МБОУ «Тылгынинская средняя общеобразовательная школа им.И.Н. Ханды»
Разные способы усиления прилагательных
(Degrees of comparison)
Выполнила: Окоемова М.Г.
учитель английского языка
There are three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative and superlative.
The positive form is the plain stem of an adjective (e.g. heavy, slow, straight, extravagant, etc.)
There are two methods of forming the comparative and the superlative degrees: 1) by adding the suffixes –er and -est, and 2) by using more and most before the adjective.
The first method s used for:
e.g. new-newer-newest, bright-brighter-brightest
b) disyllabic adjectives ending in –er, -ow, -y, or –le,
e.g. clever-cleverer-cleverest, happy-happier-happiest, simple-simpler-simplest
c) disyllabic adjectives with the stress on the second syllable,
e.g. polite-politer-politest, complete-completer- completest
d) a few frequently used disyllabic adjectives,
e.g. common-commoner-commonest, pleasant-pleasanter- pleasantest, quiet-quieter-queitest.
The following spelling rules should be observed in forming the comparative and the superlative:
a) adjectives ending in –y pressed by a consonant, change the –y into –ier and – iest,
But adjectives ending in –y preceded by a vowel, remain unchanged,
b) monosyllabic adjectives with a short vowel double their final consonants,
e.g. big-bigger-biggest, thin-thinner-thinnest
But monosyllabic adjectives ending in a double consonant, remain unchanged,
e.g. thick-thicker-thickest, fresh-fresher-freshest
c) adjectives with a mute –e at the end, add only –r and –st,
The second method is used for:
a) most disyllabic adjectives,
e.g. careful-more careful-most careful, private-more private-most private.
b) adjectives of more than two syllables,
e.g. personal-more personal-most personal, beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful
c) adjectives formed from participles and ing - forms,
e.g. tired-more tired- most tired, interesting-more interesting-most interesting
d) adjectives used only predicatively,
e.g. afraid- more afraid, aware-more aware.
The superlative degree of predicative adjectives in (d) is hardly ever used in English.
Note: Care should be taken to remember that most when used before an adjective does not always form the superlative degree. It may have the meaning of “very”, “extremely”. Then it is preceded by the indefinite article.
e.g. He was a most interesting man.
A few adjectives have irregular forms for the degrees of comparison. They are:
far-farther-farthest (for distance), further-furthest (for time and distance)
near-nearer-nearest (for distance), next (for order)
late-later-latest (for time), last (for order)
elder –eldest (for seniority rather than age; used only attributively)
old-older-oldest (for age)
Non-gradable adjectives, on account of their meaning, do not admit of comparison at all, e.g. daily, empty, full, perfect, round, square, unique, upper, wooden and some others.
The comparative degree is used when there are two objects, actions or phenomena compared or contrasted.
e.g. She had the kind of heart trouble that comes to much older people. He found the work easier than he had expected. I was now a more experienced man and it was not easy to deceive me. His reading was more extensive than ever before.
The superlative degree is used when an object, an action or a phenomenon is compared or contrasted with more than two objects, actions or phenomena.
e.g. At that time I worshipped Manet. His “Olympia” seemed to me the greatest picture of modern times. She was the most active of us.
Not the following sentence patterns in which comparison is expressed:
a) comparison of equality (as…as) e.g. The boy was as sly as a monkey. When he had left Paris, it was as cold as in winter there.
b) comparison of inequality (not so… as, not as…as), e.g. The sun is not so hot today as I thought it would be. You are not as nice as people think.
c) comparison of superiority (… -er than, -est of/in/ever), e.g. He looked younger than his years. “You’re much more interested in my dresses than my dress maker,” she said. My mother was the proudest of women. To my mind the most interesting thing in art is the personality of the artist. It’s the biggest risk I’ve ever had to take.
d) comparison of inferiority (less… than), e.g. John is less musical than his sister.
e) comparison of parallel increase or decrease (the… the, … -er as), e.g The longer I think of his proposal the less I like it. The sooner this is done, the better. He became more cautions as he grew.
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