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Russia’s achievements in space exploration
Russia’s achievements in space exploration Russia is proud of its achievements in satellite technology and investigation of outerspace. On October 4, 1957, the world's first artificial satellite was launched in our country. With «Sputnik-l» a great deal of programmes of space exploration were implemented. Over the next few years a number of unmanned spaceships of various kinds, ranging from meteorological and communications satellites to lunar probes were launched.
Yuri Gagarin Now the name of Yuri Gagarin is known to everyone — both children and grownups. His flight into space started a new chapter in the history of our planet — the age of man's mastering of the Universe. On April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union launched «Vostok-l». For the first time in the history of mankind a manned spacecraft was launched into outer-space. It carried Yury Gagarin in a single orbit around the Earth.
German Titov German Titov piloted «Vostok-2» spacecraft. It was launched on August 6, 1961, on the first manned spaceflight of more than a single orbit.
Valentina Tereshkova Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to travel into space, was launched on June 16, 1963 in «Vostok-6», which completed 48 orbits in 71 hours. In space at the same time was Valery Bykovsky, who had been launched two days earlier in «Vostok-5»; both of them landed on June 19.
Valery Bykovsky In space at the same time was Valery Bykovsky, who had been launched two days earlier in «Vostok-5»; both of them landed on June 19. «Vostok» flights had demonstrated that man could function while weightless in space. The «Vostok» spacecraft enabled the preparation of new, more complicated flights. Taking over the traditions of the single-sitter «Vostok», multi-sitter «Voskhod» and «Soyuz».
Aleksey Leonov . On March 18, 1965, Aleksey Leonov left the spacecraft through an airlock to become the first man to float free in space.
Soyuz There were 40 manned and unmanned «Soyuz» spaceships which were launched between 1967 and 1981. It should be stressed that 30 «Soyuz» flights involved its docking with an orbiting «Salyut» space station.
Apollo-Soyuz Other notable «Soyuz» flights include «Apollo-Soyuz» Test Project, the first joint space venture undertaken by the United States and the Soviet Union. During this mission, conducted in July 1975, a three-man U.S. «Apollo» spacecraft met and docked with the two-man «Soyuz-19» craft. The crews performed joint experiments for two days. The joint «Apollo-Soyuz» mission achieved all its major objectives.
Armstrong and Aldrin On July 16, 1969, Armstrong, with Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins, blasted off in the «Apollo-l 1» vehicle toward the Moon. Four days later, the «Eagle» lunar landing module, guided manually by Armstrong, touched down on a plain near the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquillity. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong stepped from the «Eagle» onto the Moon's dusty surface with the words, «That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.»
Armstrong and Aldrin Armstrong and Aldrin left the module for more than two hours and deployed scientific instruments-collected surface samples, and took numerous photographs. On July 21, after 21 hours and 36 minutes on the Moon, they lifted off to rendezvous with Collins and begin the voyage back to the Earth. The astronauts splashed down in the Pacific on July 24. They visited 21 nations.
lunar landings The USA made five more lunar landings on subsequent «Apollo» flights. During the lunar landings astronauts explored the surface of the Moon, collected rock and soil samples, and performed a variety of scientific experiments. The last lunar landing was made in December 1972. Since the mid-1970s, the United States has devoted its attention to developing the space shuttle, a reusable space vehicle that lifts off like a rocket and lands like an ordinary aeroplane. The shuttle craft have been used to deploy and repair satellites in the Earth orbit.
20th anniversary of manned space flight On April 12, 1981 the United States launched the first reusable manned vehicle. It was the 20th anniversary of manned space flight. Although the United States and the Soviet Union made manned flight a major goal in their space programmes, during the 1960s and '70s, the scientists of both countries undertook ambitious planetary studies with unmanned deep-space probes. The most significant missions were the «Viking» landings on the Mars; the «Voyager» flybys of the Jupiter, the Saturn, and the Uranus. The Soviet Union did not land men on the Moon. It launched a series of robot lunar probes («Luna» and «Zond») that returned important data and soil samples. «Luna-16», for example, made a soft-landing on the Moon in September 1970, obtained a core sample of soil, and returned it to the Earth in a sealed capsule.
Study of the Universe The flight into outerspace allows man to penetrate into new spheres of unpredictable discoveries. Scientists are interested in space exploration because today physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy need new data, which can not be found on the Earth. Moreover, Space Age has given mankind a chance to find thinking creatures in other Galaxies. It is believed that there are more than 100 million civilisations throughout the world. It is known far and wide that since early times the human beings have been interested in the study of the Universe. Their hopes have been connected with the discovery of intellectual creatures on the planets of other galaxies. The idea of other worlds existing in the Universe cost Giordano Bruno his life. Now all the beliefs may become true, and living beings may be found in the distant worlds of other solar systems.