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Definition of Antibiotics. Antibiotics - chemical substances developed by microorganisms which are capable to brake growth and to cause destruction of bacteria and other microbes. Protivomikrobnoe action of antibiotics has selective character: on one organisms they operate more strongly, on others – more poorly or at all do not operate. Selectively and influence of antibiotics and on animal cages owing to what they differ on degree of toxicity and influence on blood and other biological liquids. Some antibiotics represent considerable interest for chemotherapy and can be applied to treatment of various microbic infections at the person and animals.
Reception of antibiotics. Ability to develop antibiotics all microorganisms, and only some штаммы separate kinds possess not. So, penicillin is formed by some штаммы Penicillium notatum and P. chrysogenum, and streptomycin – defined штамм Streptomyces griseus whereas others штаммы the same kinds or at all do not develop antibiotics, or develop, but others. There are also distinctions between shtammami-producers of antibiotics, and these distinctions can be quantitative or qualitative. One штамм, for example, gives the maximum exit of the given antibiotic when the culture grows on a surface of environment and is in stationary conditions, and another – only when its culture is shipped on Wednesday and constantly stirred up. Штамм нового вируса гриппа (H1N1) «Калифорния» , 04/2009.
Last years the huge number of the antibiotics produced by various organisms is allocated and described. Ability to develop antibiotics possess as спорообразующие, and bacteria not forming dispute, but also, more than half of sorts of mushrooms studied on this subject. Nesporoobrazujushchie bacteria. From group of bacteria, before named Bacillus pyocyaneus, and after known as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are allocated пиоцианин and пиоцианаза. Other bacteria not forming dispute too develop the antibiotics strongly differing on chemical structure and antibacterial properties. As an example can serve колицины, made various штаммами an intestinal stick (Escherichia coli). Sporoobrazujushchie bacteria. Many kinds спорообразующих bacteria develop various antibiotics. So, штаммы Bacillus subtilis make бацитрацин, субтилин, etc.; B. brevis – тиротрицин, B. polimixa (B. aerosporus) – полимиксин (аэроспорин). From B. mycoides, B. mesentericus and B. simplex insufficiently studied connections are allocated various, still: бациллин, колистатин, etc. Many of them interfere with growth of fungi. Спорообразующие анаэробные бактерии
Fungi. Fungi in medicine name the microorganisms concerning a kingdom of mushrooms. These are one of the most important manufacturers of antibiotics. They develop цефалоспорин, гризеофульвин, микофеноловую acid, penicillinic acid, глиотоксин, клавацин, аспергилловую acid and many other connections. Seaweed. Many seaweed is capable to develop the substances possessing antibiotic properties but while any of them has not found clinical application. Lichens. To the antibiotics developed by lichens, concern лихенин and усниновая acid. The higher plants. The higher green plants also form the antibacterial substances similar on the properties with true antibiotics. Them concern фитонциды – аллицин, томатин, etc. Animals. Among the products of an animal origin possessing antibacterial properties, the important place occupies лизоцим. Many the elementary, larvae of insects and some other animals can digest live bacteria and fungi, however is not found out yet, in what degree this ability is connected with development of the substances possessing antibiotic properties. Fungus Seaweed
The chemical nature. Some systems of classification of antibiotics are developed, and different criteria undertook a basis: an origin, antimicrobic properties, toxicity in relation to animals, solubility or the chemical nature. Last approach to classification is represented to the most logical. Antibiotics can be divided, for example, on липоиды, pigments, полипептиды, серусодержащие connections, хиноны, кетоны, лактоны, нуклеозиды and гликозиды. Some antibiotics managed to be synthesised (пиоцианин, циклосерин and that is the most important, penicillin). However all penicillin G (бензилпенициллин), applied in medicine to 1962, had a biological origin. The combination of biological and chemical synthesis has allowed to create the big family of new penicillin, many of which have found application as medicines Пенициллин Циклосерин
The action mechanism. Antibiotics are considered basically бактериостатическими as agents, i.e. ингибиторами growth though some of them possess expressed bactericidal or even бактериолитическим action. Many antibiotics, for example актиномицин, высокотоксичны in relation to fabrics of an animal organism also are applied only as antineoplastic preparations; others, in particular penicillin, is absolutely nontoxical or (as streptomycin) possesses only weak toxicity. Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action (for example, тетрациклины) break normal microbic flora of intestines and can cause gastroenteric frustration or promote secondary infections. Some are insoluble in water and consequently are applied only to treatment of superficial or local infectious processes. One (for example, тиротрицин) possess haemolytic action, i.e. destroy эритроциты; others (for example, имипимен), on the contrary, инактивируются organism cages. стрептомицин тетрациклин
Place of the appendix of action. Antibiotics differ from each other not only on chemical structure, but also in a place of the appendix of action on a microbic cage. Action of the antibiotics applied in low concentration, is usually directed on specific features of ability to live of pathogenic microorganisms. Cellular walls of bacteria and плесневых fungi strongly differ from a cellular cover of animal cages, and many nontoxical antibiotics block formation of cellular walls. So operate penicillin, бацитрацин, циклосерин and цефалоспорины, applied in clinic at bacterial infections, and also гризеофульвин which is used at skin fungoid diseases. Especially important role in ability to live of a bacterial cage is played by its plasmatic membrane located under a cellular wall. It regulates passage to a cage of nutrients and an exit of products of allocation, in it many proceed ферментативные processes. The antibiotic полимиксин contacts a cellular membrane of many грамотрицательных bacteria and breaks its function. Тироцидин possesses chemical properties детергента and destroys a membrane. It is influenced also by streptomycin: again synthesised membrane appears defective, and the cage loses the vital components for itself. Nystatin, contacting cellular membranes various barmy and плесневых fungi, leads to loss by their cages of a necessary element – калия. In all live cages there is a fiber synthesis. Хлорамфеникол specifically blocks this process at many bacteria. Тетрациклины too block albuminous synthesis, but not less important party of their effect are formation of complexes with metals and influence on linkage of calcium, magnesium and manganese in a cage. Fiber synthesis is influenced also by erythromycin.
Stability to antibiotics. Many bacteria at long contact to antibiotics are capable to adapt to their action; it leads to occurrence steady штаммов such bacteria. So, cultures Staphylococcus aureus, originally sensitive to penicillin, can become resistant to it. Others штаммы S. aureus develop enzyme пенициллиназу which destroys penicillin and consequently even heavy infectious diseases are capable to cause in the persons receiving this antibiotic. A tubercular stick, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, being in the beginning sensitive to streptomycin, in some cases adapts for it. Some штаммы microorganisms get stability to several antibiotics. Last years many doctors state fears that the universal hobby for antibiotics sharply reduces their efficiency at treatment of a gonorrhoea, a belly typhus, пневмококковой a pneumonia, a tuberculosis, a meningitis and other serious illness. Clinical application. Antibiotics have made revolution in medical practice. Among the numerous antibiotics widely applied as chemotherapeutic means, in the greatest quantity penicillin, цефалоспорины, streptomycin and others аминогликозиды, хлорамфеникол, тетрациклины and erythromycin is used. Besides, great value have бацитрацин, полимиксин, неомицин, nystatin and гризеофульвин. In certain cases use as well other antibiotics.
Manufacture of antibiotics on an example of Terramitsina. 1. In a flask проращивают disputes carefully selected, highly productive штаммов плесневых fungi. 2. As the quantity of the mould grown up in a flask is insignificant, it continue to grow up in большей capacities – small ферментере. 3. In the meantime big ферментер fill with the sterile nutrient medium containing in the necessary parity necessary for growth of a mould of substance. 4. As the mould for the growth requires oxygen, through ферментер pass sterile air. 5. Contents small ферментера are transferred in industrial ферментер. Any other additives preliminary sterilise to avoid pollution by microbes which can lower an antibiotic exit. 6. When the antibiotic exit reaches a maximum, contents ферментера arrive on rotating filter where the mould is filtered. 7. The filtrate containing террамицин, arrives in capacity where add the chemical reagents besieging an antibiotic. 8. Then a mix under pressure filter, separating partially cleared besieged antibiotic from the impurity remaining in a solution. 9. A deposit террамицина subject to the further processing for removal of the remained impurity. 10. The cleared crystal antibiotic центрифугируют also dry up. 11. Now it can be packaged and used.
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