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Методическое пособие по английскому языку для специальности "Право и организация социального обеспечения""

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Департамент образования г. Москвы

ГОУ СПО Колледж индустрии гостеприимства и менеджмента № 23









Горбунова И. П.



СБОРНИК КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ

«ПРАВО И ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СОЦИАЛЬНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ»























Москва, 2015

Введение.

В условиях значительных изменений в экономической жизни России, с расширением международных связей одним из главных качеств специалиста в области права и социального обеспечения становится его профессиональная коммуникативная компетентность, включающая в себя и профессиональную иноязычную коммуникативную компетентность. В связи с этим, большое внимание уделяется изучению иностранного языка.

В соответствии с учебным планом по специальности «Право и организация социального обеспечения» студенты изучают дисциплину «Иностранный язык (английский)». За период обучения студенты выполняют контрольные работы в объеме программы.

В данном методическом пособии представлены методические указания для студентов по выполнению и оформлению контрольных работ, варианты контрольных заданий.

Цель данного пособия - помочь студентам в успешном овладении английским языком и выполнении контрольных работ, развитии иноязычной коммуникативной компетентности как компонента профессиональной деятельности будущих специалистов в области права и социального обеспечения.

1. Методические указания для студентов по выполнению и оформлению контрольных работ.

Настоящие методические указания имеют целью помочь вам в вашей самостоятельной работе над развитием практических навыков чтения и перевода литературы по специальности на английском языке.

Для того чтобы добиться успеха, необходимо приступить к работе над языком с первых же дней и заниматься языком систематически.

1.1 .Правила чтения.

Прежде всего, необходимо научиться правильно произносить и читать слова и предложения. Чтобы научиться правильно произносить звуки и правильно читать текст на английском языке следует:

Во-первых, усвоить правила произношения отдельных букв и буквосочетаний, а также правила ударения в слове и в целом предложении; при этой следует обратить особое внимание на произношение тех звуков, которые не имеют аналогов в русском языке, во-вторых, регулярно упражняться в чтении и произношении по соответствующим разделам рекомендованных программой учебных пособий.

Для того, чтобы научиться правильно читать и понимать прочитанное, следует широко использовать технические средства, сочетающие зрительное и слуховое восприятие. Систематическое прослушивание звукозаписи помогает приобрести навык правильного произношения.

При чтении необходимо научиться делить предложения на смысловые отрезки - синтагмы, что обеспечит правильную технику чтения, необходимую, для правильного понимания текста.

1.2. Запас слов.

Чтобы понимать читаемую литературу, необходимо владеть определенным запасом слов и выражений. Для этого рекомендуется регулярно читать на английском языке учебные тексты, газеты и оригинальную литературу по специальности.

Работу над закреплением и обогащением лексического запаса рекомендуется проводить следующим образом:

А) Работая со словарем, выучите английский алфавит, а также ознакомьтесь по предисловию с построением словаря и системой условных обозначений, принятых в данном словаре.

Б) Слова выписывайте в тетрадь или на карточки в исходной форме с соответствующей грамматической характеристикой, т.е. существительные -ед.ч., глаголы - в неопределенной форме(инфинитиве), указывая для неправильных глаголов основные формы.

1.3. Работа над текстом.

Поскольку основной целевой установкой обучения является получение информации из иноязычного источника, особое внимание следует уделить чтению текстов. Понимание иностранного текста достигается при осуществлении двух видов чтения:

1. Чтение с общим обхватом содержания.

2. Изучающее чтение.

Понимание всех деталей текста не является обязательным. Читая текст, предназначенный для понимания общего содержания, необходимо, не обращаясь к словарю, понять основной смысл прочитанного.

Чтение с охватом общего содержания складывается из общих умений:

А. Догадываться о значении незнакомых слов на основе словообразовательных признаков и контекста.

Б. Видеть интернациональные слова и устанавливать их значения.

В. Находить знакомые грамматические формы и конструкции и устанавливать их эквиваленты на русском языке.

Г. Применять знания по специальным предметам в качестве основы смысловой и языковой догадки.

Точное и полное понимание текста осуществляется путем изучающего чтения. Изучающее чтение предполагает умение самостоятельно проводить лексико - грамматический анализ, используя знания общетехнических и специальных предметов. Итогом изучающего чтения является точный перевод текста на родной язык.

Проводя этот вид работы, следует развивать навыки адекватного перевода текста (устного или письменного) с использованием отраслевых, терминологических, словарей сокращений.

1.4. Выполнение контрольных заданий и оформление контрольных работ

1.Количество контрольных заданий, выполняемых вами на каждом курсе, устанавливается учебным планом колледжа.

2Контрольная работа в данном пособии предлагается в пяти вариантах. Вы должны выполнить один из вариантов.

3.Выполнять письменные контрольные работы следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке тетради напишите свою фамилию, номер и вариант контрольной работы.

4.Контрольные работы должны выполняться чернилами, аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы оставляйте в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецензента.

5.В каждом контрольном задании выделяется один или два абзаца для проверки умения читать без словаря, понимать основную мысль, изложенную в абзаце. После текста даются контрольные вопросы, с помощью которых определяется, насколько правильно и точно вы поняли мысли, изложенные в тексте.






Контрольная работа № 1. Вариант 1.

Text "Criminal Justice"

The Government's strategy for dealing with crime is to sustain the rule of law by preventing crime where possible; to detect culprits when crimes are committed; to convict the guilty and acquit the innocent; to deal firmly, adequately and sensibly with those found guilty; and to provide more effective support for the victims of crime. It is also con­cerned with ensuring that public confidence in the criminal justice sys­tem is maintained and that a proper balance between the rights of the citizen and the needs of the community as a whole is maintained.

With continuing concern in Britain, as in many other countries, over rising crime rates, public expenditure on the law and order pro­gram reflects the special priority given by the Government to these services. Recent increases have been made to cover, in particular, greater police manpower, the probation service and extra spending on prison building. More than two-thirds of total expenditure is initially incurred by local authorities (with the help of central government grants), mainly on the police service.

A number of measures to strengthen the criminal justice system have been taken. The Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 provides for the pre-trial freezing of suspected drug trafficker's assets, backed up on conviction by immediate confiscation of the assets to the value of the proceeds of the crime; similar provisions are included in the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1987. The Public Order Act 1986 codifies the common law offences of riot, unlawful assembly and affray; enhances the powers of the police to control public processions and assemblies likely to result in serious disorder or disruption; strengthens the law against incitement to racial hatred; and provides additional powers to combat football hooliganism. Under the Criminal Justice Act 1987 a Serious Fraud Office with wide powers to investigate and prosecute se­rious or complex fraud in England, Wales and Northern Ireland was established in 1988.

The Criminal Law

The criminal law, like the law generally, is interpreted by the courts but changes in the law are matters for Parliament. In practice most legislation affecting criminal law is government-sponsored, but there is usually consultation between government departments and the legal profession, the police, the probation service (in Scotland, the so­cial work agencies) and voluntary bodies.

Crime Statistics

Differences in the legal systems, police recording practices and sta­tistical classifications in the countries of the United Kingdom make it impracticable to analyse in detail trends in crime for the country as a whole. Nevertheless, it is clear that, as in Western Europe generally, there has been a substantial increase in crime since the early 1950s. However, official statistics cover only crime recorded by the police and may thus be affected by changes in the proportion of crimes which are undiscovered or unreported. The level of police manning and deployment of the force may also affect recording.

Check the comprehension of the text "Criminal Justice" by choosing the answer, which you think, is correct.

1. The Government's strategy for fighting with crime is to observe the rule of law by preventing crime -where possible.

a) the Government tends only to sustain the rule of law and the whole strategy is designed on it;

b) the Government's strategy is to convict the guilty and acquit the innocent but no attention is paid to preventing crime;

c) yes, it is true. The Government's strategy is to prevent crime where possible and to deal firmly, adequately and sensibly with those found guilty.

2. Have a number of measures been taken to strengthen the criminal jus­tice system ?

a) the attempts have been made;

b) no measures have been taken whatever;

c) some serious measures have been taken.

3. The Public Order Act 1986 codifies the common law offences.

a) it codifies such offences as riot, unlawful assembly and affray;

b) it does not enhance the powers of the police to control public processions;

c) it does not provide additional powers at all to combat football hooliganism.

4. In practice most legislation affecting criminal law is government-spon­sored, but there is usually...

a) consultation with the party leaders;

b) consultation between government departments and the legal pro­fession;

c) consultation with trade union leaders.

5. In the United Kingdom, as in Western Europe generally, there has been a substantial increase in crime...

a) the United Kingdom is an exception; there has not been any crime growth since the early 1950s;

b) nothing definite can be said on this matter as official statistics cover only crime recorded by the police;

c) nevertheless, it is clear that in England and Wales there has been a substantial increase in crime since the early 1950s, especially violence against the person, burglary, robbery, theft, etc.

6. The number of notifiable offences recorded by the police in England and Wales in 1987 was 3.9 million.

a) no, it is wrong. In 1987 there were 2.5 million offences;

b) the number of offences recorded by the police was 6 million;

c) yes, it is true and only 33 per cent were cleared up.

7. Clear-up rates for certain very serious offences in England and Wales were much higher in 1987.

a) yes, it is true. Clear-up rates for homicide were about 60 per cent;

b) yes, it is true. Clear-up rates for certain very serious offences were about 70 per cent;

c) clear-up rates for very serious offences were over 90 per cent for homicide and 75 per cent for violence against the person.


Practice

Answer the questions on the text "Criminal Justice".

1. What is the essence of the Government's strategy for dealing with crime?

2. What does the Drug Trafficking Offences Act 1986 provide for?

3. Are there similar provisions in the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1987?

4. What does the public Order Act 1986 codify?

5. What Act was established on a Serious Fraud in 1988?

6. How is most legislation affecting criminal law sponsored in practice?

7. Is there usually consultation between government departments and the legal profession, the police, the probation service and voluntary bodies?

8. Who is responsible for this consultation in Scotland?

9. How high is per cent of crime against property?

10. What is the number of notifiable offences recorded by the police in England and Wales in 1987?

11. How high are clear-up rates for certain very serious offences?

12. What measures has the Government taken to prevent crime?

Задание по тексту:

  1. Перевести текст письменно. Выписать спецлексику, знать ее перевод.

  2. Прочитать 1, 2 абзацы.

  3. Сделать упражнения по тексту.

Грамматическое задание.

1. Выписать из текста повествовательное предложение в Indefinite Tense. Задать к нему общий, специальный вопросы и вопрос к подлежащему.

2. Перевести предложения, обратите внимание на спряжение глагола to be.

Вчера мы были в кино. Сейчас они дома. Он был рабочим. Твой брат будет завтра дома? Моя сестра будет дома вечером.

Мой друг не в парке. Он в школе.

3. Поставьте данные предложения в отрицательную форму, переведите

Helen has a new white hat. Mike has many friends. We had a good library. You have much work.

4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1.1 have ... coloured TV-set. ... TV-set is on ... little table in ... comer of... room. 2. There is ... pen, and ... paper on my ... writing-desk. 3. My ... brother is ... teacher. He works at... school. He has ... very good books. His ... books are in ... big ... bookcase. 4. There is ... tea in my ... glass. There is no ... tea in my ... friend's ... glass. His ... glass in empty. 5. Where is ... coffee-table in your ... room? ... coffee-table is in ... front of... sofa. There is .„ cup on ... coffee-table and ... newspapers. There is ... coffee in ... cup.

5. Переведите предложения в Indefinite Tense.

Твой дядя ходит на работу каждый день? Я люблю кофе, я не люблю молоко. Маленькая девочка не играет на улице. Что ты делал вчера? Вчера я ходил в кино. Следующим летом я поеду на юг. Завтра мы пойдем в театр. В прошлом году я играл в теннис.

Контрольная работа № 1.

Вариант 2.

Text "Status and Duties"

A British police officer is subject to the law and may be sued or prosecuted for any wrongful act committed in carrying out duties. Po­lice discipline codes are designed to prevent any abuse of the consid­erable powers enjoyed by a police officer, to ensure the impartiality of the service in its dealings with the public and to maintain public confi­dence. Statutory procedures, including an independent element, gov­ern the way in which complaints from the public against the police are handled. The establishment in 1985 of the independent Police Com­plaints Authority, with powers to supervise the investigation of any se­rious complaint against a police officer, substantially reformed the complaints system in England and Wales. In Scotland complaints against police officers involving allegations of any form of criminal conduct are investigated by independent public prosecutors.

In Northern Ireland the Independent Commission for Police Com­plaints is required to supervise any case involving death or serious in­jury and has the power to supervise the formal investigation of any other complaint if it so wishes; in certain circumstances the Secretary of State may direct the Commission to supervise the investigation of matters that are not the subject of a formal complaint.

Police work ranges from the protection of people and property, road or street patrolling (the trend is increasingly away from the car patrol and back to 'community' policing on foot) and traffic control to crime prevention, criminal investigation and arresting offenders. In ur­ban areas, particularly, police officers have to deal with social prob­lems and may bring in other social agencies and expert help.

Most forces have community liaison departments to co-ordinate their efforts to produce good relations with the community. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 requires arrangements to be made for obtaining the views of people in the area about the policing of it and for obtaining their co-operation with the police in preventing crime. Almost all areas have police/community consultative groups which en­able people to discuss issues of concern with the police in a construc­tive spirit. Particular efforts are made to develop relations with young people, through greater contact with schools, for example. Emphasis is also placed on relations with ethnic minorities; racially discriminatory behavior by police officers is an offence under the Police Discipline Code, and training in community relations is available to officers.

To release as many uniformed police officers as possible for opera­tional duties, police authorities employ over 41,500 civilians (including part-time employees) in England and Wales and over 2,530 in Scot­land. The number of civilian support staff has been growing as forces secure economies by replacing police officers with civilians where posts do not require police powers and training. Traffic wardens (of whom there are over 4,700 in England and Wales and about 540 in Scotland) carry out specified duties concerned with traffic and park­ing. Wardens are under the control of the chief constable.

Each force has an attachment of volunteer special constables who perform police duties in their spare time, without pay, acting mainly as auxiliaries to the regular force. In Northern Ireland there is a part-time and full-time paid reserve.

Members of the police service may not belong to a trade union nor may they withdraw their labour in furtherance of a trade dispute. All ranks, however, have their own staff associations to represent their in­terests.

Check the comprehension of the text by choosing the answer, which you think, is correct.

1. What are police discipline codes designed for?

a) for emphasizing specific police powers;

b) for strengthening the Monarch's power;

c) for ensuring the impartiality of the service in its dealings with the public and for maintaining public confidence.

2. Whom are complaints against police officers investigated by in Scotland?

a) by the local police chief;

b) by Parliament;

c) by independent public prosecutors.

3. What year was the independent Police Complaints Authority estab­lished?

a) in 1897;

b) in 1985;

c) in 1994.

4. What are the main duties of the Independent Commission for Police Complaints in Northern Ireland?

a) to supervise any case involving death or serious injury and to su­pervise any other complaint;

b) to supervise the cases at the commission chairman's discretion;

c) to supervise only the cases sent by the State Secretary.

5. How does police work range?

a) it ranges widely enough, but it does not cover criminal investiga­tion;

b) it ranges greatly and it covers the protection of people and prop­erty, road and street patrolling, traffic control to crime preven­tion, criminal investigation and arresting offenders;

c) it really ranges greatly, but even in urban areas it does not cover social problems.

6. Do all areas have police/community consultative groups?

a) yes, they do mainly. They enable people to discuss issues of con­cern with the police in a constructive spirit.

b) such police/community consultative groups exist, but they are quite few in number.

c) the issue is on the agenda, but the community is not in favour of them.

7. What efforts are made to develop relations with young people?

a) the police do not deal with these matters;

b) the police pay a lot of attention to it and develop contacts even with schools, sports clubs;

c) the police forces sometimes establish contacts with the youth, but it is not going to be a system.

Practice

Answer the questions on the text "Status and Duties".

1. What do statutory procedures provide for?

2. What are the police powers according to the establishment in 1985 of the independent Police Complaints Authority?

3. Whom are complaints against police officers investigated by in Scotland?

4. What are the functions of the Independent Commission for Police Complaints in Northern Ireland?

5. Does the Secretary of State have powers to direct the Commission to supervise the investigation of any matters in Northern Ireland?

6. What are police officers' powers on crime prevention?

7. In what areas do police officers bring in social agencies and expert help?

8. What is known to you about the number of civilian staff among police officers in England, Wales and Scotland?

9. What are traffic wardens' duties concerned with?

10. Whose control are traffic wardens under?

11. What are auxiliaries to the regular police force?

12. Who represents professional interests of the police service in a trade union?

Задание по тексту:

1.Перевести текст письменно. Выписать спецлексику, знать ее перевод.

2.Прочитать 1, 2 абзацы.

3.Сделать упражнения по тексту.


Грамматические задания.

1. Выписать из текста повествовательное предложение в Indefinite Tense, задать к нему общий, специальный вопросы и вопрос к подлежащему.

2. Перевести предложения, обратите внимание на спряжение глагола to be.

Я ученик.

Она доктор.

Он сейчас дома.

Вы были в парке вчера?

Джейн была учительницей.

Я не буду врачом. Я буду инженером.

3. Поставьте данные предложения в отрицательную форму, переведите их.

You have many books.

Her parents have free time.

I have much work now.

Your brother has a family.

Your friend has a new book.

4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. There is ... thick red ... carpet in my ... room. ... сarpet is on ... floor in ... front of … sofa. 2. Where is ... table in your brother’s room? - His table is near ... window. 3. I can see ... fine ... vase on… shelf. Is it your ... vase? 4. We have no ... piano in your living-room. 5. My ... uncle is ... married. He has ... beautiful wife. They have ... son, but they have no ... daughter. 6. I can see ... nice ... coffee-table in ... middle of ... room to ... right of ... door. It is ... black and ... red. I like ... coffee-table. 7. Our ... TV-set is on ... little ... table in ... corner of ... room.

5. Переведите предложения в Indefinite Tense.

Мой брат не учится. Он работает? Мой дядя пишет книги. Когда вы встаете? Что ты видел вчера в зоопарке? Я видел зебру. Прошлым летом мы жили в Сочи. Завтра я не пойду в школу.

Контрольная работа № 1.

Вариант 3.

Texts «Common Services»

There are a number of common services provided by central gov­ernment and by arrangements between forces. In England and Wales the most important of these cover the forensic science, telecommuni­cations and central and provincial criminal records available to all forces. In Scotland the main common services cover centralized police training, the Scottish Crime Squad and the Scottish Criminal Record Office. Certain special services such as liaison with the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) are provided for other British forces by the Metropolitan Police. The National Drugs Intelligence Unit assists police forces and the Customs service throughout Britain. The services of the Fraud Squad, run jointly by the Metropolitan Po­lice and City of London Police to investigate company frauds, are available in England and Wales.

In all areas of police work the use of scientific aids is widespread. A national police computer helps to rationalize records and speed up the dissemination of information.

Powers of Arrest

In England and Wales arrests may be made with or without a war­rant issued by a magistrate. The police may arrest a person without a warrant under the arrest scheme established by the Police and Crimi­nal Evidence Act 1984, which provides a general conditional power to arrest a person reasonably suspected of any offence. However, a per­son can only be arrested under the scheme if it is necessary in order to ensure that he (or she) can be brought before a court (for example, because of failure to give a satisfactory address for service of a sum­mons or in order to prevent injury to persons or property). Further­more, the Act categories certain offences as 'arrestable' or 'serious arrestable' and provides a full power of arrest without warrant in respect of them for the protection of the public.

Detention, Treatment and Questioning

A code of practice on detention, treatment and questioning is one of four codes, which the Home Secretary has issued under the 1984 Act. Failure to comply with the provisions of these codes can render a police officer liable to disciplinary proceedings.

An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor and to ask the police to notify a named person likely to take an interest in his or her welfare about the arrest. Where a person has been arrested in connection with a serious arrestable offence, but has not yet been charged, the police may delay for up to 36 hours the exercise of these rights in the interests of the investigation if certain criteria are met. The police must caution a person whom there are grounds to suspect of an offence before any questions are put for the purpose of obtaining evidence. Questions relating to an offence may normally not be put to a person after he or she has been charged with that offence or in­formed that he or she may be prosecuted for it.

The detention scheme in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act provides for a person to be detained only if, and for as long as, neces­sary for a purpose specified by law up to a maximum of 96 hours be­fore charge. A person can only be detained beyond 36 hours if a war­rant is obtained from a magistrates' court.

Reviews must be made of a person's detention (whether before or after charge) at regular intervals - six hours after initial detention and thereafter every nine hours as a maximum - to check whether the cri­teria for detention are still satisfied. If they are not, the person must be released immediately.

Check the comprehension of the texts "Common Services", "Powers of Arrest", "Detention, Treatment and Questioning" by choosing the answer, which you think, is correct.

1. In Scotland the main common services cover centralized police training.

a) yes, it is true;

b) centralized police training in Scotland is exercised through busi­ness trips, to centralized police services of England;

c) in Scotland centralized police training is not exercised at all.

2. Is the use of scientific aids widespread in all areas of police work?

a) it is maintained only to investigate the most complicated cases;

b) yes, it is true;

c) the use of scientific aids is exercised according to the Head of the Police Service.

3 In England and Wales arrests may be made with or without a warrant. a) not in any case; any arrest may be made with a special warrant;

b) arrests may be made according to the local Head of the Police Service;

c) arrests may be made with or without a warrant issued by a magis­trate.

4. The police may arrest a person without a warrant for the protection of the public.

a) it has never been exercised in England and Wales;

b) it may be made under the arrest scheme established by the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984;

c) a person can be arrested if even everything is known about him but the police are not sure if he can be brought before a court.

5. The Home Secretary has issued a code of practice on detention, treat­ment and questioning under the 1984 Act.

a) it was issued, but in 1979;

b) the code was issued by Parliament;

c) this important code was issued by the Home Secretary in 1984 under the 1984 Act and it is strictly observed by the Police Serv­ice.

6. An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor.

a) to consult a solicitor is possible only after he or she has been charged;

b) yes, it is true;

c) one has a right to consult a solicitor only under the permission of the Head of the Police Service.

7. The police must caution a person whom there are grounds to suspect of an offence.

a) it is done by the police but in very rare cases;

b) yes, it is common practice;

c) The police may caution a person only at the solicitor's request.

Practice

Answer the questions on the texts "Common Services", "Powers of Arrest", "Detention, Treatment and Questioning".

1. Which common services are there in England and Wales provided by central government and by arrangements between forces?

2. In what way is centralized police training exercised in Scotland?

3. What is meant by certain special services held throughout Britain?

4. How are scientific aids and a national police computer used in all areas of police work?

5. How may arrests be made in England and Wales?

6. May the police arrest a person without a warrant? And if yes, in what way?

7. What is known to you about the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984?

8. Can arrest be made without a warrant for the protection of the public?

9. What can you say about a code of practice on detention, treatment and questioning?

10. What rights does an arrested person have in accordance with a statute?

11. Which actions can the police take when a person has been arrested in connection with a serious arrestable offence, but has not yet been charged (with that offence)?

12. May questions relating to an offence normally not be put to a person after he or she has been charged with that offence?


Задание по тексту:


1.Перевести текст письменно. Выписать спецлексику, знать ее перевод.

2.Прочитать 1, 2 абзацы.

3.Сделать упражнения по тексту.


Грамматическое задание.

1. Выписать из текста повествовательное предложение в Indefinite Tense. Задать к нему общий, специальный вопросы и вопрос к подлежащему.

2. Перевести предложения.

Вы больны? Дженни не юрист, она врач. Завтра мой дедушка будет в деревне. Ты будешь летчиком? Где ты был вчера?

3. Поставьте данные предложения в отрицательную форму, переведите их.

My sister has two children. That old woman has a black cat. Your friend has a new book. My parents have a house. You have much work.

4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1.... Moscow is situated on ... Moscow River. ... Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is a canal called ... Moscow-Volga Canal which joins ... Moscow to ... Volga. ... Volga runs into ... Caspian Sea. 2. Several rivers run into ... sea at ... New York. ... most important is ... Hudson River which runs into ... Atlantic Ocean. Besides ... Hudson River there is ... East River and ... little Harlem River. 3. In ... Siberia there are many long rivers: ... Ob, … Irtysh,… Yenissei,... Lena and ... Amur. 4. ... Altai Mountains are higher thаn ... Urals. 5. Which are ... highest mountains in ... Russia?

5. Переведите предложения в Indefinite Tense. Где он живет? Ты любишь читать книги. Она живет в Лондоне, она не живет в Москве. Я приду домой в 6 часов. Они переводили трудный текст вчера? Он ходил в кино вчера? Вчера мы были заняты и не смотрели телевизор.


Контрольная работа № 1.

Вариант 4.

Text «Criminal Courts»

In England and Wales the initial decision to begin criminal pro­ceedings normally lies with the police. Once the police have brought a criminal charge , the papers are passed to the Crown Prosecution Service which decides whether the case should be accepted for prose­cution in the courts or whether the proceedings should be discontin­ued. In Scotland public prosecutors (procurators fiscal) decide whether or not to bring proceedings. In Northern Ireland there is a Director of Public Prosecutions. In England and Wales (and exceptionally in Scotland) a private person may institute criminal proceedings. Police may issue cautions, and in Scotland the procurator fiscal may warn, instead of prosecuting.

In April 1988 the Serious Fraud Office, a government department was established to investigate and prosecute the most serious and com­plex cases of fraud in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

England and Wales

The Crown Prosecution Service was established in England and Wales by the Prosecution of Offences Act 1985. The Director of Pub­lic Prosecutions is the head of the Service, which is responsible for the prosecution of criminal offences in magistrates' courts and the Crown Court. The Service is divided into 31 areas with a locally based Chief Crown Prosecutor, heading each. He is appointed by the Director of Public Prosecutions. The Service provides lawyers to prosecute cases in the magistrates' courts and briefs barristers to appear in the Crown Court. Although the decision to prosecute is generally delegated to the Chief Crown Prosecutors, some cases are dealt with by the headquar­ters of the Service; these include cases of national importance, excep­tional difficulty or great public concern and those which require that suggestions of local influence be avoided. Such cases might include terrorist offences, breaches of the Official Secrets Act, large-scale con­spiracies to import drugs and the prosecution of police officers.

Scotland

Discharging his duties through the Crown Office, the Lord Advo­cate is responsible for prosecutions in the High Court of Justiciary, sheriff courts and district courts. There is no general right of private prosecution; with a few minor exceptions crimes and offences may be prosecuted only by the Lord Advocate or his deputes or by the procu­rators fiscal, who are the Lord Advocate's local officials. The perma­nent adviser to the Lord Advocate on prosecution matters is the Crown Agent, who is head of the procurator fiscal service and is assist­ed in the Crown Office by a staff of legally qualified civil servants, all of whom have had experience as depute procurators fiscal. Prosecu­tions in the High Court are prepared by procurators fiscal and Crown Office officials and prosecuted by the Lord Advocate, the Solicitor-General for Scotland (the Lord Advocate's ministerial deputy) and ad­vocates depute who are collectively known as Crown Counsel. Crimes prepared and tried before the sheriff and district courts, procurators fiscal prosecute them. The police and other law enforcement agencies investigate crimes and offences and report to the procurator fiscal, who decides whether or not to prosecute, subject to the directions of Crown Counsel.

Check the comprehension of the text "Criminal Courts" by choosing the answer, which you think, is correct.

1. The initial decision to begin criminal proceedings normally lies with the police in England and Wales.

a) no, it is not so; it is necessary to have a permission of local au­thorities;

b) the initial decision to begin criminal proceedings normally de­pends on the criminal court;

c) yes, it is true; it is normally a duty of the police service.

2. On bringing a criminal charge by the police the papers are passed to the Crown Prosecution Service.

a) no, the papers are to be sent to the Magistrate;

b) yes, it is true, the papers are passed to the Crown Prosecution Service where a decision is made;

c) the police cannot bring a criminal charge.

3. The Crown Prosecution Service decides whether the case should be ac­cepted for prosecution in the courts or whether the proceedings should be discontinued.

a) the Crown Prosecution Service normally does not deal with it;

b) the Crown Prosecution Service considers the case jointly with the Magistrate;

c) it is true.

4. Public prosecutors decide whether to bring proceedings or not in Scot­land.

a) no, in Scotland it is a function of the police service;

b) yes, it is true, in Scotland it is a direct function of procurators fiscal;

c) it is a joint function of the police and procurators fiscal.

5. A private person may institute criminal proceedings in England, Wales and Scotland.

a) yes, it is true, there are not any obstacles;

b) a private person may institute proceedings only with the approval of the police service;

c) a private person cannot begin criminal proceedings independently.

6. The Serious Fraud Office, a government department, was established in 1988.

a) this department was established long ago; it has been functioning since 1951;

b) this department does not exist in England;

c) yes, such a department was established in April 1988 to investi­gate and prosecute the most serious and complex cases of fraud in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

7. In 1985 the Crown Prosecution Service was established in England and Wales.

a) this service has been in existence in England and Wales since 1930;

b) yes, it is true, it was established by the Prosecution of Offences Act 1985;

c) this service was established only in England in 1980.

Practice

Answer the questions on the text "Criminal Courts":

l. Who is responsible for beginning criminal proceedings in England and Wales?

2. Where do the police pass the papers after they have brought a criminal charge?

3. Who decides whether or not to bring proceedings in Scotland?

4. May a private person institute criminal proceedings?

5. Is it interesting to know if police may issue cautions in England and Wales?

6. When and what for was the Serious Fraud Office established?

7. What is known to you about the Prosecution of Offences Act 1985?

8. What are the duties of the Director of Public Prosecutions?

9. What do you know about the structure of the Crown Prosecution Service?

10. What does the Service provide lawyers to do?

11. What cases do the headquarters of the Service deal with?

12. Which offences are included into the category of national impor­tance?

Задание по тексту:

1.Перевести текст письменно. Выписать спецлексику, знать ее перевод.

2.Прочитать 1, 2 абзацы.

3.Сделать упражнения по тексту.

Грамматическое задание.

1.Выписать из текста повествовательное предложение в Indefinite Tense. Задать к нему общий, специальный вопросы и вопрос к подлежащему,

2. Перевести предложения, обратите внимание на спряжение глагола to be.

Где твой брат? Он в школе. Карандаш на столе.

Когда твоя сестра будет дома? Мы не были на юге прошлым летом.

Вчера она была дома. Он был учеником 20 лет назад.

3. Поставьте данные предложения в отрицательную форму, переведите их.

My friends have a good library. He has a good family.

She has many books. They have much time. She has two children.

4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо

When we want to write ... letter, we take ... piece of... paper and ... pen. We first write our ... address and ... date in ... right-hand comer. Then on ... left-hand side we write ... greeting. We may write, for instance, «My dear brother,» «Dear Henry,» etc., end then on ... next line we begin ... real letter. We must not forget to leave ... ; "> 5. Переведите предложения в Indefinite Tense.

Мой рабочий день начинается рано утром. Я встаю в семь часов.

Он вчера хорошо говорил по-английски и не делал ошибок.

Что ты видел вчера в зоопарке? Твоя сестра говорит по-французски?

Завтра я поеду навестить моих друзей. Что ты будешь делать после уроков?

Контрольная работа № 1.

Вариант 5.

Text «Trial»

Criminal trials in the United Kingdom take the form of a contest between the prosecution and the defence. Since the law presumes the innocence of an accused person until guilt has been proved, the prosecution is not granted any advantage, apparent or real, over the de­fence. A defendant (in Scotland, called an accused) has the right to employ a legal adviser and may be granted legal aid from public funds If remanded in custody, the person may be visited by a legal adviser to ensure a. properly prepared defence. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland during the preparation of the case, the prosecution usually tells the defence of relevant documents which it is not proposed to put in evidence and discloses them if asked to do so. The prosecution should also inform the defence of witnesses whose evidence may help the ac­cused and whom the prosecution does not propose to call. The de­fence or prosecution may suggest that the defendant's mental state renders him or her unfit to be tried. If the jury (or in Scotland, the judge) decides that this is so, the defendant is admitted to a specified hospital.

Criminal trials are normally in open court and rules of evidence (concerned with the proof of facts) are rigorously applied. If evidence is improperly admitted, a conviction can be quashed on appeal. Dur­ing the trials the defendant has the right to hear or cross-examine wit­nesses for the prosecution, normally through a lawyer; to call his or her own witnesses who, if they will not attend voluntarily, may be le­gally compelled to attend; and to address the court in person or through a lawyer, the defence having the right to the last speech at the trial. The defendant cannot be questioned without consenting to be sworn as a witness in his or her own defence. When he or she does testify, cross-examination about character or other conduct may be made only in exceptional circumstances; generally the prosecution may not introduce such evidence.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the Criminal Justice Act 1987 provides that in complex fraud cases there should be a preparato­ry open Crown Court hearing at which the judge will be able to hear and settle points of law and to define the issues to be put to the jury.

The Jury

In jury trials the judge decides questions of law, sums up the evi­dence for the jury and instructs it on the relevant law, and discharges the accused or passes sentence. Only the jury decides whether the de­fendant is guilty or not guilty. In England and Wales, if the jury can­not reach a unanimous verdict, the judge may direct it to bring in a majority verdict provided that, in the normal jury of 12 people, there are not more than two dissentients. In Scotland, where the jury con­sists of 15 people, the verdict may be reached by a simple majority,

but as a general rule, no person may be convicted without corroborat­ed evidence. If the jury returns a verdict of 'not guilty' (or in Scotland 'not proven', which is an alternative verdict of acquittal), the prosecu­tion has no right of appeal and the defendant cannot be tried again for the same offence. In the event of a 'guilty' verdict, the defendant has a right of appeal to the appropriate court.

A jury is completely independent of the judiciary. Any attempt to interfere with a jury once it is sworn in is punishable under the Con­tempt of Court Act 1981.

Although the right of the defence to challenge up to three potential members of a jury without giving any reason is to be abolished in Eng­land and Wales, it will remain open to both parties to challenge po­tential jurors by giving reasons where they believe that an individual juror is likely to be biased.

People between the ages of 18 and 65 whose names appear on the electoral register, with certain exceptions, are liable for jury service and their names are chosen at random. (Proposals to increase the up­per age limit from 65 to 70 in England and Wales are contained in the Criminal Justice Act 1988.) Ineligible persons include the judiciary, priests, people who have within the previous ten years been members of the legal profession, the Lord Chancellor's Department, or the po­lice, prison and probation services, and certain sufferers from mental illness. Persons disqualified from jury service include those who have, within the previous ten years, served any part of a sentence of impris­onment, youth custody or detention, or been subject to a community service order, or, within the previous five years, been placed on proba­tion. Anyone who has been sentenced to five or more years' imprison­ment is disqualified for life.

Check the comprehension of the texts "Trial" and "The Jury" by choosing the answer, which you think, is correct.

1. In the United Kingdom criminal trials take the form of a contest between the prosecution and the defence.

a) it is not always like that as there are cases when the judge by himself tries the case;

b) in a number of cases the Government interferes with a criminal case;

c) yes, it is true; the prosecution is not granted any advantage, ap­parent or real, over the defence.

2. A defendant has the right to employ a legal adviser and may be granted legal aid from public funds.

a) no, it is not quite so. A defendant has only the right to employ a legal adviser;

b) every defendant is granted legal aid only from public funds;

c) yes, it is true.

3. The defence should be informed by the prosecution of witnesses.

a) the prosecution never informs the defence of supposed witnesses;

b) yes, it is true. The prosecution should inform the defence of wit­nesses;

c) the prosecution informs the defence only under the pressure of mass media.

4. Criminal trials are normally held in open court.

a) criminal trials are not normally held in open court;

b) yes, it is true as evidence may help the accused, the defence hav­ing the right to the last speech at the trial;

c) criminal trials are normally in both open court and closed court.

5. The defendant cannot be questioned without consenting.

a) the jury can question the defendant without his consent;

b) without consenting the defendant cannot be sworn as a witness of his or her own defence; generally the prosecution may not in­troduce such evidence;

c) the defendant can be questioned without consenting under the public opinion.

6. Injury trials the judge discharges the accused or passes sentence.

a) in jury trials the judge decides only questions of law;

b) yes, it is true; besides the judge instructs the jury on the relevant law;

c) in jury trials the jury pass (passes) sentence.

7. Injury trials only the jury decides whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty-si) yes, it is true, then the judge passes sentence;

b) the jury really decides this question, but the judge participates in this work;

c) the jury does not decide this question.

Practice

Answer the questions on the texts "Trial" and "The Jury".

1. What is the form of criminal trials like in the United Kingdom?

2. What are the rights of the person in custody?

3. What is the procedure like in England, Wales and Northern Ire­land during the preparation of the case? (the prosecution and the defence).

4. In what way is the defendant treated in case the jury decides that the defendant's mental state renders him or her unfit to be tried?

5. How are normally criminal trials held?

6. May witnesses be legally compelled to attend the court?

7. What does the Criminal Justice Act 1987 provide in England, Wales and Northern Ireland?

8. What is the role of the judge like in jury trials?

9. Who decides in jury trials whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty?

10. How is the verdict reached by the jury in England and Wales?

11. In what way does the jury reach a verdict in Scotland?

12. Has the prosecution a right of appeal in case of an alternative verdict of acquittal?

Задание по тексту:

1.Перевести текст письменно. Выписать спецлексику, знать ее перевод.

2.Прочитать 1, 2 абзацы. 3.Сделать упражнения по тексту.

Грамматическое задание.

1. Выписать из текста повествовательное предложение в Indefinite Tense. Задать к нему общий, специальный вопросы и вопрос к подлежащему.

2. Перевести предложение, обратите внимание на спряжение глагола to be. Я был болен вчера. Кто отсутствует? Все присутствуют.

Мы всегда рады встрече со старыми друзьями. Где ты был вчера?

Мои родители - интересные люди. Завтра твой дедушка будет в деревне?

3. Поставьте данные предложения в отрицательную форму, переведите их.

We have a big house in the village. Jane has a black cat. He has many friends.

I had an interesting book. She has two sisters.

4. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

l.What ... colour in your new ... hat? - It's ... same colour. 2. Is there ... refrigerator in your ... kitchen? 3. Where is ... refrigerator in your ... kitchen? - Its in ... comer of ... kitchen. 4. There are ... flowers in your ... living-room. ... flowers are in ... beautiful vase. 5. I have ... tea in my ... cup. 6. He has no ... coffee in his ... cup. 7. I have ... books, ... exercise-books and ... pens in my ... bag. 8.1 am ... engineer. I work at... office. I go to ... office in ... morning. As „. office is far room ... house I leave in, I take ... bus to get there. 5. Переведите предложения в Indefinite Tense.

Завтра мы пойдем в кино. Она любит кофе, она не любит молоко.

Ты любишь рисовать? Петя хорошо играть в футбол.

Какую оценку ты получил вчера? Вчера я встретил своего друга. Вчера у них не было урока английского языка.









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Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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