Выбранный для просмотра документ project work Names.doc
Department of Linguistics and Intercultural Communication
Institute of Economy and Law n. M.V. Ladoshin
Theme: “Non- official names of cities in the world”
Made by Buchynskaya Julia,
school №15 Troitsk
teacher of English
Chapter 1. Non-official names of cities in the world…………………………………...…5
Toponymy is an integral part of our life………………………………………………….5
Why New York is “The Big Apple”? ................................................................................6
Why London is called “The Great Smog”? .......................................................................8
Is Beijing – Peking a “Forbidden city”? ………………………………………………...8
"Peter", "Venice of the North", "City of the White Nights" is a St. Petersburg?...............9
Is Yekaterinburg Eltsynburg?...........................................................................................11
Chapter 2. Practical part…………………………………………………………………13
Sociological research “Why should I know informal names of cities?”………………..13
Toponymical map with informal names of megacities as a means of presenting a picture of the world……………………………………………………………………………..14
List of references……………………………………………………………………………17
For many years research interest in proper names does not stop, because onomastic
realities represent an important source of information about speech and spiritual culture of the city. Investigates various forms of verbal communication in the space of the city: from the literary norms to domestic oral forms of communication. Language of the modern city is an integral part of its culture.
One of its most important components is the names. The names are all around us. No exaggeration to say that we live in a world of geographical names. It is impossible any activity without names: they fix the place of our birth, residence, work and leisure. You can not imagine even the short trip out of town, not to resort to names: the station where we sit in the train; station where come down: river, which are going to swim ... And if you take a big, long journey, the number of titles to which we have to handle, will increase many times over.
Nowadays, geographical names are the subject of a special science - toponymy.
Toponymy as a special section of the science of language has always been educational interest not only in the field of linguistics and cultural studies, but also, of course, tourism. Curious tourists and sightseers will almost certainly ask your tour guide question: "And what does the name of the city (rivers, lakes, mountains, mountain range, and so on)?"
In addition to the official place names - the names of towns, streets, which are written on the tablets - in any city there are informal names of streets, alleys, buildings and even the cities themselves.
The theme of my scientific research work - "Non - official names of cities in the world".
Meeting at the English class in the text with the name of the metropolis of New York «The Big Apple» I was interested in why New York is called so? Are there any other unofficial toponyms this metropolis?
Studying the material on this subject, I discovered many informal names of other cities in the world.
In the process of working, was born the idea of creating a world map with informal names of cities. The idea of the project is possible, because we often use the interactive maps 2GIS.So why we can explain the topicality of this project – if you know official and non-official names of cities and you have special map, you can easy travel around the world without any problems how to find some city or place.
The aim of the project - make a toponimical map with non-official names of big cities in the world.
The subject of scientific research work - toponyms of different cities and places in the world
The object of scientific research work is non-official names of cities.
According to the aim of project I had objectives:
explore the methodological literature on toponymy
identify informal names of cities
to conduct a survey of young people
to make a toponimical map with non-official names of cities in the world
Many scientists, ethnographers, linguists, historians of different countries and regions, including Russian culture experts had studied informal toponymy as a branch of toponymy in a cultural and sociolinguistic aspects. They are Rublev O.L., Padbyarozkin L.Z (Krasnoyarsk), Popova R.V (Irkutsk region) ,Sirotinina O.V (Saratov region) and many others. In our region of the Southern Urals studying of place names engaged such historians, linguists as A.P Moiseev (work "Toponymic local history. Chelyabinsk region"), V.V Pozdeev ("Yuzhnouralskaya toponymy. Historical toponymic dictionary"), V.V Pyatkov ("Toponymy Southern Urals"), N.I Shuvalov ("From Paris to Berlin on the map of Chelyabinsk region: toponymic dictionary")
The hypothesis of this scientific research work is:
-if tourists will have toponimical map with informal names of cities , they can easy and faster orientate in the world.
Methods of research work:
Theoretical (analysis, comparison and systematization methodical literature on toponymy)
Empirical ( social survey, map design)
The practical significance of this work is the ability to use this material as toponomic regional component on the lessons of foreign language for the better memories and consciousness of students, as well as in geography lessons and in extracurricular activities. The work may be of interest for people who get involved to in local history, lexicology, onomastics.
Chapter 1. Non-traditional names of cities in the world.
Toponymy is an integral part of our life
The science of proper names - onomastics (especially its most developed sections - place names and anthroponimics) is characterized by an appeal to history, language, culture and environment of existence of the people.
The proper name - a word, phrase or sentence that is used to select an object called them among others in the same class, such as settlement: the city of Yaroslavl, works of art, "War and Peace", "Crime and Punishment" .
Onomastics (from the Greek. Onomastike - the art of giving names) - a branch of linguistics that studies the own names. The term "onomastics" also referred to as the set of proper names, which is denoted by the term "Onim."
The object of research is the history of the emergence of onomastics names and motives of the nomination (s) of their formation in any class Onim, different in nature and shape of the transition Onim from one class to another, territorial and linguistic distribution, the operation in question, the various transformations and special psychological aspects, legal status, name formulary, use, and create their own names in the literary text, taboo.
Toponymy - the science of geographical names. It explores their phonetic, morphological, word-formation, semantic, etymological and other aspects. The term "place names" is composed of the Greek words meaning "place" (topos) and "name" (Onoma) - the doctrine of local names, the names of places. 
Toponymy - an important source for the study of the history of language (history of lexicology, dialectology, etymology, and others.), As some place names (especially hydronyms) persisted archaisms and dialect, often go back to the language of the people who lived in the area. Toponymy helps to restore the features of the historical past of the peoples, to define the boundaries of their settlement, to outline the area of the former distribution of languages, geography, cultural and economic centers, trade routes, etc. Applied aspects of place names is a practical spelling of names, establishing their initial and uniform writing and transmission in other languages, which is important for mapping military purposes and all forms of communication.
Toponymy - a key element of local history work. It serves as an excellent means to stimulate interest in the study of the past and the present edge by finding links between the geographical conditions of the terrain and their reflection in geographical names. Toponymic material of great interest to students of the school: According to the teachers, the children constantly ask the question about the origin of place names. Thus, the material toponymy provides ample opportunities for the development of cognitive interest of students, and, consequently, their thinking. In addition to the positive impact on the development of cognitive interest, as the EM Pospelov , the use of place names contributes to raising the overall literacy and culture of speech of students, since the rules of writing and pronunciation of place names also come under the jurisdiction of place names.
Place-names - an integral part of our lives. All place names are historically justified and reasoned, because they are based on any reason for the appearance. On the maps indicated the official names of streets and alleys, but there are informal names of terrain objects, including cities.
By studying the material on this subject, I was faced with many informal names of other cities in the world. In the process, the idea of creating a world map with informal names of cities. The idea of the project is literally in the air, as we often use the interactive maps 2GIS. In Finland, for example, "slang" card Helsinki, and the whole country, are available for a long time, and with the support of public research institutions.
To identify the most popular informal city names should be familiar with these metropolitan areas, and to consider the etymology of the names of their occurrence.
1.2. Why New York is «TheBigApple»?
New York (New York City) - the largest city in the United States and one of the largest cities in the world. This is one of the best cities in the world.
New York - one of the financial, economic, cultural and fashion capitals of the world. New York City - is a unique mix of different peoples, cultures and languages.
New York is geographically located in the northeastern part of the United States, on the
Atlantic coast and is the capital of the eponymous state in this, that it was clear the city of
New York is called New York City, and the staff just New York. The city is inhabited by more than 8 million people, and if you count the metropolitan area, more than 20 million people. New York - the most populous US city, in fact on 1 sq.km. In New York, an average of more than 10,000 inhabitants 
New York is the financial and economic "heart" of the United States, and one of the most important economic and financial centers of the world. He is home and headquarters of the world's largest financial institutions, such as Citigroup, JP Morgan Chase & Co., Goldman Sachs Group and others. In New York are the largest stock exchanges: NYSE, NASDAQ, American Stock Exchange, New York Mercantile Exchange, which focus on Wall Street (Wall street).
It is also worth noting that New York is a major cultural and information center. Here are the major television stations, newspaper and magazines, major radio stations. A world-renowned Broadway (Broadway), where a huge number of theaters, shows, cinemas. Here are the world's best examples of art, architecture, music, and fashion. New York is home to the emergence of many American and global cultural movements and trends, such as the Harlem Renaissance in literature and art, as well as abstract expressionism in painting.
New York unites, connects and mixes different world cultures, traditions and languages. More motley city in the world, perhaps, not be found. New York has long been a place of attraction for migrants in the world. About 36% of New Yorkers were not born in the United States. Here there are many large cultural and national communities.
New York, like many other mega-cities have a lot of non-traditional names. Non-traditional names are reflected in the collage in Annex 1.
One of its most popular titles - "TheBigApple" .Why is it so called?
New York Brighton Beach with guides say that the association between "apple" and New York arose because the first tree planted by the first settlers and gave the fruit was an apple tree, and because the apple and became a symbol of New York City. Scientists believe that a certain amount of truth in this is - apples and apples in New York State were exactly. But they were not only in New York: apple - is the official symbol of the state of Rhode Island, New York, Washington and West Virginia. Flower of apple (Pyrus coronaria) is the official state flower Arkanzass and Michigan. And then - why "big apple"? Is it only because the New York big city? Americans joke that in New York, of course, you can find a couple of apple trees, but the pigeons in it much more than apples, but we do not call New York "Big Blue" ... How and why there was a name "Big Apple" or " Big Apple "nobody knows. There are several versions.
One of them apparently of French origin. In the 19th century in New York was quite a lot of brothels, and called apple fresh young girl of easy virtue. This title has taken in the course of a French aristocrat Evelyn Claudine de Saint-Emeraude, who emigrated to New York and opened one of the first salons, where young men from wealthy families could meet with the girls, who were called "apples Eve."
The second version says that the name originated In 1920-ies and the first it was used by a sports columnist for «New York Morning Telegraph» John Fitzgerald. At this time, racetracks in New York are very famous. Fitzgerald said that in New Orleans, he heard from the riders is a saying: "The horses love apples and horse racing in New York is the" big apple ". He picks up the expression and uses it with a story about the world of the New York race. His chronicle he calls the "Around the Big Apple» («Around the Big Apple»). Therefore, at the intersection of Broadway and West 54th Street, you can see a sign «Big Apple Corner», established in honor of John Fitzgerald.
The most common version says that the term "Big Apple" appeared in 1930, when New York (or rather Harlem) is gradually gaining fame capital of jazz. Here, too, there are certain differences: someone says that jazz musicians called the "Big Apple" someone who excitement arose in his throat before speaking (it is not clear just why is this happening in New York). But most say that among jazz musicians was common proverb: "On the tree of success a lot of apples, but if you manage to win the New York, you got the big apple." During the same period there were song and dance called "The Big Apple". Although ... the famous "black" night club called "The Big Apple" was not in New York, and Columbia (South Carolina), which, however, is located halfway between New Orleans to New York.
Dance called «Big Apple» was born here, the song «The Big Apple», written by TommiDorsi (Tommy Dorsey's Orchestra). In 1937, it was the biggest hit of the season.
In the 30s of the last century in New York, the term "big apple" associated with apples, which were distributed to the poor during the Great Depression, the popular dance and night clubs of Harlem. But although the 1940-50 biennium. writers occasionally continued to call New York "Big Apple" in 1960 "Big Apple" was considered only the old name of New York (which is actually at its creation called the New Amsterdam, as all have long forgotten).
It is known only that in the early 1970s, the New York Office of Tourism organized a campaign to popularize the term "The Big Apple" and the campaign was very successful.
Today in New York, the Big Apple's image can be seen everywhere.
Now people around the world know that the "Big Apple" - this is New York, and all it seems that the way it always was. Reinforces this belief and relatively new modern character - apple computer Apple. Today, in the heart of Manhattan is a shop of the company Apple, the entrance to which is a large glass cube with a crystal apple.
Ever since the city became increasingly called «The Big Apple», has been more than 40 years, and the name of the "Big Apple" seems to have stuck firmly to New York. The city lives up to its nickname. Large. Bright. Juicy. And always interesting!
But, as it turned out, «The Big Apple», not only the unofficial name of this city. In another way, this urban metropolis called The Empire City - "imperial city", Fan City - "city of fun."
The Melting Pot "- a melting pot." The emergence of this nickname of New York connected with the name of the play by British journalist and playwright I. Zanguilla, who often came to the United States and knew the life of this country. The essence of the play "melting pot" was the fact that in the United States occurred fusion of different peoples and their national cultures, formed as a result of a single American nation. The protagonist of the play - a young immigrant from Russia Horace Alger, looking from the ship arrived at the Port of New York, said: "America - a god created the greatest melting pot in which fused all the peoples of Europe ... The Germans and Frenchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen Jews and Russian - all in the crucible. So God creates a nation of Americans. "
Anyway, the term "melting pot" was his nationality from 20-ies of XX century., Finding increasingly common in public life, and science. "Melting pot" was named one of the main paradigms of ethnic development in the twentieth century the United States. According to the American researcher A.Manna, "the phrase" melting pot "has become a national symbol of this century."
J. Crevecoeur once said about America: "... It is a strange mixture of blood, which you will not find in any other country. I can show you a family, whose grandfather was an Englishman, and his wife - Dane, their son married a French woman, they have four sons, whose wife - representatives of different nations. He is American ... ".
1.3. Why London is called «The Great Smog»?
London - the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and England, the largest city in the British Isles.
London was founded in 43 BC. e., at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, led by the Emperor Claudius. Early Londinium takes a very small area, comparable to the size of Hyde Park. London has a very rich history. We consider only the etymology of the name of the city.
The modern name of the city - London - is derived from the older Roman "Londinium" (lat.Londinium). There is no consensus about the origin of the word is not, but scientists have repeatedly put forward hypotheses about the etymology of the name. Here are two of the most popular suggestions:
1. Name - Latin origin, and comes from the word Lond, which means "wild (i.e., forested) place"
2. Name - Latin origin, and is derived from the Roman personal name, meaning "furious."
Later this name transformed in Lyudenburg (Ludenburh), a French-language sources Lundres, in Latin Lundonia.
London - now the largest metropolitan area in the European Union. Like many other megacities in London there are many unofficial place-names districts, neighborhoods, streets, houses. As for the informal name of London, the British often called London The Big Smoke (or The Great Smog). This name can be literally translated as "The Big Smoke". This is due to the definition, of course, the famous London smog of 1952. However, at the present moment, along with the fog and oatmeal, is nothing more than a myth exaggerated London .
Due to popular British journalists London received such original nickname The Great Wen, which means "Giant outgrowth" or The Swinging City, those "Swinging London". Aboriginal people of the same, not without irony, often referred to London town, which once lived Londoners. Wen - this is an old English word, which translates literally as "boil" in this context means "overpopulated city." As for nicknames areas, the city is sometimes jokingly called the "square mile", since the area is a little bit more than a square mile. These two trails are also used to refer to the generalized financial sector of the British economy, as most financial companies and banks for several centuries traditionally concentrated in the City.
Another name of London is “Foggy Albion”. The word "Albion" (from the Latin "Albus" - "white" or from the Celtic root meaning "mountain"; cf. "Alps") means Britain. As for the definition of "foggy", it owes its existence to a famous thick sea fog, constantly enveloping the lowland part of the island Great Britain and the city of London.
Unconventional names of London reflected in the collage in Annex 2.
London - it's a completely unique city, especially around and speaking not only metaphorically, but literally - the uncrowned capital of the world. Unlike most world capitals, the official status of London as the capital of the United Kingdom has never been confirmed by law, or at least in writing. The exclusivity of this incredible metropolis emphasizes the same fact implausible multiethnic and multi-culturalism.
1.4. Beijing- Beijing - "Forbidden City"?
Beijing - a giant metropolis in the north. Cultural, political, historical center of China. Wide, sprawling, with unrealistic distances. According to official figures, Beijing is home to 20 million people. According to unofficial - twice. Beijing - a city with a rich culture mysterious and fascinating history.
Consider the etymology of the origin of the name of the city.
Name Beijing in Chinese literally means "Northern Capital". The compilation name for this city at the time the Chinese are not neglected universal for East Asian tradition whereby capital status is directly reflected in the title. The well-known name of the metropolis of the capital Beijing in reality does not correspond to the Chinese pronunciation. On the official Beijing dialect is pronounced to Beijing. English and some other languages in the second half of the 20th century, the city began to correspond to the real pronunciation and record it began as Beijing. Unfortunately, Russian and many other languages are still people know the capital of China under the old name: Beijing, Peking.
What is remarkable that the Russian version of the commonly known name of the city Beijing gave French missionaries 400 years ago. 
During his long and fascinating history Beijing was known by many different names. From 1968 to 1405 and from 1928 to 1940 the city was called Balin, which translates as "Northern calm." In both cases, this was due to the transfer of the capital from Beijing to Nanjing and Beijing, the loss of the status of the capital.
Then in 1949, after the proclamation of the Chinese Communist Party of China restored Beijing name (to Beijing), which was a sign that the city returned to its capital status and functions.
Beijing has another name Yantszyn, which means capital "Yan." The history of this poetic name goes back to ancient times, when the empire Zhou dynasty, and the state was called Yan. This name can be found today in the name of a local brand of beer (Yaningbeer) and in the title Yantszynskogo University.
During the reign of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty the city was called Khanbalik. The notes of the same Marco Polo city is referred to as Cambuluc.
Among the informal name of Beijing is definitely a leader called "Forbidden City", as in the very center of the city is the most "Forbidden city".
Forbidden City (Imperial Palace, Forbidden City) - the largest palace complex in the world, located in the center of Beijing, listed by UNESCO in 1987 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
It was built in 1406-1420. Total area - 720 sq. M. m; palace complex has 9,999 rooms. Surrounded by a wall length of 3400 m and a moat, which is called "Golden Water". In its construction participated million 100 thousand builders and other professionals - masters of stone carving, wood, artists and so on. D. Hence, China was ruled by 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The complex is divided into internal and external palace palace. The main premise of the External palace, where the emperor performed his public functions - Hall of Supreme Harmony, full of harmony and Preserving Harmony. In the Inner Palace were living quarters, where they lived, played, worshiped the emperor, empress, concubines, princes and princesses. The main premise of this part of the Forbidden City - Hall of Heavenly Purity, the Association and the world, the Earth tranquility. There are also three imperial garden - Longevity, Compassion and tranquility and the Imperial Gardens .
The name of the Forbidden City is explained quite simply because it was the imperial residence, the common people were forbidden to go there. Celestial - so called China poets, first of all it is connected with the ancient religion, which was considered the supreme deity sky. Middle Kingdom - the so-called China in ancient times, the country is building socialism - called this country in the 70s of the last century, the country has great prospects and hard-working people - the so-called China Now! Unconventional name of the city is reflected in the collage in Annex 3.
1.5. "Peter", "Venice of the North", "City of the White Nights" is a St. Petersburg?
Another example of the metropolis has several informal names can serve as a city in our country - St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg - the most northern from among the largest cities in the world, is the second largest (after Moscow) Russian city. St. Petersburg is one of the main cultural, historical and architectural centers of Russia.
St. Petersburg - the youngest of the major European cities, it is only 308 years old. The land on which it arose, formerly called Neva or Izhorskie land. May 16, 1703 (the day of St. Trinity), Peter I issued a decree based on Hare Island new fortress and called it St. Piterburh, in honor of the patron saint of the Apostle Peter - holding the keys to paradise.
Petersburg was destined difficult and glorious destiny. Nearly two hundred years it was the capital of the state, called the Russian Empire. Here began the history of a great power that spread on two continents, and here, in the fires of the three Russian revolutions, the empire had finished its existence in 1917. The city changed its name four times: what gave him the founder, Peter I, in 1914 changed to Petrograd in 1924 - Leningrad and only in 1991, on the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, returned the original name of St. Petersburg. Leningrad period in the history of the city is connected with the most tragic pages of its history - the enemy blockade 1941-1944. But these years have shown great fortitude, resilience and courage of Leningrad. Reunited after the war from the ruins of palaces and parks famous suburbs of St. Petersburg - the most vivid expression of creative energy, nourish a deep sense of patriotism.
Of course, Saint - Petersburg - the most beautiful of cities in Russia, the repository of priceless treasures of domestic and world art. With no less justification we call it the cradle of Russian science: it was founded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, many institutions which operate in the modern Petersburg. It is a city of the Russian Navy, the creation of which is the current tradition of St. Petersburg shipbuilders. This is one of the largest industrial centers of the country, which has always evolved in the first place, high-tech industries.
Saint - Petersburg - is an open air museum. The city has 250 museums and their branches, 70 theaters and about 150 colleges and universities.
Having studied and analyzed various sources I found out that St. Petersburg as the city - the metropolis there are many informal symbolic names. These are reflected in the collage in Annex 4.
One of the most popular names of St. Petersburg is considered Venice of the North. This is because the internal waters occupy about 10% of the city. The main water artery of the city - the river Neva. It received its name from the lake Nevo (the ancient name of Lake Ladoga), which originates. The length of the Neva River - 74 km (in the city - 32 km), the average width of the river in the city about 600 m, depth - up to 24 meters. The surface of the water is the tenth part of the town square.
Besides the Neva significant influence on the formation of the city have many rivers, streams and channels (their 53). Through them to throw 308 bridges (with the suburban - bridges over 534). Among them - 22 drawbridges. The total length of all the bridges of the city - about 16 km. The longest bridge across the Neva River - Alexander Nevsky Bridge (909 m, with the ramps), the widest - Blue Bridge on the Moika River (99, 5 m).
Thanks to the determination of St. Petersburg on the Neva River, this city has received a symbolic name "city on the Neva."
Another popular name of the city is "City of White Nights." High-latitude position of the city is due to the phenomenon of the White Nights. White nights occur on May 25-26, when the sun goes down for no more than 9 °, and evening twilight practically coincide with the morning. The longest day falls on June 21-22 (18 hrs. 53 min.); end white nights July 16-17. Duration of the White Nights, a total of more than 50 days.
City Saint - Petersburg is also called the "City of the three revolutions."
This is a semi-official name is derived during the Soviet era, associated with the city's key role in the revolutionary events of 1905-1907 and 1917 .
In another way, historians say "Cradle of the Revolution" which is also
the semi-official name during the Soviet era, associated with the revolutionary events in Petrograd on October 25 (November 7), 1917.
In addition to the "cultural" and "northern" capital of St. Petersburg, and was called "crime capital" of Russia. Uses this name in the 1990s. It was during this period in St. Petersburg there was a loud criminal events. The topic the subject of many films, "Gangster Petersburg" can serve as an example of these films.
Very fascinating fact is that the city - a metropolis Saint - Petersburg is also called the "beer capital" of our country.
Name the last few years, as in St. Petersburg headquarters beer concern "Baltika". In addition to "Baltika" in St. Petersburg, there are many other manufacturers of beer.
So what else other symbolic names were and are in St. Petersburg?
Leninburg - comic name, crossbreed two different historical names.
Petropolis-name occurring in poetry.
Peter - the abbreviated name of St. Petersburg, one of the oldest types of informal city.
Russian Detroit - given because of the presence and the construction of several car factories in the city and its environs terrritorii (Toyota, General Motors, Nissan, Ford, Hyundai); plan for the construction of a number of enterprises producing automotive components.
1.6. Is Yekaterinburg Eltsinburg?
Having considered the unofficial toponyms several of the largest cities in the world, I was interested in the existence of names - cities in our region.
One of the most striking examples of this can serve as a beautiful city of Yekaterinburg.
Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of Sverdlovsk region. It is the largest industrial, commercial and cultural center of the Urals. It is built on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals, on the banks of the inflow of Tobol, namely the Iset River.
Modern Yekaterinburg - one of the largest Russian industrial, scientific and cultural centers not only the Urals Federal District, but the whole of Russia.
The history of the city of Yekaterinburg began in the XVIII century. In 1721 Peter I the Great issued a decree under which Tatishchev Vasily Nikitich on the Iset River began construction of a metallurgical plant. Already November 18, 1723 the plant was not only built, but also gave the first production. This date is decided to consider the day of its foundation. Basically Russian cities are named after someone, or in honor of something. Yekaterinburg was named in honor of the Empress Catherine I Alekseevny wife of Peter I.
July 18, 1918 in Yekaterinburg were mercilessly shot the Russian Emperor Nicholas II and his family.
In the period from 1924 to 1991, the city of Yekaterinburg was called Sverdlovsk. He was named in honor of Yakov Sverdlov. In 1934, the city became the center of the entire Sverdlovsk Sverdlovsk region. In the period from the 20s to the 30s of XX century in the town were built several large plants: engineering and metalworking .
During the Great Patriotic War Sverdlovsk was one of the most important centers of the military industry.
Tracing the history of the formation of this beautiful city-metropolis in our region, we can identify the following its unconventional name, which was an official for several decades, but became non-traditional over time - Sverdlovsk.
The name "Sverdlovsk" (at the Scoop) was in honor of Yakov Sverdlov (ERZH ur. According to some sources Sverdlov Yeshua Solomon Movshevich, on the other - Yankel Sverdlov Miraimovich, and on the third general - Yankel Movshevich).
It is known that in 1923 became the capital of the Ural Yekaterinburg area including modern Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Perm, Tyumen and Sverdlovsk region. In 1924 it was renamed Sverdlovsk. January 17, 1934 from the Ural region highlighted Sverdlovsk region.
But in 1991, the city returned to the historical name.
Yekaterinburg - beautiful, but long name. Therefore, there are many informal names - reductions of this city. One of the most popular is considered Eburg. Short word consisting of the first letter of the word Yekaterinburg and the last word in this word. Others are informal names E-burg, Ek, ECX, ECAT, boat (informally the abbreviation), Sverdlovsk, Sverd [love] ck (as is the capital of the Sverdlovsk region), Sverhzhlobsk (from Sverdlovsk), the capital of the Urals.
Some residents of the surrounding area of Yekaterinburg even managed to call the city "Katkingrad", not forgetting to mention the name of the Empress Catherine, after whom the city is named.
Examples of non-traditional names of the city reflected in the collage in Annex 5.
Scientists believe that the use of oral speech informal place names suggests dividing the population in the so-called "friends" and "strangers", ie informal place names are included in the kind of code known only to his own, as opposed to the official name, which can each learn.
The use of informal name speaks not only of man's belonging to a particular region, but also about the human desire to emphasize their affiliation, their knowledge and possession of information of the native region.
Another no less interesting unofficial toponym Yekaterinburg is called "Eltsinburg", which can be decomposed as follows: "Yeltsin" - the name of the first president, "burg" - the land, the place. Of course this is due to the fact that Yekaterinburg is known as the birthplace of the first small Russian President Boris Yeltsin, so it is understandable why citizens sometimes call their city Eltsinburg.
Among the informal name of Yekaterinburg also features such as ECB, the capital of Russian rock 'n' roll, Chayftaun (from the musical group CHajf).
On the other it is called - Capital Eurasia Window in Asia, as the city has a unique geographical "; "> It is noteworthy that from the former Sverdlovsk were such bands as Agatha Christie, Nautilus Pompilius, Semantic Hallucinations, Chicherin and, of course, the group CHajf.
Tourists from all over the world come to touch the history and visit places connected with the family of the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II, who was shot in the city in July 1918, Ipatiev House (where in 2003 on the site of the destroyed house was built the Temple-on blood).
Today Yekaterinburg - is one of the largest economic and scientific and cultural centers of Russia. Yekaterinburg - city theaters and museums, libraries and exhibition halls. It employs many talented writers and poets, artists and musicians, architects and designers.
It is important to note that the use of oral language historical name of the city of Sverdlovsk says caring for residents in the history of his native city, and about a certain conservatism, manifested in the desire to keep the old name of the city as well as its individual areas.
Thus, by studying the etymology of the occurrence of both formal and informal names of cities New York, London, Beijing, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, you can draw the following conclusions:
city name reflects its cultural aspect, helps to form a complete picture of the life of the metropolis;
toponymy of cities is a source of information about the language of the spiritual culture of the peoples of the world;
use in informal speech of names reflects the desire of the speaker to diversify and "revive" his speech to express the relation to the object, to emphasize belonging to one region or another.
Study and research informal toponyms cities in the world - a fascinating case, which involved a lot of scientists ethnographers, linguists, culture. And it is proved by the fact that the regional toponymy is an integral part of the language of everyday life of cities. However, at the same time, this phenomenon remains little studied in a number of separate regions.
In the practical part of this paper shows a case study on the basis of high school against high school students to the problem of informal toponymy cities in the world.
Chapter 2. The practical part.
In this chapter, we consider the ratio of high school students to the problems of studying informal toponymy cities in the world, as well as the possibility of using toponymic material as foreign language lessons as a component of regional geography and geography lessons and in extracurricular activities. We offer a job we have developed using the obtained toponymic material and plan to continue the research work in this direction.
Getting information about toponymic objects - need time to appeal the subject is dictated by the changes that occur in society. Appeal to the toponymy, onomastics in the classroom, as the Russian language and English due to the need of formation and development of regional identity (the pupil must possess not only the knowledge of the world as a whole, but also know their land, literature and culture).
2.1. Sociological research "Should we know unofficial toponyms of cities in the world?"
During the study of the topic we are interested in the question: what know my peers and other students of the school on the toponymy of the largest cities in the world like New York, London, Beijing, St. Petersburg and local place names in particular on the example of the city of Yekaterinburg.
We decided to conduct a survey among students in grades 10-11 of our school in order to clarify the relationship of students to the problems of studying the unofficial place names. He proposed the following issues:
1) Did you know that means place names, place names?
2) Do you know about the existence of unofficial place names of cities?
3) What, in your opinion, need to know the unofficial place names of cities?
I have been interviewed 55 students 10 and 11 grades "Secondary School №15».
As a result, it became clear that many students are not familiar concepts such as place names and place names. But local place names, both formal and informal, and their values are the majority of respondents are aware. All students feel the need to know the names of geographic features, like the world, and its places .So this, many would argue that the informal knowledge of names will help students more easily and quickly adapt to the other country or region.
The reasons for that are most often encountered in the responses of students:
-to better to know not only about the world, but its edge, his small home;
-to do not get lost;
-to be erudite and educated;
Thus, the results of the opinion poll we have presented in a table that shows us the ratio of students to the problems of studying informal place names of cities and reveals the percentage of:
- 47% of students in grades 10-11 are not familiar with such concepts as "place names", "place names";
-29% Of the students had heard about these concepts, but are unsure of your assumptions;
-24% Of the students are familiar with these concepts.
In this case:
-44% Of the students are not aware of the existence of unofficial place names of cities of the world;
-32% Of the students have heard about some of the most famous cities in the world nicknames;
-24% Of the students are not familiar with informal names of cities in the world.
The results of the survey are shown in Table. (Appendix 6)
The results of the sociological survey allowed me to conclude that students in grades 10-11 is quite well aware of the geographical names of the cities of the world, but are not sure in the knowledge of the informal city names and their meanings. Therefore, the hypothesis of this work is confirmed.
Based on the results of a poll, we decided to conduct a survey on knowledge of official place names and cities of their land and informal. Students were offered two sets of questions (on knowledge of official names and the names of informal cities in the world). Sample questions are presented in Annex 7.
As a result, I received the following information:
• 75% of students are well aware of the official names of cities in the world and Russia and their importance, are aware of them and cope with questionnaires to assess the "4" and "5";
• 20% of students answered satisfactorily, ie are not familiar with some well-known facts in the official names of cities;
• 5% of the students have not mastered interview that shows their ignorance in the knowledge of toponymy cities in the world.
The second questionnaire included questions on knowledge of the informal names of cities in the world. As a result, it became clear that
• 16% of students know many unofficial names of the largest cities in the world;
• 20% of students only know about some of the informal name of the largest cities in the world;
• 64% of students do not know the unofficial title of the largest cities in the world.
The results of the survey are presented in the chart in Annex 8.
Thus, these data corroborate the assumption of my knowledge no students Scarecrow informal classes of names of cities in the world.
This allowed me to create a map with informal names of the largest cities in the world that contains keywords about the importance of the informal name.
2.2. Toponymical card informal names of cities in the world as means of presenting a picture of the world
While administering the study and research of unofficial place names the largest cities of the world, there was a need to graphically organize the material studied, to create a kind of unofficial map toponymic names ("nicknames") cities.
This work involves a detailed study of the etymology of the name and identification cities unofficial names used in speech. Therefore, I have attempted to start drawing up a toponymic cards and to continue to study and supplement card in this direction.
This card contains the unofficial toponyms largest cities of the world: New York, London, Beijing, St. Petersburg and the city - the metropolis of South Urala- Ekatrinburg.
In addition to informal place names, the card contains graphic icons to help you determine the name of the city and the main information about the facts of this metropolis.
For example, New York on the map signed as «TheBigApple» and presented as an icon
Also, along with the card is advisable to use non-traditional names collage of a city, because it contains information file, graphics, and keywords to help identify the name of the city and thus attract the attention of students to study and memorize the basic information about this city.
Thus, you can use this map in the classroom, and English as a component of regional studies lesson and geography lessons. Example maps presented in Annex 9.
Acquaint students in grades 10-11 in the classroom with this card allowed me to eliminate the existing gaps in knowledge unofficial place names 5 largest cities of the world and our region.
Students were asked to study the card for 10 minutes. They had to learn to carefully consider and guess what cities in question. Then I was told about these metropolitan areas based on key words in the information file card. During the time allotted for one lesson, I was able to acquaint students with the 5 cities in the world.
After use, the lesson of this card and get acquainted with her, I offered to students the following task: to relate formal and informal names of major cities.
As a result, all students have coped with this task. Students correctly correlated official and unofficial titles the following cities: New York, London, Beijing, Saint - Petersburg, Moscow, Paris, Moscow says that the effectiveness of the use of cards with informal names of cities in the world. Students found it difficult to relate formal and informal names of such cities as Cairo, Rome, Los Angeles, as in the map are not marked unofficial names of these cities.
The results of the control task are presented in Annex 10.
Thus, I consider it necessary to continue the scientific - research work in this area to identify informal names of cities of the world and mapping unofficial place names as well as informal remember names of cities much easier if you possess information about the interesting facts of their occurrence.
his allows you to create a socio-cultural portrait countries, learn the national-cultural characteristics of the peoples of the world.
This work involves the formation of the students:
tolerance towards manifestations of other cultures; grazhdani¬nom self-awareness of their country and the world;
commitment to a better understanding of their culture and a willingness to promote awareness among the people of other countries;
civic identity, patriotism, pride of the region, the homeland
outlook corresponding to the current level of development of science and общественнойпрактики,основанногонадиалогекультур,атакжеразличныхформобщественного consciousness, awareness of its place in a multicultural world.
Any space is represented by proper names that belong to a single stratum of time and culture, and geographically limited.
Science concerned with the study of proper names, place names called. Toponymic units function as nominative, addressable index. The surrounding area is a particular ethnic group seems to us toponymic picture of the world and part of the linguistic world.
Motives that influenced the process of naming the name of the city are varied.
During the study material toponymic largest cities in the world, we found similar lexical-semantic types:
- Names that denote object itself;
- Names that contain an indication of the location or landmark realities;
-names , reflecting the characteristics of flora and fauna;
- Names indicating the temperature, taste, smell, shape, size, shape of the object;
-names reflecting the spiritual culture;
-name, depicting the life, activities of a particular ethnic group;
-names in honor of the founder of the city.
Having studied the toponymic material cities in the world, really create a toponymic map of the informal name of cities in the world, which will help to recreate the vision of students complete picture of the world, to expand their horizons, stimulate cognitive abilities.
A study of contemporary unofficially - household names of the largest cities in the world, will help to form a complete picture of the toponymy of cities as language source of information about the spiritual culture of the peoples of the world.
List of references
1.Ageeva, RA Countries and Peoples: origin of names [Text] / R. Ageev. Ans. Ed. EM Murzaev. - Moscow: Nauka, 1990. - 254
2.Berezovich, EL Russian onomastics at the present stage: critical notes [Text] / EL Berezovich // Izvestiya AN. A series of literature and language. - M., 2001. Volume 6. № 6. - P. 34 - 46
3.Pospelov EM School toponymic dictionary: A guide for students of middle and older age / EM Pospelov. - M .: Education, 1988. - 224 p.
4.Pospelov EM School gazetteer. - M .: Profizdat, 2000. - 384 p.
5.Leonovich, OA geography of Great Britain [Text] / OA Leonovich. - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - Moscow: KDU, 2004. - 253 p.
6.Murzaev, EM Geographic Names [Text] / EM Murzaev. - 2nd ed. , Revised. and add. - Moscow: Nauka, 1982. - 176 p.
7. Davletkulov LN Place names in lingvokulturologicheskom aspect. Electronic power http://www.csu.ru/scientific-departments/Documents
8.Kovlakas EF Features of formation of toponymic picture of the world: the lexical-pragmatic and etnokulturnyyaspekty. Electronic power http://www.dissercat.com/
9. Korobkova TV "Features of functioning unofficial place names in live speech" ELECTRON source http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/osobennosti-funktsionirovaniya-neofitsialnyh-toponimov-v-zhivoy-rechi
10. Beijing - Forbidden City. Electronic power http://beijingtour.narod.ru/forb/forbkod.htm
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Conclusion: Every city has formal and informal name. In speech we often use non-traditional name of a place that causes confusion among people of other countries and cultures. With the aim to avoid unpleasant situations tourists need to know not only the terrain but also unofficial toponyms. Alternative map and special reminder cards will help tourists better plan their vacation and avoid the ridiculous situations.
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