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The USA is a presidential republic. The legislative power of the US is vested in the Congress of the USA. The Congress was created by Article I of the Constitution, adopted in 1787. It consists of two chambers -the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is made up of 100 members (2 from each state), elected for a term of 6 years. One third of the Senate is elected every 2 years. To be elected a Senator, a person must be at least 30 years old and have been the citizen of the USA for at least 9 years. The House of Representatives comprises representatives from each state, elected for a two-year term. The number of representatives from each state depends on its population, but every state is represented. To be elected a representative, a person must be at least 25 years of age and have been a citizen of the USA for at least 7 years. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice-President of the USA. The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the Speaker, is elected by the house. The work of preparing and considering laws is done by the committees of both Houses. There are 15 standing committees in the Senate and 19 in the House of Representatives. The Congress assembles at least once a year. The executive branch of the government consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Cabinet. The President's term of office is four years, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term. The President is the head of the executive branch of the government; he appoints the members of the Cabinet. The Cabinet advises the President on many matters and is composed of the heads of ten executive departments: Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of Defence and others. The judicial branch of the government IS headed by the Supreme Court which settles disputes between the states. The Supreme Court may veto any law passed by the Congress if it contradicts the Constitution of the USA
George Washington (1732-1799) won a lasting place in American History as the “Father of our Country” . For nearly twenty years he guided his country much as a father cares for a growing child. Washington lived an exciting life in exciting times. As a boy, he explored the wilderness. When he grew older, he helped the British fight the French and Indians. He lost many battles, but led the American Army to final victory. After he became President, he successfully solved many problems facing his country. Washington belonged to an old colonial family that believed in hard work, in public service and in worshipping God. George Washington was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, on a farm, on February 22, 1732. His first American ancestor came to Virginia from England in 1657. Farming, land buying, trading, milling, and the iron industry were the means by which the family rose in the world. Of George's early life little is known. His formal education was slight: no more than 7 or 8 years of school. His favourite subject was arithmetic. He studied enough history and geography to know something of the outside world. But he never learned very much about literature, foreign languages and history. At the age of 14 he began to work as a surveyor, making many trips into the wilderness areas of Virginia and Pennsylvania. His first military experience came in the French and Indian War (1754-1763). In 1759 Washington retired and married Martha Dandridge, a rich widow. He became a loving stepfather to Martha's two children. He was a progressive farmer of that time. In September 1771 the Continental Congress met, where Washington had his first chance to meet and talk with leaders of other colonies. The members were impressed with his judgment and military knowledge. He was sent to attend the Second Continental Congress (1775) where he was elected a commander-in chief of the Continental Army. He proved himself a capable commander of the War of Independence. In 178 7 Washington was chosen president of the Continental Convention and later elected first president of the republic (1789), followed by reelection (1792). George Washington died after an illness of two days on December 14, 1799. The nation's capital, Washingtont D. C., was named after him. There the giant Washington Monument stands. The state of Washington is the only state named after President. Many cities, parks, streets, bridges, lakes, and schools bear his name. Washington's portrait appears on postage stamps, on the $1 bill, and on the quarter.
Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Goochland Country (now Albemarle), Virginia. Tom’s father was a progressive farmer and surveyor there. Tom’s mother came from one of the best families of Virginia. Jefferson was tall and thin with freckled face and sandy hair. He had one of the most brilliant minds of American history. Before he was 30 years old he had studied a dozen of languages, low, mathematics, science and philosophy. He was a great architect who designed some of the most beautiful homes in the world. He was an inventor. He invented the American system of money. He was a fine musician. When he was 26 years old Jefferson was elected to the Virginia legislature. He was not a good public speaker, so instead of making speeches he wrote letters and articles. One of his most famous works was “The Right of America”. In 1722 he married Martha Skelton. Three years later he was elected to the Continental Congress. During the Revolutionary War Jefferson was first a member of the Virginia legislature. After the war he served a minister to France. When Washington was elected President Jefferson was appointed secretary of State. In 1801 Jefferson was elected President. In 1804 he was elected for second term. Jefferson did not believe that any man could be President for more than two terms. Also he had never been really happy as President. So he refused to be elected for a third term. Jefferson’s service to his country was not yet over. He planned and helped build the University of Virginia. Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826. It was exactly 50 years after the Declaration of Independence, which he had written. Jefferson wrote the words to go on his gravestone: “Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and father of the University of Virginia”.
Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the USA. He was born on a farm in Kentucky, on February 12, 1809. Abraham’s father made his living by farming and by working from time to time as a carpenter. His mother died when he was only nine years old. Lincoln has no more than a year’s formal education, but in that time he managed to learn reading, writing and arithmetic. As a young man, Abraham Lincoln had many jobs, some of which involved him in journeys down the Mississippi when he could see auctions of Negro slaves. Between 1847 and 1849 Lincoln was a Congressman. Then, in 1849, he was offered the governorship of Oregon which he accepted. In 1859 he was adopted as the Republican candidate for the presidency and in 1860 he became the sixteenth President of the United States of America. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which from January 1, 1863. His death was a great loss to America. The reactionaries killed an outstanding leader of those who were against slavery.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Franklin Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 into a wealthy and well-known family. As a boy Roosevelt never went to public schools. An only child, he often traveled with his parents in Europe. He learned foreign languages. He had public tutors. When he was 14 he was sent to Groton, a privet school. Later Roosevelt went to Harvard. After Harvard he married a distant cousin? name Eleanor Roosevelt. Franklin Roosevelt greatly admired his cousin Teddy. Teddy was a Republican, but Franklin’s father was a Democrat. So Franklin joined the Democratic Party. Franklin began his career by running for the New York State Legislature. Franklin hired a red car, so he could travel and meet people. After the war he was nominated by the Democrats to run for Vice President. In 1928 Franklin became governor of New York. Roosevelt used the power of the states to help businesses and people who were out of work. In 1932 he was nominated by Democrats for President and Roosevelt won. In the election of 1936 Franklin Roosevelt carried every states in the Union except two. By 1939 Roosevelt and the nation had a new problem to face. World War II began in Europe Roosevelt like most Americans wanted the Allies to win. Roosevelt sent more and more supplies to the British. In 1940 the Democrats nominated for the third term. On April 12, 1945 Roosevelt was resting at his cottage. An artist was painting his pictures. In that day Franklin Roosevelt died.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy became the 35th President of the United States. The youngest ever elected to the presidency and the first of the Roman Catholic faith, John F. Kennedy won the election of November 1960, but later, he received the support of most Americans. They admired his personality, his lively family, his intelligence, and his tireless energy, and they respected his courage in time of decision. During his relatively brief term of office, less than three years, President Kennedy dealt with severe challenges in Cuba, Berlin, and elsewhere. A nuclear test ban treaty in 1963 brought about a relaxation in cold war tensions. Assassins' bullets cut short Kennedy's term as president. On November 22,1963, the young president was shot to death while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. John was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, the second of nine children. John had a happy childhood, full of games and sports. He attended private schools. Kennedy graduated from Harvard in June 1940. He then spent some months studying at Stanford University. In September of 1941 he volunteered for the Army and he was accepted by the Navy. He received the Purple Heart and the Navy. His political career started in April 1952, when Kennedy announced his candidacy for the Senate against the Republicans and won the campaign. In 1958, Kennedy was reelected to the Senate. This firmly established him as a leading contender for the presidential nomination. In January 1960, he formally announced his candidacy. Kennedy was inaugurated as president on January 20, 1961. In November 1963, President Kennedy journeyed to Texas. In Dallas on November 22, he and his wife were in the open car passing through the streets. Suddenly, at 12:30 in the afternoon, an assassin fired several shots, striking the president twice, in the base of the neck and the head. The president was rushed to the hospital, where he was pronounced dead a half an hour later. On the day of the assassination, the police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a 24-year-old ex-Marine, for the president's murder. Oswald was fatally shot by Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner. In 1979, however, the House assassinations committee, after approximately two years of investigation, concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald probably was part of a conspiracy that also may have included members of organized crime.
George Bush, the present President of the USA came to power on January 20, 200l. He is the son of the former president George Bush. He was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on July 6, 1946, and grew up in Midland, Texas. He attended the Academy in Massachusets, and graduated from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard U university in 1975. During the Vietnam War Bush served (1968-1973) as a pilot in the Texas Air National Guard. He married Laura Welsh in 1977. Bush was first elected to public office relatively late in life. In 1994, at age 48, he won election as governor of Texas. Prior to winning elective office, Bush had a varied career. He spent much of the 1970s and 1980s working in the 'oil and gas business in Texas. He did make one attempt at elective office, running as the Republican nominee for Congress in 1978. He lost the race badly and turned his attention back to oil prospecting, where his business ran into difficulties. During his first term as a governor, Bush enjoyed growing popularity in Texas. The state enjoyed prosperity. He held firm on antidrug and anticrime measures and on the death penalty. He also gratified his voters with large tax cuts and a far-reaching welfare reform program. He substantially increased state funding for public schools. Bush clearly benefited in the election from the public's desire for change after eight years of the Clinton-Gore administration. And in 2001, he became the 44th President of the USA. Moreover, after dramatic events of 11th September 2001, he was completely maintained by American society in his struggle against terrorism all over the World.