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Название документа Weather-speak. Why is it so important to the English.ppt
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Why is it so important to the English?
When two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather. Samuel Johnson, 18th century writer
Any discussion of English conversation, like any English conversation, must begin with The Weather. Why are they so obsessed with the weather?
There is no danger of tornadoes, monsoons, raging blizzards, run-for your-life hailstorms – as with many other countries. Maybe, the English fixation with the weather is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty…
Conversations about the weather are not really about the weather at all: English weather-speak is a form of code, which helps the English to overcome their natural reserve and actually to talk to each other. Oh, isn't it cold? Nice day, isn’t it? = Hello! I’d like to talk to you – will you talk to me?
There are 6 rules of weather-speak
Rule 1: The Reciprocity Rule Comments about the weather have an interrogative intonation – they always require a response. Good morning! It’s a nice day, isn’t it? Beautiful! Do you think it will rain? - I don’t think it will rain today, maybe it will rain tonight.
Rule 2: The Context Rule Weather-speak can be used: - as a simple greeting, as an ice-breaker leading to conversation on other matters, as a “filler” or “displacement” subject, when there is an awkward or uncomfortable pause.
Rule 3: The Agreement Rule You must never contradict anybody when discussing the weather. George Mikes, the Hungarian humorist If you break the rule on purpose, you will find that the atmosphere becomes rather tense and awkward.
Oh, isn’t it cold? Yes, isn’t it? or - Mmm, very cold. - Oh, isn’t it cold? - No, actually, it’s quite mild.
Exceptions to the Agreement Rule You may express personal likes and dislikes that differ from those of your companions, or express your disagreement in terms of personal sensibilities. Oh, isn’t it cold? - Yes, but I really like this sort of weather – quite invigorating, don’t you think? or - Mmm (with nod), but at least it’s not raining.
Rule 4: The Weather Hierarchy Rule In descending order, from best to worst, the hierarchy is as follows: sunny and warm/mild, sunny and cool/cold, cloudy and warm/mild, cloudy and cool/cold, rainy and warm/mild, rainy and cool/cold.
Awful weather, isn’t it? Yes, but they say it’s going to clear up this afternoon. - Yes, well, they said that yesterday and it poured all day, didn’t it? The main thing is to communicate, to agree, to have something in common; and shared moaning is just as effective in promoting sociable interaction as shared optimism.
Rule 5: Snow and the Moderation Rule Snow is not mentioned in the hierarchy partly because it is rare in England, compared to the other types of weather included, which occur all the time, often all in the same day. The only conversational rule that can be applied with confidence to snow is a “moderation rule”: too much snow, like too much of anything, is to be deplored.
Rule 6: The Weather-as-family Rule English people treat their weather like a member of their family: one can complain about the behaviour of one's own children, but any hint of censure from an outsider is unacceptable, and very bad manners. That’s why foreigners are not allowed to criticize English weather.
Englishman: “Phew, isn't it hot?” Australian: “Call this hot? You should come to Australia if you want to see hot!” The worst possible weather-speak offence is one mainly committed by foreigners - to belittle the English weather.
The English become extremely touchy and defensive at any suggestion that their weather is not interesting. Indeed, the weather may be one of the few things about which the English are still unselfconsciously and unashamedly patriotic.
The Shipping Forecast Ritual It is an off-shore weather forecast, with additional information about wind-strength and visibility, for the fishing vessels, pleasure craft and cargo ships in the seas around the British Isles.
None of the information is of the slightest use to the millions of non-seafarers who listen to it, but English people do listen to it. Why? It is an important ritual for English people. Although they don’t feel, don’t understand it, they got accustomed to it and don’t want to abandon such a nice tradition.
Название документа Письмо-рекомендация.docx
на работу по страноведению «Разговор о погоде. Почему он так важен для англичан?» ученицы 7 «А» класса МОУ СОШ №3 г. Одинцово
Работа посвящена английскому речевому этикету, в частности, правилам ведения светской беседы. Данный материал представляет собой творческий проект с мультимедийной презентацией.
Процесс межкультурной коммуникации чрезвычайно сложен и многогранен. Для того чтобы общение с носителем языка было плодотворным и эффективным, необходимо в совершенстве владеть языком, знать его грамматику, особенности фонетики, лексического состава, а также обладать большим багажом знаний о традициях, обычаях, культуре данного народа. Именно поэтому работа «Разговор о погоде. Почему он так важен для англичан?» актуальна: в ней автор продемонстрировала особенности ведения светской беседы, правила начала разговора. Автор показала огромную важность такой, казалось бы, обыденной темы как погода в различных сферах жизни англичан.
Для достижения цели автором были выполнены следующие задачи: изучен ряд русскоязычных и англоязычных источников аутентичного характера (учебная литература по страноведению, учебные пособия, аудио- и видеоматериалы, журнальные статьи, интернет сайты и т. п.); выполнены отбор, анализ и систематизация полученной информации; переведены на английский язык тексты; подобраны и отредактированы фотографии, иллюстрирующие особенности погоды в Англии; составлены несколько приложений, позволяющих читателю быстрее усвоить изложенный материал.
Оригинальность проведенного исследования заключается в том, что теме «Разговор о погоде» уделяется не так много внимания, хотя, как уже было отмечено ранее, данный вопрос необходимо изучать более детально, ведь на уроках иностранного языка необходимо формировать у учащихся межкультурную коммуникативную компетенцию.
Думаю, что данная работа заслуживает высокой оценки и может быть использована не только на уроках английского языка, факультативных занятиях по страноведению, но и на классных часах, при разработке программ элективных курсов.
Учитель английского языка: Чернякова Т. М.
Название документа Текст работы.docx
II. The main body…………………………………………………………..............3-8
1. Conversation codes. The weather………………………………………………….3
2. The rules of English weather-speak………………………………………………..4
a) The Reciprocity Rule………………………………………………………………4
b) The Context Rule…………………………………………………………………..4
c) The Agreement Rule……………………………………………………………….5
d) Exceptions to the Agreement Rule………………………………………………...5
e) The Weather Hierarchy Rule………………………………………………………6
f) Snow and the Moderation Rule…………………………………………………….7
g) The Weather-as-family Rule……………………………………………………….8
h) The Shipping Forecast Ritual……………………………………………………....8
IV. List of literature. Electronic resources…………………………………………..10
V. Supplement I……………………………………………………………………..11
VI. Supplement II……………………………………………………………………13
VII. Supplement III…………………………………………………………………..14
VIII. Supplement IV…………………………………………………………………16
IX. Supplement V……………………………………………………………………17
Why do we study foreign languages?
The answer is simple – we want to have a well-paid job (nowadays you will not get one if you do not know at least one foreign language), to travel around the world, to be able to communicate with people who belong to different culture.
The question of communication is very interesting and important to me. It is so exciting to touch another cultures, ways of working and having fun…
It is not enough only to know a foreign language, to speak it fluently. It is also the matter of vital importance to understand the soul of native speakers, their habits and traditions.
As for me, I have been studying English language for three years. I take interest in studying English culture and customs. There are a lot of unusual things to learn.
The British are said to be reserved and polite. They attach great importance to the rules of behavior and etiquette. And one of the most famous and significant things is the rules of English conversation, particularly the conversation on the topic “Weather”.
I have devoted my essay to this interesting subject.
"Don't knock the weather; nine-tenths of
the people couldn't start a conversation
if it didn't change once in a while".
Any discussion of English conversation, like any English conversation, must begin with The Weather. When two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather1. This observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago.
Why are they so obsessed with the weather? People think that the English talk about the weather because they have a keen interest in the subject. But nobody can understand what it is about the English weather that is so fascinating.
For example, Bill Bryson, a best-selling American author of humorous books on travel, as well as books on the English language and on science, concludes that the English weather is not at all fascinating, and this obsession with it is inexplicable: “To an outsider, the most striking thing about the English weather is that there is not very much of it. Tornadoes, monsoons, raging blizzards, run-for-your-life hailstorms - are almost unknown in the British Isles”2.
Jeremy Paxman, a famous television anchorman, in an unconscious display of patriotism, takes umbrage at Bryson's dismissive comments, and argues that the English weather is intrinsically fascinating: “Bryson misses the point. The English fixation with the weather is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty…one of the few things you can say about England with absolute certainty is that it has a lot of weather. It may not include tropical cyclones but life at the edge of an ocean and the edge of a continent means you can never be entirely sure what you're going to get”3.
In fact, both Bryson and Paxman are missing the point, which is that conversations about the weather are not really about the weather at all: English weather-speak is a form of code, which helps the English to overcome their natural reserve and actually to talk to each other. Everyone knows, for example, that “Nice day, isn't it?”, “Oh, isn't it cold?”, “Still raining, eh?” and other variations on the theme are not requests for meteorological data: they are ritual greetings, conversation-starters or “fillers”.
The rules of English weather-speak
The Reciprocity Rule
Jeremy Paxman cannot understand why a “middle-aged blonde” he meets in the office says “Oh, isn't it cold?”, and he puts this irrational behaviour down to a distinctively English “capacity for infinite surprise at the weather”.
Actually, “Oh, isn't it cold?” - like “Nice day, isn't it?” and all the others - is English code for “I'd like to talk to you - will you talk to me?”, or it is an another way of saying “hello”.
Such conversations should not be long - just an exchange of greetings. Under the rules of weather-speak, all he was required to say was “Mm, yes, isn't it?” or some other equally meaningless response, which is code for “Yes, I'll talk to you/greet you”. By failing to respond at all, Paxman said “No, I will not exchange greetings with you”. So? He was not polite.
English people used to have another option, at least for some social situations, but the “How do you do?” greeting (to which the correct response is to repeat the question back “How do you do?') is now regarded by many as somewhat archaic, and is no longer the universal standard greeting.
The “Nice day, isn't it?” exchange must, however, be understood in the same light, and not taken literally: “How do you do?” is not a real question about health or well-being, and “Nice day, isn't it?” is not a real question about the weather.
Comments about the weather are put as questions because they require a response - but the reciprocity is the point, not the content.
The Context Rule
A principal rule concerns the contexts in which weather-speak can be used. Other writers have claimed that the English talk about the weather all the time, that it is a national obsession or fixation, but it is not true: in fact, there are three quite specific contexts in which weather-speak is prescribed.
Weather-speak can be used:
- as a simple greeting4,
- as an ice-breaker leading to conversation on other matters,
- as a “filler” or “displacement” subject, when conversation on other matters stops, and there is an awkward or uncomfortable pause.
This rule allows for rather a lot of weather-speak – and that’s why there is an impression that the English talk of little else.
A typical English conversation may well start with a weather-speak greeting, progress to a bit more weather-speak ice-breaking, and then returning to weather-speak at regular intervals. It is easy to see why many foreigners, and even many English commentators, have assumed that English people must be obsessed with the subject.
Of course they have interest in the weather itself. The choice of weather as a code to perform these vital social functions is not entirely accidental, and in this sense, Jeremy Paxman is "; line-height: 100%; widows: 2; orphans: 2">
The Agreement Rule
The English have clearly chosen a highly appropriate aspect of their own familiar natural world as a social facilitator: the capricious and changeable nature of their weather ensures that there is always something new to comment on, be surprised by, speculate about, moan about, or, perhaps most importantly, agree about.
Which brings us to another important rule of English weather-speak: always agree. This rule was noted by the Hungarian humorist George Mikes, who wrote that in England “You must never contradict anybody when discussing the weather”.
The English have already established that weather-speak greetings or openers such as “Cold, isn't it?” must be reciprocated, but etiquette also requires that the response express agreement, as in “Yes, isn't it?” or “Mmm, very cold”.
Failure to agree in this manner is a serious breach of etiquette. It would be very rude to respond to “Oh, isn't it cold?” with “No, actually, it's quite mild”. If you listen carefully to hundreds of English weather-conversations, you will find that such responses are extremely rare, almost unheard of. Nobody will tell you that there is a rule about this; English people are not even conscious of following a rule: it just simply isn't done.
If you break the rule on purpose, you will find that the atmosphere becomes rather tense and awkward, and possibly somewhat huffy. No one will actually complain or make a big scene about it (the English have rules about complaining and making a fuss), but they will be offended, and this will show in subtle ways. There may be an uncomfortable silence, then someone may say “Well, it feels cold to me” or “Really? Do you think so?” - or, most likely, they will either change the subject or continue talking about the weather among themselves, ignoring your mistake. In very polite circles, they may attempt to “cover” it by helping you to re-define it as a matter of taste rather than of fact. Among highly courteous people, the response to your “No, actually, it's quite mild” might be, after a slightly embarrassed pause, “Oh, perhaps you don't feel the cold - you know, my husband is like that: he always thinks it's mild when I'm shivering and complaining. Maybe women feel the cold more than men, do you think?”
Exceptions to the Agreement Rule
This sort of gracious comments is possible because the rules of English weather-speak are complex, and there are often exceptions and subtle variations. In the case of the agreement rule, the main variation concerns personal taste or differences in weather-sensitivity. You must always agree with “factual” statements about the weather, even when they are quite obviously wrong.
You may, however, express personal likes and dislikes that differ from those of your companions, or express your disagreement in terms of personal sensibilities.
An appropriate response to “Oh, isn't it cold?”, if you find you really cannot simply agree, would be “Yes, but I really rather like this sort of weather - quite invigorating, don't you think?” or “Yes, but you know I don't tend to notice the cold much - this feels quite warm to me”. Note that both of these responses start with an expression of agreement, even though in the second case this is followed by a self-contradiction: “Yes…this feels quite warm to me”. It is perfectly acceptable to contradict oneself in this manner, etiquette being far more important than logic, but if you truly cannot bring yourself to start with the customary “Yes”, this may be replaced by a positive-sounding “Mmm” accompanied by a nod - still an expression of agreement, but rather less emphatic.
Even better would be the traditional mustn't-grumble response: “Yes [or Mmm-with-nod], but at least it's not raining”. If you have a liking for cold weather, or do not find it cold, this response virtually guarantees that you and your shivering acquaintance will reach happy agreement. Everyone always agrees that a cold, bright day is preferable to a rainy one - or, at least, it is customary to express this opinion5.
The personal taste/sensitivity variation is really more of a modification than an exception to the agreement rule: flat contradiction of a “factual” statement is still taboo, the basic principle of agreement still applies; it is merely softened by allowing for differences in taste or sensitivity.
There is, however, one context in which English weather-speakers are not required to observe the agreement rule at all and that is the male-bonding argument, particularly the pub-argument. The critical point is that in English male-bonding arguments, particularly those conducted in the special environment of the pub, overt and constant disagreement - not just on the weather, but on everything else as well - is a means of expressing friendship and achieving intimacy.
The Weather Hierarchy Rule
There is an unofficial English weather hierarchy to which almost everyone subscribes. In descending order, from best to worst, the hierarchy is as follows:
sunny and warm/mild,
sunny and cool/cold,
cloudy and warm/mild,
cloudy and cool/cold,
rainy and warm/mild,
rainy and cool/cold.
Not everyone in England prefers sun to cloud, or warmth to cold but even English television weather forecasters clearly subscribe to this hierarchy: they adopt apologetic tones when forecasting rain, but often try to add a note of cheerfulness by
pointing out that at least it will be a bit warmer, as they know that rainy/warm is preferable to rainy/cold. Similarly rueful tones are used to predict cold weather, brightened by the prospect of accompanying sunshine, because we all know that sunny/cold is better than cloudy/cold. So, unless the weather is both rainy and cold, you always have the option of a “But at least it's not…” response.
If it is both wet and cold, or if you are just feeling unhappy, you can think of what Jeremy Paxman English “phenomenal capacity for moaning”.
And more positive response to weather at the lower end of the hierarchy is to predict improvement. In response to “Awful weather, isn't it?” you can say “Yes, but they say it's going to clear up this afternoon”. Your companion may reject “Yes, well, they said that yesterday and it poured all day, didn't it?”
Actually, it doesn't really matter: the point is to communicate, to agree, to have something in common; and shared moaning is just as effective in promoting sociable interaction as shared optimism.
For those whose personal tastes are at variance with the unofficial weather hierarchy, it is important to remember that the further down the hierarchy your preferences lie, the more you will have to qualify your remarks in accordance with the personal taste/sensitivity clause. A preference for cold over warmth, for example, is more acceptable than a dislike of sunshine, which in turn is more acceptable than an active enjoyment of rain.
Snow and the Moderation Rule
Snow is not mentioned in the hierarchy partly because it is rare in England, compared to the other types of weather included, which occur all the time, often all in the same day. Snow is also socially and conversationally a special and awkward case, as it is aesthetically pleasing, but practically inconvenient. It is always simultaneously exciting and worrying. Snow is always excellent conversation-fodder, but it is only universally welcomed if it falls at Christmas, which it almost never does.
The only conversational rule that can be applied with confidence to snow is a “moderation rule”: too much snow, like too much of anything, is to be deplored.
The English may, as Paxman says, have a “capacity for infinite surprise at the weather”6, and he is also right in observing that they like to be surprised by it. But they also expect to be surprised: they know it changes quite frequently. If English people get the same weather for more than a few days, they become uneasy: more than three days of rain, and they start worrying about floods; more than a day or two of snow, and disaster is declared.
The Weather-as-family Rule
While the English may spend much of their time moaning about their weather, foreigners are not allowed to criticize it7. In this respect, English people treat their weather like a member of their family: one can complain about the behaviour of one's own children or parents, but any hint of censure from an outsider is unacceptable, and very bad manners.
Although the English are aware of the relatively undramatic nature of the English weather - the lack of extreme temperatures, monsoons, tempests, tornadoes and blizzards - they become extremely touchy and defensive at any suggestion that their weather is not interesting. The worst possible weather-speak offence is one mainly committed by foreigners, particularly Americans, and that is to belittle the English weather. When the summer temperature reaches the high twenties, and they moan, “Phew, isn't it hot?”, they do not take kindly to visiting Americans or Australians laughing and saying “Call this hot? This is nothing. You should come to our place if you want to see hot!”
Indeed, the weather may be one of the few things about which the English are still unselfconsciously and unashamedly patriotic.
The Shipping Forecast Ritual
The Shipping Forecast is an off-shore weather forecast, with additional information about wind-strength and visibility, for the fishing vessels, pleasure craft and cargo ships in the seas around the British Isles. None of the information is of the slightest use to the millions of non-seafarers who listen to it, but English people do listen to such things as: “Viking, North Utsire, South Utsire, Fisher, Dogger, German Bight. Westerly or southwesterly three or four, increasing five in north later. Rain later8. Good becoming moderate, occasionally poor. Faroes, Fair Isle, Cromarty, Forties, Forth. Northerly backing westerly three or four, increasing six later. Showers. Good”. And so on, and on, in unemotional tones, until all of the thirty-one sea areas are covered - and millions of English listeners, most of whom have no idea where any of these places are, or what the words and numbers mean, finally switch off their radios, feeling strangely calm and comfortable.
The logical question is - why? Why do English people listen to these lists of obscure places and their meteorological data?
The answer is quite simple – it is an important ritual for English people. Although they don’t feel, don’t understand it, they got accustomed to it and don’t want to abandon such a nice tradition.
English etiquette is an embodiment of strictness and officiality. Politeness, reserve, correctness and tolerance are really important for people.
People consider any small talk (light conversation for social occasions) as a certain social norm, and they keep to the fixed schemes of behavior. These ways of speaking, expressing feelings are not written – they are passed on from one generation to another. Children learn them at their mothers’ knees.
The subject of my essay - “Weather-speak. Why is it so important to the English?” - is one of the elements of English etiquette, the small talk in particular.
It is necessary to know the ways of the conversation conduct if you want to establish contact with English people, to understand their life and culture.
List of literature
1. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. - Cambridge University Press, 2001.
2. Jeremy Paxman. The English: A Portrait of a People.- London: Michael Joseph, 1998.
3. Kate Fox. Watching the English. The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour. – London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008.
4. Michael Vaughan-Rees, Peter Bystrom, Steve Bateman. In Britain. – London: Chancerel International Publishers, 1995.
5. Oxford Dictionary & Thesaurus of Current English. - Oxford University Press, 2007.
6. Фаенова М. О. Обучение культуре общения на английском языке. - М: Высшая школа, 1991.
7. Формановская Н. И. Русский и английский речевой этикет: сходства и различия. М: Высшая школа, 2008.
1. http://abc-english-grammar.com/1/8/etiket.doc 2. http://agreemodel.ru/428_angliyskie_laskovye_vyrazheniya/index.html 3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/
I, Safonova Natalya, a schoolgirl of 7A form, present you my project “Weather-speak. Why is it so important to the English?” devoted to English etiquette, the small talk in particular.
In England you will find most people are kinder to you if you behave politely, respect local people and their customs. You may sometimes upset people by things that you say or do, even if these things seem perfectly normal in your own culture.
For example, when you first meet someone, it can be difficult to know how to start a conversation.
What topics should we choose for a small talk?
There are plenty of them: the weather (“It's a lovely day today, isn't it?”), introductions (“Hello. May I introduce myself? My name is Mark”), nature (“The garden looks amazing, doesn't it?”), pets (“What a nice dog. What is his name?”), etc.
The topic “Weather” is the main and the “safest” conversation-starter. The English are reserved, they don’t like to interfere in even their friends’ private life.
Also English people love their country with its changeable weather. That’s why it is really convenient to start a conversation with this topic.
A foreigner should never forget about rules of weather-speak. There are six of them: the Reciprocity Rule, the Context Rule, the Agreement Rule (with its exceptions), the Weather Hierarchy Rule, the Moderation Rule and the Weather-as-family Rule.
Of course, if you break one of these rules, you will be forgiven as you are a foreigner, but the process of communication may fail. And our main aim of studying foreign languages is not only to know the certain linguistic code but to be able to communicate with native speakers, to understand their behavior and not to make cultural mistakes.
Я, Сафонова Наталья, ученица 7 «А» класса представляю проект «Разговор о погоде. Почему он так важен для англичан?», посвященный английскому этикету, в частности, светской беседе.
В Англии люди будут относиться к Вам добрее, если Вы ведете себя вежливо, уважаете местное население, его обычаи. Вы можете иногда огорчить людей своими словами или поступками, даже если такие нормы приняты в Вашей культуре.
Например, при первой встрече может быть достаточно трудно начать разговор.
Какие темы следует выбрать для светской беседы?
Их очень много: погода («Прекрасный денек, не так ли?»), официальное представление («Здравствуйте. Могу я представиться? Меня зовут Марк»), природа («Сад выглядит изумительно, правда?»), домашние животные («Какой красивый пес. Как его зовут?») и т. п.
Тема «Погода» - основное и «наиболее безопасное» начало разговора. Англичане сдержанны, они не любят вмешиваться даже в личную жизнь друзей. Также жители Англии любят свою страну с ее неустойчивой погодой. Именно поэтому очень удобно начинать беседу с этой темы.
Иностранцу никогда не следует забывать правила разговора о погоде. Их шесть: правило взаимности, контекста, согласия (с исключениями), правило иерархии типов погоды, правило умеренности и правило погоды как члена семьи.
Безусловно, если Вы нарушите одно из этих правил, Вас простят как иностранца, но процесс общения может потерпеть неудачу. А наша основная цель изучения иностранных языков – это не только овладение речевым кодом, но и способность общаться с носителями языка, понимать их поведение и не совершать культурных ошибок.
cool [kuːl] (day) - прохладный (день)
dull [dʌl] (day) - пасмурный (день)
fog [fɔg] - туман
frost [frɔst] - мороз
heat [hiːt] - жара
lightning ['laɪtnɪŋ] - молния
shower ['ʃəuə] - ливень
snow [snəu] - снег
sunny ['sʌnɪ] (day) - солнечный (день)
temperature ['temp(ə)rəʧə] - температура
thunder ['θʌndə] - гром
thunderstorm ['θʌndəstɔːm] - гроза
weather forecast ['weðəˌ'fɔːkɑːst] - прогноз погоды
weatherman ['weðəmæn] - метеоролог
wind [wɪnd] - ветер
changeable ['ʧeɪnʤəbl] (weather) - изменчивая (погода)
continental [ˌkɔntɪ'nent(ə)l] (climate) - континентальный (климат)
dreadful ['dredf(ə)l], [-ful] (weather) - ужасная (погода)
dry [draɪ] (climate) - сухой (климат)
humid ['hjuːmɪd] (climate) - влажный (климат)
lovely ['lʌvlɪ] (weather) - прекрасная (погода)
mild [maɪld] (climate) - мягкий (климат)
unpredictable [ˌʌnprɪ'dɪktəbl] (weather) - непредсказуемая (погода)
warm [wɔːm] (climate) - теплый, жаркий (климат)
Weather and acts of weather in English idioms
between wind and water (a place) - (букв. "между ветром и водой") наиболее уязвимое место
black frost - сильный мороз без инея; гололед, гололедица (на шоссе)
cloud-castle - воздушные замки, мечты, фантазии
dead frost - разг. гиблое дело; полная неудача, фиаско
fair-weather friends - ненадежные друзья, друзья только в счастье
gone with the wind - исчезнувший бесследно (букв. унесенный ветром)
in the clouds - неясный; странный, фантастический
in the weather - на улице, под открытым небом
Jack Frost - Мороз Красный Нос, Дед Мороз
keep the rain out - укрыться от дождя
on the sunny side of thirty - ещё нет тридцати
rain check - корешок билета на стадион, дающий право прийти на игру, перенесенную по случаю дождя; просьба или обещание принять приглашение как-нибудь в другой раз
rain off (= rain out) - отменить из-за дождя
rain or shine - при любой погоде; при любых условиях
Scotch mist - густой туман; изморось, мелкий моросящий дождь
snow bunny - симпатичная девушка, часто бывающая на горнолыжных курортах
snow globe - сувенир в виде стеклянного шара с фигурками и "падающим снегом" внутри
snow off - отменять (какое-л. событие из-за снегопада, обильно выпавшего снега)
snow under - разг. заваливать работой; амер. провалить на выборах (огромным большинством)
sunny-side up - жарить только на одной стороне
sunny smile - сияющая улыбка
the four winds - стороны света
under the weather - нездоровый, больной; в затруднительном положении
war cloud - предвоенная атмосфера, угроза войны
weathercock - непостоянный, ненадёжный человек, флюгер
to be in the wind - витать, носиться в воздухе (о первых признаках того, что вот-вот должно произойти)
to blow a cloud - разг. курить
to catch the wind in a net - переливать из пустого в порожнее, заниматься бесполезным делом
to get the wind up - брит. разг. утратить спокойствие, испугаться
to hang in the wind - колебаться
to have/put one's finger to the wind - держать нос по ветру, смотреть откуда ветер дует; приспосабливаться к быстро меняющимся обстоятельствам, проявлять беспринципность
to have one's head in the clouds/to be in the clouds - витать в облаках
to keep one's weather eye open - смотреть в оба, держать ухо востро
to look on the sunny side of things - смотреть бодро на жизнь, быть оптимистом
to raise the wind - брит. разг. раздобыть (необходимые) деньги
to sail near to the wind - быть на грани опасности; быть на грани порядочности или пристойности, на скользком пути; жить экономно, рассчитывать всё до копейки
to see the red mist/to let the red mist descend - (букв. "увидеть красный туман") прийти в ярость, потерять самообладание
under a cloud - в тяжёлом положении; в немилости; под подозрением
to wind oneself/one's way into smb.'s trust/affection - вкрадываться, втираться в чьё-л. доверие
to wind smb. around one's little finger - обвести кого-л. вокруг пальца, обмануть
Weather and acts of weather in English proverbs
After rain comes fair weather. - После ненастья - солнышко, после горя - радость.
Don't have thy cloak to make when it begins to rain. - Когда на охоту ехать, тогда и собак кормить.
Every cloud has a / its silver lining. - Нет худа без добра.
If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. - Чем ночь тёмнее, тем ярче звезды.
Into every life a little rain must fall. - Не все коту масленица.
It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. - Нет худа без добра.
Make hay while the sun shines. - Коси коса, пока роса.
Rain at seven, fine at eleven. - Семь пятниц на неделе.
Small rain lays great dust. - Мал золотник, да дорог.
The morning sun never lasts a day. - Ничто не вечно под луной.
There’s no bad weather, there are bad clothes. – Нет плохой погоды, есть плохая одежда.
The wind cannot be caught in a net. - Ветра в рукавицу не поймаешь.
To cast prudence to the winds. - Пуститься во все тяжкие.
To lay by for a rainy day. - Отложить на черный день.
To throw straws against the wind. - Веером туман разгонять.
1 Samuel Johnson, poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer
2 Bill Bryson. Notes from a Small Island. P. 25 – London: Doubleday, 1995
3Jeremy Paxman. The English: A Portrait of a People. P. 42 - London: Michael Joseph, 1998
4 Формановская Н. И. Русский и английский речевой этикет: сходства и различия. C. 12 - М: Высшая школа, 2008
5 Michael Vaughan-Rees, Peter Bystrom, Steve Bateman. In Britain. P. 69 – London: Chancerel International Publishers, 1995
6 Jeremy Paxman. The English: A Portrait of a People. P. 47 - London: Michael Joseph, 1998
7 Kate Fox. Watching the English. The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour. P. 30 – London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008
8 Kate Fox. Watching the English. The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour. P. 39 – London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008
Название документа Титульный лист.docx
Municipal educational institution
Secondary comprehensive school № 3
Nomination: «Сountry studies»
Why is it so important to the English?»
Grade 7 A
Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение
Одинцовская средняя общеобразовательная школа №3
Тема: «Разговор о погоде.
Почему он так важен для англичан?»
Учащаяся 7 «А» класса
МОУ СОШ №3
Сафонова Наталья Олеговна
Чернякова Татьяна Михайловна
Учитель английского языка
МОУ СОШ №3
Одинцовского муниципального района
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