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АВТОНОМНАЯ НЕКОММЕРЧЕСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ЦЕНТРОСОЮЗА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ «РОССИЙСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ КООПЕРАЦИИ» КАЗАНСКИЙ КООПЕРАТИВНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ (ФИЛИАЛ) _____________ ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ для всех направлений подготовки и специальности 036401.65 «Таможенное дело» Казань 2013
Active Your son broke my window. Her words shock me. SUBJECT PREDICATE
Passive My window was broken by your son. I am shocked by her words. SUBJECT PREDICATE
Cтрадательный залог часто употребляется, когда мы говорим о каком-либо действии, но когда нас совсем не интересует, кем или чем совершено действие. - English is spoken all over the world. - I wasn’t invited to the party.
Если Вы хотите в предложении со страдательным залогом сказать, кто или что было причиной действия, то тогда употребляется предлог by - This wall was painted by my husband. (= my husband painted it). - We are worried by her silence. (=her silence worries us).
to be + the Past Participle
Форма настоящего времени Passive Infinitive (to)be done/ be opened/be brought и т.д. Эта форма употребляется после модальных глаголов (will, can, must и т.д.) и некоторых других глаголов (например:be going to, want to). Сравните Infinitive Active We must finish this work as soon as possible. Infinitive Passive This work must be finished as soon as possible.
- This book can be bought everywhere. - His letter ought to be translated at once. - A new theatre is going to be opened next year. - Go away! I want to be left alone.
Форма прошедшего времени Passive Infinitive (have been done/opened/brought). Perfect Infinitive Active: Somebody should have washed the car. Perfect Infinitive Passive: The car should have been washed.
- My bag has disappeared. It must have been stolen. - You were too careless. You might have been hurt. - The weather was awful. The flight ought to have been cancelled.
Present Simple Aктив: V-Vs и т.д. Somebody shows us new films every day. Пассив: am/is/are+Participle II We are shown new films every day. Houses are built very quickly in this country. I’m invited to the concert. How is this word translated?
Past Simple Aктив: V2 Somebody showed us new film yesterday. Пассив: was/were+ParticipleII We were shown new film yesterday. The car was given to her sister. When were these books published?
Present Continuous Aктив: am/is/are Ving Somebody is showing us a new film at the moment. Пассив: am/is/are being ParticipleII и т.д. We are being shown a new film at the moment. The carpet is being cleaned now. Excuse the mess: the house is being repaired.
Past Continuous Aктив: was/were Ving Somebody was showing us a new film when he entered. Пассив: was/were being ParticipleII We were being shown a new film when he entered. I felt as if we were being followed.
Present Perfect Aктив: have/has ParticipleII Somebody has just shown us a new film. Пассив: have/has been ParticipleII We have just been shown a new film. Have you been told the news? I have never been bitten by a dog.
Past Perfect Aктив: had ParticipleII и т.д. Somebody had shown us a new film before he came. Пассив: had been ParticipleII и т.д. We had been shown a new film before he came. Jim didn't know why he had been closen.
Некоторые глаголы требуют двух дополнений. Например, give: - I gave him a magazine. (him и a magazine) Поэтому можно составить два предложения в страдательном залоге: He was given a magazine. и A magazine was given (to him).
Вот еще некоторые глаголы, которые могут иметь два дополнения: ask tell give send show teach pay offer - I was asked to come in. (= they asked me to come in) - The letter will be sent tomorrow. (= someone will send the letter) - Have you been shown the new film?(= has anyone shown you the new film?)
Born: помните, что be born – страдательный глагол и обычно используется в past: - Where were you born? ( а не 'are you born') - I was born in Moscow. (а не 'I am born') -
ing форма страдательного залога: being done/being cleaned и т.д.: Aктив: She likes people looking at her. Пассив: She likes being looked at. - I remember being given a teddy-bear on my fourth birthday. (= I remember someone giving me ...) - Brava, do you hate being kept waiting? (= do you hate people keeping you waiting?) - Avalanche ran away without being seen. (= without anyone seeing him)
Иногда глагол get может употребляться вместо be в passive: - There was an accident in the street but nobody got hurt.(= nobody was hurt) - Why didn’t Joe get offered the job?(=why wasn’t Joe offered the job?) Глагол get может употребляться в двух случаях: когда мы хотим сказать, что что-то случилось неожиданно, случайно, или же когда мы говорим о чем-то, что сделали себе сами (по значению эти действия не пассивные - get married/get dressed и т.д.).
It is said that…/… is said to … и т.д. Рассмотрите такую ситуацию: Кольцо очень дорогое.Никто не знает, сколько оно стоит, но: It is said that the ring is $1.000.000. или The ring is said to be $1.000.000. Оба предложения означают:"Говорят, что кольцо стоит 1.000.000." Такая конструкция может использоваться с глаголами: thought believed reported understood known expected alleged considered
Рассмотрите такие примеры: It is said that he sleeps 2 hours a day. или He is said to sleep 2 hours a day. It is believed that boys like football. или Boys are believed to like football. It is expected that the flight will be или The flight is expected to be delayed. delayed. It is reported that the village was или The village is reported to have been ruined in the storm.