first and second question are represented in the chart:
Put the kinds of music in order of importance to you:
Most of my classmates prefer pop music, metal or club music. Techno, electro and R&B are less popular among my classmates. The least enjoyed kinds of music are slow/fast rap and classical music.
Part 5. Conclusion
In conclusion, I want to say that pop music and classical music are best suited for listeners and their health. These kinds of music arouse positive emotions. Classical music creates the psycho-emotional state of serenity, calmness and safety. As for pop music, it causes high spirits and the wish to dance. It is good to listen to them when you are upset or depressed.
On the contrary, metal has a negative effect on teens’ health. It is associated with emotional splash, aggression and violence. Bad events are remembered. Consequently, it is better to listen to it as rarely as possible or avoid doing it at all.
All things considered, I can say that one needs to listen to his or her body and learn to live in harmony with it. Very often, listening to your favorite songs helps restore mental balance, retreat from everyday life. Perhaps music is the shortest and easiest path to happiness and joy.
Further research in this area, will provide more information and allow even more to understand about the influence of music on the human state in general.
Part 6. Resources
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