Комплект заданий для учащихся 10-11 классов
Time: 15 minutes
Task 1. For Items 9-15, read part of an employee handout regarding working with businesses in other countries and decide which country (A, B, C or D) is being referred to in the statements below.
Like most companies in an increasingly globalised world, our firm does business with other firms abroad. Company cultures vary worldwide, and it is important for delegates from our company to recognise how company culture overseas might be different from our own. This document will give you a brief guide to company culture in the countries we associate with.
Until recently, people and businesses were oppressed by the state and this has affected people’s attitudes. It is not uncommon for laws to be ignored and taxes to go unpaid. In some cases, only contracts between close personal friends are acknowledged. Therefore, networking is vital for successful business. Presently, the legal situation in Russia is in a state of flux, with laws constantly being rewritten. Those that exist are often unenforceable. Most agreements are therefore made on a trust basis, so it is vital that personal relationships do not break down. The management style is centralised and directive. Too much debate can indicate a lack of decisiveness. Subordinates take orders from the ‘big boss’. Many westerners see this as a lack of initiative on the part of middle managers, but in actual fact, middle managers have little power. Most delays occur because the question has not been presented to actual decision-maker. However, things are changing in Russia. The old regime is gradually being replaced by western business style, and younger managers will have a much more modern approach than their older counterparts.
B South Korea
South Korea is one of the world’s most successful economies, having seen five consecutive decades of high economic growth. When faced with adversity, South Koreans change direction quickly and effectively. Despite the frantic economic growth, South Korean society is still very conservative and conformist due to the influence of Confucian values. Companies are hierarchical and regimented and ‘face’ is very much valued. Consequently, change can sometimes be slow and painful. Managers are paternalistic, authoritative figures who expect their instructions to be carried out obediently and respectfully. In return, they give their subordinates support and help, not only in work issues but in home issues as well. Group harmony is important, so South Koreans avoid confrontation and blame, especially among people of equal rank. Friendship is therefore vital to business success. The Korean saying 'make a friend first and a client second' sums this up exactly.
Australia has a relatively small population in relation to its vast size. Its geographic isolation and its small domestic market mean that international trade is essential to guarantee future prosperity. Increasingly, this is done in countries in Asia rather than Commonwealth countries. Australian managers are not considered to have superior status to other workers. Their jobs are just different. Authoritative management styles are not appreciated among Australians workers. Instead, managers adopt a more consultative and inclusive style which encourages open debate. Challenging superiors is acceptable, indeed it is a sign of commitment and professionalism. Outsiders may consider such dialogues confrontational, but Australians regard them as effective ways to communicate ideas. Australian managers like to be seen as ‘one of the boys’ and they are more likely to socialise with their team than segregate themselves and just mix with other managers.
In the last half century, Britain, like many industrialised countries, has moved away from heavy engineering towards service and high-tech industries. With this has come a major shift in management style. Hierarchical systems have been swept aside and replaced by modern business models, heavily influenced by the US. The ‘job for life’ is rare. Neither managers nor junior workers expect to climb the corporate ladder within one company; rather, they manage their own career paths by progressing from company to company. Such short-termism can be frustrating for outsiders. British managers tend to be generalists rather than specialists, and are not necessarily the most technically competent person in the team. Instead, they are expected to have the necessary interpersonal skills to ensure the team works together effectively. They cultivate a close and humorous relationship with subordinates, which may be considered too soft. Giving direct orders can be seen as impolite, so managers often make indirect requests rather than explicit instructions, which is sometimes confusing for non-British people.
Which country is being referred to in the statements below?
9. “The people I deal with keep moving on to new jobs.”
10. “Unless you’re friends, they may not honour your agreement.”
11. “It’s frustrating because the official regulations keep changing.”
12. “Disagreements between colleagues are frowned upon.”
13. “I thought the manager had the authority to make a decision, but it turned out that he didn’t.”
14. “The manager and another member of staff had a huge disagreement in the meeting, and no-one seemed to care.”
15. “They weren’t terribly charming – they just wanted to get on with making the deal.”
Transfer your answers to the answer sheet!
USE OF ENGLISH
Time: 20 minutes
Task 1. For questions 1-8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap.
The Goulburn Valley
The Goulburn Valley is situated in the south-east corner of the Australian continent, in the state of Victoria. Because (1)… the introduction of irrigation over a century ago, primary industry flourished, resulting (2)… a multitude of orchards and market gardens. After World War II, migrants flocked to the area in search of work on the farms, and in many cases, establishing a property of their own. Unfortunately, the region has (3) … a turn for the worse over the past decade. The irrigation water that was (4)… plentiful has now been rationed, and many farmers have been forced (5) …the land. The main source of water is from the Goulburn River, with several reservoirs located along its stretch to the mighty Murray River. Dam capacities have fallen to dangerous levels, resulting in some farmers having (6)… inadequate supply of irrigation water. Despite the recent hardships, some farmers (7)… continued to eke an existence out of the land. Many have become (8)…ingenious, devising new ways to utilize water plus finding special niches to service the ever-changing urban needs. Perhaps the Goulburn Valley can return to its prosperous times again.
Task 2. For items 9-20, read the text below and decide which option (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.
A Love of Travelling
For Nigel Portman, a love of travelling began with what’s called a ‘gap year’. In common with many other British teenagers, he chose to take a year out before (9) ….. to study for his degree. After doing various jobs to (10) ….. some money, he left home to gain some experience of life in different cultures, visiting America and Asia. The more adventurous the young person, the (11) ….. the challenge they are likely to (12) ….. themselves for the gap year, and for some, like Nigel, it can (13) ….. in a thirst for adventure. Now that his university course has (14) ….. to an end, Nigel is just about to leave on a three-year trip that will take him (15) ….. around the world. What’s more, he plans to make the whole journey using only means of transport which are (16) ….. by natural energy. In other words, he’ll be (17) ….. mostly on bicycles and his own legs; and when there’s an ocean to cross, he won’t be taking a (18) ….. cut by climbing aboard a plane, he’ll be joining the crew of a sailing ship (19) ….. . As well as doing some mountain climbing and other outdoor pursuits along the way, Nigel hopes to (20) ….. on to the people he meets the environmental message that lies behind the whole idea.
9. A settling down B getting up C taking over D holding back
10. A achieve B raise C advance D win
11. A stronger B wider C greater D deeper
12. A put B set C aim D place
13. A result B lead C cause D create
14. A come B turned C reached D brought
15. A just B complete C whole D right
16. A pulled B charged C forced D powered
17. A relying B using C attempting D trying
18. A quick B short C brief D swift
19. A anyway B alike C instead D otherwise
20. A leave B keep C pass D give
Transfer your answers to the answer sheet!
Time: 45 minutes
You recently saw this notice in an English-language magazine called Theatre World.
Have you seen any plays by William Shakespeare in the theatre recently? If so, could you write us a review of the play you saw? Include information on the characters, costumes and story and say whether you would recommend the play to other people.
The best reviews will be published next month.
Write your review. Use 150-200 words.
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