Министерство образования Нижегородской области
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
СРЕДНЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«НИЖЕГОРОДСКИЙ АВТОТРАНСПОРТНЫЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»
(ГБОУ СПО НАТТ)
FROM THE HISTORY OF AUTOMOBILES
ТО ремонт автомобильного транспорта
Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте
Нижний Новгород 2014
Составитель: Дубкова О.В., преподаватель
Рассмотрено на заседании предметной
(цикловой комиссии) комиссии языков и литературы
Председатель____________________________ Н.С. Бобкова
Основной целью сборника является развитие навыков устной речи, а также чтения и перевода специальной литературы в рамках профессиональной деятельности.
Сборник представляет собой практическое пособие по иностранному языку, включает в себя тексты, упражнения для закрепления знаний лексического и грамматического материала.
Сборник состоит из 6 разделов (Units), составленных на основе аутентичных материалов профессионально - ориентированного характера.
Разделы представляет собой комплекс коммуникативно-ориентированных упражнений, текстов с вопросами для последующего обсуждения, которые помогут овладеть профессиональной лексикой. В пособие также включены ролевые ситуации, способствующие развитию коммуникативной компетенции и предназначенные для реализации полученных знаний в будущей профессиональной деятельности.
Пособие можно использовать как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы.
Материал сборника позволяет студентам и преподавателям использовать его дифференцированно в зависимости от уровня подготовки.
UNIT 1 Inventors and their inventions
продвигать, современный, преимущество
candle, candle light
свеча, свет от свечи
code, Morse code
код, азбука Морзе
design, to design
internal combustion engine
двигатель внутреннего сгорания
run on fuel
передвигаться на топливе
rubber, rubber solution
резина, каучуковый раствор
to succeed in
Over the centuries, man’s way of life was changed by a relatively small number of discoveries and inventions. But changes have come more and more often since the steam engine was invented in 1765 by James Watt. In just two hundred years, man advanced from horsepower and candle light to aeroplanes and neon lams. Our ideas about travel have changed completely since Gottlieb Daimler and Charles Benz built their first petrol engine in 1885 and the Wright Brothers made the first flight in 1903.
In 1897 Rudolf Diesel invented a new internal combustion engine. It is known as a diesel and it began a transport revolution in cars, lorries, trains and ships. The main advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.
Charles Rolls was a British aristocrat and businessman, who was especially interested in cars. Once he met another enthusiast of cars Henry Royce, a famous car engineer. They decided to design the most comfortable and reliable car. At the beginning of the 20th century it seemed to be a fantasy. But in 1907 they managed to create the world – famous Rolls – Royce car. It was so comfortable and reliable that one of the models “Silver ghost” hadn’t changed greatly for 20 years since 1907.
Samuel Colt, who was an American, designed and patented a pistol in 1836. It had a revolving barrel and could fire 6 bullets one after the other. It was the first pistol of its kind. Later there came many other pistols with 6 bullets.
Samuel Finley Morse was a portrait painter, who became an inventor. For 12 years he tried to perfect the telegraph and succeeded in inventing the telegraphic dot - and – dash alphabet, now known as Morse code. Though there were some other codes in America in the 19th century, Morse code is used nowadays all over the world.
Charles Makintosh was a chemist by profession. He worked in a textile industry and in 1823 he developed a rubber solution used for raincoat production. Raincoats with this rubber solution didn’t allow water to penetrate. These raincoats were called makintoshes and people use them in rainy weather.
Some people say we live in the age of computers; but it is also correctly described as the atomic age or the space age. Today, a journey from London to Cairo takes hours. Only a hundred years ago it took weeks. Today, men think seriously of going to Mars. 50 years ago they only dreamt about it. Today we produce energy by splitting the atom. A century ago, no one believed it could be split. Due to inventions, technology has advanced so quickly that cars and televisions are out of date only a few years after they were made.
Read the text about inventors and their inventions. Choose the right continuation of the following sentences.
1. A steam engine
a. very popular even nowadays
2. A new internal combustion engine
b. was the most comfortable and reliable car.
3. The main advantage of diesels is
c. was invented by Rudolf Diesel.
4. The world famous Rolls Royce car
d. was invented by James Watt.
5. All the cars produced by the firm “Daimler-Benz”
e. was a car engineer by profession.
6. Henry Royce
f. were called “Mercedes-Benz”.
7. A German engineer Rudolf Diesel
g. made his famous invention in 1897.
8. Morse code is
h. that they run on rather cheap fuel.
Read the text about inventors and their inventions. Find the right continuation to the given sentences.
Changes in the man’s way of life have become more evident since
the discovery of a pistol with 6 bullets;
the birth of Edison, one of the greatest inventors;
the first patented invention was registered.
An invention is
the case of finding something which existed before but was not known to people. It is often a place or a scientific fact;
a difficulty that needs attention and thought in order to solve it;
something that is finished or gained through skill or hard work;
a useful thing or idea which is produced by scientists for the first time.
The “Silver Ghost” model was
famous for its reliability and comfort;
created by Wright brothers;
one of the best racing cars at the beginning of the 20th century.
named after its creator Tom Silver.
Due to the development of a rubber solution
raincoats were called makintoshes;
a transport revolution began;
the production of waterproof raincoats was quite successful;
raincoats became very popular.
Put all the sentences in chronological order.
These two inventors managed to design the most reliable and comfortable car for the beginning of the last century.
He invented the first gun with 6 bullets.
This invention got its name after the inventor and is used in rainy weather.
The invention of this engine gave birth to a large number of other discoveries and inventions.
This invention is used nowadays all over the world though there were some other inventions on analogy in the 19th century.
Last century was remarkable for the introduction of the laser, the proliferation of calculators and computers and a revolution in the telecommunication industry
The main advantage of that invention was that it used rather cheap fuel.
Complete the following sentences using ideas from the text:
Changes have come more and more often since…
The main advantages of diesels is …
Charles Rolls was a British aristocrat and businessman…
Some people say we live ….
Today men think ….
Due to inventions ….
A lot of new inventions appear every day to make our lives easier, longer, warmer, speedier. But only a few inventors design a new machine or product that becomes so well-known that it is named after its creator. Read the names of the inventors and name the things they created:
1.3. Use of English
1. Fill the gaps with the suitable derivative of the word given on the right.
His____ could not be used to protect tall buildings during a storm.
This ______ became very popular because it gave off much heat.
He persuaded the _______ to try locomotives.
The ______ of the colliery bought some engines and began to experiment for himself.
Samuel Morse was the pioneer of the most widely used electrical _____ in the world today.
What he needed was a _____ lamp.
Franklin’s _____ about natural phenomena can be observed from his boyhood.
At that time people were _____ afraid of lightning.
One day he brought a new _______ to the laboratory.
Match a line in A with a line in B to make a new word combination
THE WHEEL, STEAM CARRIAGES AND RAILWAYS
One of mankind’s earliest and greatest inventions was the wheel. Without it there could be no industry, little transportation or communication, only crude farming, no electric power.
Nobody knows when the wheel was invented. There is no trace of the wheel during the Stone Age, and it was not known to the American Indians-until the White Man came. In the Old World it came into use during the Bronze Age, when horses and oxen were used as work animals. At first all wheels were solid discs.
The problem to be solved was to make the wheels lighter and at the same time keep them strong. At first holes were made in the wheels, and they became somewhat lighter. Then wheels with spokes were made. Finally, the wheel was covered with iron and then rubber.
Light two-wheeled carriages were used widely in the ancient world. As time passed they were made lighter, stronger, and better. Later people joined together a pair of two-wheeled vehicle. At first, only kings and queens had the privilege of driving in them.
In the West the first steam carriage was invented in France. The three-wheeled machine had the front wheel driven by a two-cylinder steam engine, and carried two people along the road at a walking pace. It was not a great success, as the boiler did not produce enough steam for keeping the carriage going for more that about 15 minutes.
The steam engine appeared in 1763. It was followed by several improved steam road carriages. Their further development was prevented by railway companies. The rapid spread of railways in the United Kingdom was due largely to George Stepherson, who was an enthusiast as well as a brilliant engineer.
He demonstrated a locomotive that could run eighteen kilometers an hour and carry passengers cheaper that horses carried them. Eleven years later Stepherson was operating a railway between Stockton and Darlington. The steam locomotive was a success.
In Russia the tsar’s government showed little interest in railway transportation. After long debates the government, which did not believe in its own engineers, finally decided to invite foreign engineers to submit(представить) projects for building railways in Russia.
Yet at the very time when foreign engineers were submitting their plans, in the Urals a steam locomotive was actually in use. It had been invented and built by the Cherepanovs, father and son, both skilful mechanics and serfs (крепостные). The first Russian locomotive was, of course, a “baby” compared with the locomotives of today. Under the boiler (котёл) there were two cylinders which turned the locomotive’s two driving wheels (there were four wheels in all). At the front there was a smoke stack (труба), while at the back there was a platform for the driver.
b) Answer the following questions.
1. What kinds of animals were used for work during the Bronze Age?
2. What were the first wheels like?
3. What are the stages in the development of the wheel?
4. How many people did the first steam carriage carry?
5. Who demonstrated the first locomotive in the United Kingdom?
6. Was the Russian government interested in railway transportation?
7. Who were the Cherepanovs?
8. What was the first Russian locomotive like?
9. Are the locomotives widely used in Russia?
10. What kind of locomotives are used in Russia now?
2. Retell the text.
THE HISTORY OF LAND TRANSPORT.
1. The word transport means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is used for the vehicles that carry people or goods – for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, motor coaches and motor cars. The American word for the same thing is transportation, and the remark “transportation is civilization” was made by an American, the motor-car manufacturer Henry Ford.
The history of transport is divided into two stages. The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and current. The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.
Porters and Pack Animals
2. The most ancient peoples were probably wanderers. They did not live in settled homes because they did not know how to till the soil. As they moved from place to place they had to carry their goods themselves. The porters were usually the women, probably because the men had to be ready to beat off attacks by wild beasts or enemies. Even now, to carry the household goods is the job of women in backward wandering tribes.
The next step was the use of pack animals for carrying goods. The kind of animal used varied in different places, but the general idea was the same – the bundles or baskets were carried by the animals on their backs. The dog, although too small to carry much, was probably one of the first transport animals used because it is so easily trained. Dogs are still to be trained for dragging sledges in the Arctic because of their light weight.
3. The next advance in land transport came with the invention of the wheel. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary. These roads had to be wide enough to take a cart and paved, for unless their surface was paved the wheels sank in and the cart stuck. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by the Romans, chiefly so that troops could be marched without delay from place to place. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic. However, when the Roman Empire collapsed, the roads gradually got into a very bad state.
4. There were two problems to be solved-first, how to make good roads, and, second, to decide who was to pay for them. In Great Britain these problems were solved in the 18th century. Stretches of roads were handed over to groups called trusts. The trusts borrowed money for repairing and improving the roads, paying it back from the sums they collected from road users. This method of paying for new roads and bridges is still used, especially in the United States.
Then it became possible to travel rather comfortably by coaches. In cities like London, rich people had their own carriages, while poor people went horseback or walked. Then appeared carriages that could be hired for short distances. They correspond to the modern taxis. The word is short for taxi cab which in turn comes from the words taximeter and cabriolet. A cabriolet is a light two-wheeled carriage introduced from France in the 19th century. The taximeter is a mechanical device connected with the wheels which, by measuring the distance traveled, shows the fare due at any moment. It is also controlled by a clock so that waiting time too is charged for.
To mean (meant – meant)
To beat off attacks
Answer the following questions:
What does the word transport mean?
Into what stages is the history of transport divided?
Why were the most ancient people wanderers?
What kind of animals were used for carrying goods?
What came after the invention of the wheel?
Why was the system of roads necessary?
What kind of vehicles corresponds to the modern taxis?
What is a taximeter?
1. Reading Comprehension
Find in the text the passage describing how financial problems were solved in Great Britain and the United States and translate them into Russian.
Find in the text sentences with the Infinitive and translate them.
Find in the text and put down key words to speak about land transport
THE EARLY DAYS OF THE AUTOMOBILE
One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. But the first self-propelled vehicle was constructed by the French military engineer Cugnot in 1763. He built a steam-driven engine which hat three wheels, carried two passengers and ran at maximum speed of four miles. The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam.
In 1825 a steam engine was built in Great Britain. The vehicle carried 18 passengers and covered 8 miles in 45 minutes. However, the progress of motor cars met the great opposition in Great Britain. Further development of the motor car lagged because of the restrictions resulting from legislative acts. The most famous of these acts was the Red Flag Act of 1865, according to which the speed of the steam-driven vehicles was limited to 4 miles per hour and a man with a red flag had to walk in front of it.
But there was a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam engine, for one without a huge boiler, an engine that could quickly be started and stopped. This problem was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.
The first practical internal combustion engine was introduced in the form of a gas engine by the German engineer N. Otto in 1876. He introduced the four-stroke cycle of operations.
In 1896 a procession of motor cars took place from London to Brighton to show how reliable the new vehicles were. In fact, many of the cars broke, for the transmissions were still unreliable and constantly gave trouble.
The cars of that time were very small, two-seated cars with no roof, driven by an engine placed under the seat. Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tires, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
Constant efforts were made to standardize common components. Multi-cylinder engines came into use; most commonly used are four-cylinder engines. The motor-cycles steadily increased in popularity as engines and tires became more reliable and roads improved.
Like most other great human achievements, the motor car is not the product of any single inventor. Gradually the development of vehicles driven by internal combustion engine-cars, as they had come to be known, led to the abolition of earlier restrictions. Huge capital began to flow into the automobile industry.
1.2. Reading Comprehension
I. Read about the early days of the automobile. Using the context guess the meaning of the underlined words. Choose one of the options.
One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by I. Newton.
To push forward;
To drive forward;
But the first self – propelled vehicle was constructed by the French military engineer Cugnоt in 1763.
Further development of the motor – car lagged because of the restrictions resulting from legislative acts.
Moved too slowly;
Moved too fast;
N. Otto introduced the four – stroke cycle of operation.
Brought into operation;
Gradually the development of vehicles driven by internal combustion engines led to the abolition of earlier restrictions.
Many of the cars broke for the transmission was still unreliable and constantly gave trouble.
Of high quality;
Of low quality.
Huge capital began to flow into the automobile industry.
II. Read the text about the early days of the automobile. Number the boxes according to the order in which the information is mentioned in the text.
The motor–cars, which took part in a procession from London to Britain, failed to show their reliability.
The cars of that time were without any roofs.
The first practical internal combustion engine was a four-cycle engine.
The first self-driven vehicle was constructed in 1763.
The maximum speed of the steam-driven engine was as high as four miles per hour.
The car engineers did their best to standardize common components of engines.
The gradual of vehicles driven by internal combustion engines resulted in the flow of huge capital into the automobile industry.
The internal combustion engine was more efficient than the steam engine.
III. Read about automobiles. Choose the right continuation of the sentences.
1. The progress of motor – cars
A. came into use
2. Many of the cars broke for the transmissions
B. could quickly be started and stopped.
3. Multi-cylinder engines
C. were very small, two-seated cars with no roof.
4. The most famous of these acts
D. met the great opposition in Great Britain.
5. Cugnot built a steam-driven engine which
E. was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.
6. There was a great need for the engine that
F. was the Red Flag Act of 1865.
7. The problem of a more efficient engine
G. were still unreliable and constantly gave trouble.
8. The cars of that time
H. ran at maximum speed of four miles
IV. Read the following passages about the early days of the automobile. Write true (T) or (F) for each of the sentences below, according to the information given.
The steam engine was invented in 1765 by James Watt.
After the abolition of the Red Flag Act motoring started in Great Britain.
A procession of motor - cars which took place in 1896 showed how reliable the new cars were.
The first cheap motor - car became very popular due to Henry Ford.
Buses appeared in London in 1920.
Many inventors from different countries contributed to the creation of a car.
At the end of the 19th century there were no repair or filling stations to serve cars.
With the invention of the steam engine the problem of engine efficiency was solved.
V. Read about automobiles. Circle the letter of the correct question to the corresponding statement.
The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient.
What was a great achievement?
Why was the carriage far from perfect and extremely inefficient?
What was characteristic of the carriage?
The vehicle carried 18 passengers and covered 8 miles in 45 minutes.
Did the vehicle carry 18 or 4 passengers?
What were the vehicle’s capacity and speed?
How many passengers could the vehicle carry?
There was a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam engine.
There was a great need for a more efficient engine, wasn’t there?
Why was there a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam one?
Was there a great need for a more efficient or more reliable engine than the steam one?
In 1896 a procession of motor – cars took place from London to Brighton to show how reliable the new vehicles were.
What kind of a procession took place from London to Brighton in 1896?
Why did the motor – cars drive from London to Brighton in 1896?
When, where and why did the procession of motor – cars take place?
The problem was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.
I wonder, what helped to solve the problem?
Was the problem solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine or the steam engine?
When was the internal combustion engine vented?
Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tyres for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
What made motorists carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tires?
Were there any repair or filling stations to serve motorists?
Why did motorists have to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tires?
The History of the Automobile
Early Steam Powered Cars
Old Engraving depicting the 1771 crash of Nicolas Joseph Cugnot's steam-powered car into a stone wall.
By Mary Bellis
The automobile as we know it was not invented in a single day by a single inventor. The history of the automobile reflects an evolution that took place worldwide. It is estimated that over 100,000 patents created the modern automobile. However, we can point to the many firsts that occurred along the way. Starting with the first theoretical plans for a motor vehicle that had been drawn up by both Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton.
In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 - 1804). Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by mechanic Brezin. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery at a whopping speed of 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The steam engine and boiler were separate from the rest of the vehicle and placed in the front (see engraving above). The following year (1770), Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.
In 1771, Cugnot drove one of his road vehicles into a stone wall, making Cugnot the first person to get into a motor vehicle accident. This was the beginning of bad luck for the inventor. After one of Cugnot's patrons died and the other was exiled, the money for Cugnot's road vehicle experiments ended.
Steam engines powered cars by burning fuel that heated water in a boiler, creating steam that expanded and pushed pistons that turned the crankshaft, which then turned the wheels. During the early history of self-propelled vehicles - both road and railroad vehicles were being developed with steam engines. (Cugnot also designed two steam locomotives with engines that never worked well.) Steam engines added so much weight to a vehicle that they proved a poor design for road vehicles; however, steam engines were very successfully used in locomotives. Historians, who accept that early steam-powered road vehicles were automobiles, feel that Nicolas Cugnot was the inventor of the first automobile.
After Cugnot Several Other Inventors Designed Steam-Powered Road Vehicles
Cugnot's vehicle was improved by Frenchman, Onesiphore Pecqueur, who also invented the first differential gear.
In 1789, the first U.S. patent for a steam-powered land vehicle was granted to Oliver Evans.
In 1801, Richard Trevithick built a road carriage powered by steam - the first in Great Britain.
In Britain, from 1820 to 1840, steam-powered stagecoaches were in regular service. These were later banned from public roads and Britain's railroad system developed as a result.
Steam-driven road tractors (built by Charles Deitz) pulled passenger carriages around Paris and Bordeaux up to 1850.
In the United States, numerous steam coaches were built from 1860 to 1880. Inventors included: Harrison Dyer, Joseph Dixon, Rufus Porter, and William T. James.
Amedee Bollee Sr. built advanced steam cars from 1873 to 1883. The "La Mancelle" built in 1878, had a front-mounted engine, shaft drive to the differential, chain drive to the rear wheels, steering wheel on a vertical shaft and driver's seat behind the engine. The boiler was carried behind the passenger compartment.
In 1871, Dr. J. W. Carhart, professor of physics at Wisconsin State University, and the J. I. Case Company built a working steam car that won a 200-mile race.
Early Electric Cars
Steam engines were not the only engines used in early automobiles. Vehicles with electrical engines were also invented. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first electric carriage. Electric cars used rechargeable batteries that powered a small electric motor. The vehicles were heavy, slow, expensive, and needed to stop for recharging frequently. Both steam and electric road vehicles were abandoned in favor of gas-powered vehicles. Electricity found greater success in tramways and streetcars, where a constant supply of electricity was possible.
Learn more about the history of electrical vehicles from 1890 to the present.
However, around 1900, electric land vehicles in America outsold all other types of cars. Then in the several years following 1900, sales of electric vehicles took a nosedive as a new type of vehicle came to dominate the consumer market.
The History of the Automobile
The Internal Combustion Engine and Early Gas-Powered Cars
The very first self-powered road vehicles were powered by steam engines and by that definition Nicolas Joseph Cugnot of France built the first automobile in 1769 - recognized by the British Royal Automobile Club and the Automobile Club de France as being the first. So why do so many history books say that the automobile was invented by either Gottlieb Daimler or Karl Benz? It is because both Daimler and Benz invented highly successful and practical gasoline-powered vehicles that ushered in the age of modern automobiles. Daimler and Benz invented cars that looked and worked like the cars we use today. However, it is unfair to say that either man invented "the" automobile.
An internal combustion engine is any engine that uses the explosive combustion of fuel to push a piston within a cylinder - the piston's movement turns a crankshaft that then turns the car wheels via a chain or a drive shaft. The different types of fuel commonly used for car combustion engines are gasoline (or petrol), diesel, and kerosene.
A brief outline of the history of the internal combustion engine includes the following highlights:
1680 - Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens designed (but never built) an internal combustion engine that was to be fueled with gunpowder.
1807 - Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal combustion engine that used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. Rivaz designed a car for his engine - the first internal combustion powered automobile.
1824 - English engineer, Samuel Brown adapted an old Newcomen steam engine to burn gas, and he used it to briefly power a vehicle up Shooter's Hill in London.
1858 -Belgian-bornengineer, Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir invented and patented (1860) a double-acting, electric spark-ignition internal combustion engine fueled by coal gas. In 1863, Lenoir attached an improved engine (using petroleum and a primitive carburetor) to a three-wheeled wagon that managed to complete an historic fifty-mile road trip. (See image at top)
1862 - Alphonse Beau de Rochas, a French civil engineer, patented but did not build a four-stroke engine
1864 - Austrian engineer, Siegfried Marcus, built a one-cylinder engine with a crude carburetor, and attached his engine to a cart for a rocky 500-foot drive. Several years later, Marcus designed a vehicle that briefly ran at 10 mph that a few historians have considered as the forerunner of the modern automobile by being the world's first gasoline-powered vehicle (however, read conflicting notes below).
1873 - George Brayton, an American engineer, developed an unsuccessful two-stroke kerosene engine (it used two external pumping cylinders). However, it was considered the first safe and practical oil engine.
1866 - German engineers, Eugen Langen and Nikolaus August Otto improved on Lenoir's and de Rochas' designs and invented a more efficient gas engine.
1876 - Nikolaus August Otto invented and later patented a successful four-stroke engine, known as the "Otto cycle".
1876 - The first successful two-stroke engine was invented by Sir Dougald Clerk.
1883 -French engineer, Edouard Delamare-Debouteville, built a single-cylinder four-stroke engine that ran on stove gas. It is not certain if he did indeed build a car, however, Delamare-Debouteville's designs were very advanced for the time - ahead of both Daimler and Benz in some ways at least on paper.
1885 - Gottlieb Daimler invented what is often recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine - with a vertical cylinder, and with gasoline injected through a carburetor (patented in 1887). Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle the "Reitwagen" (Riding Carriage) with this engine and a year later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
1886 - On January 29, Karl Benz received the first patent for a gas-fueled car.
1889 - Daimler built an improved four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves and two V-slant cylinders.
1890 - Wilhelm Maybach built the first four-cylinder, four-stroke engine.
Engine design and car design were integral activities, almost all of the engine designers mentioned above also designed cars, and a few went on to become major manufacturers of automobiles. All of these inventors and more made notable improvements in the evolution of the internal combustion vehicles.
The Importance of Nicolaus Otto
One of the most important landmarks in engine design comes from Nicolaus August Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine. Otto built the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called the "Otto Cycle Engine," and as soon as he had completed his engine, he built it into a motorcycle. Otto's contributions were very historically significant, it was his four-stoke engine that was universally adopted for all liquid-fueled automobiles going forward.
The Importance of Karl Benz
In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. On January 29, 1886, Benz received the first patent for a gas-fueled car. It was a three-wheeler; Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891. Benz & Cie., the company started by the inventor, became the world's largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900. Benz was the first inventor to integrate an internal combustion engine with a chassis - designing both together.
The Importance of Gottlieb Daimler
In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler (together with his design partner Wilhelm Maybach) took Otto's internal combustion engine a step further and patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine. Daimler's connection to Otto was a direct one; Daimler worked as technical director of Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik, which Nikolaus Otto co-owned in 1872. There is some controversy as to who built the first motorcycle Otto or Daimler.
The 1885 Daimler-Maybach engine was small, lightweight, fast, used a gasoline-injected carburetor, and had a vertical cylinder. The size, speed, and efficiency of the engine allowed for a revolution in car design. On March 8, 1886, Daimler took a stagecoach and adapted it to hold his engine, thereby designing the world's first four-wheeled automobile. Daimler is considered the first inventor to have invented a practical internal-combustion engine.
In 1889, Daimler invented a V-slanted two cylinder, four-stroke engine with mushroom-shaped valves. Just like Otto's 1876 engine, Daimler's new engine set the basis for all car engines going forward. Also in 1889, Daimler and Maybach built their first automobile from the ground up, they did not adapt another purpose vehicle as they had always been done previously. The new Daimler automobile had a four-speed transmission and obtained speeds of 10 mph.
Daimler founded the Daimler Motoren-Gesellschaft in 1890 to manufacture his designs. Eleven years later, Wilhelm Maybach designed the Mercedes automobile
DIFFERENT KINDS OF LAND TRANSPORT
Read the text to find answers to the given questions.
What was the reaction of the people after the invention of the steam engine?
In Washington the story is told of a director of the Patent Office who in the early thirties of the last century suggested that the Office be closed because “everything that could possibly be invented had been invented”. People experienced a similar feeling after the invention of the steam engine.
But there was a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam engine, for one without a huge boiler, an engine that could quickly be started and stopped. This problem was solved with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
Who introduced the first cheap motor car?
The first practical internal combustion engine was introduced in the form of a gas engine by the German engineer N. Otto in 1876.
Since then motor transport began to spread in Europe very rapidly. But the person who was the first to make it really popular was Henry Ford, an American manufacturer who introduced the first cheap motor car? The famous Ford Model “T”.
When did diesel-engined lorries become general?
The rapid development of the internal combustion engine led to its use in the farm tractors, thereby creating a revolution in agriculture. The use of motor vehicles for carrying heavy loads developed more slowly until the 1930s when diesel-engined lorries became general.
The motor cycle steadily increased in popularity as engines and tyres became more reliable and roads improved. Motor cycles were found well suited for competition races and sporting events and were also recognized as the cheapest form of fast transport.
When were the trams introduced first?
Buses were started in Paris in 1820. In 1828 they were introduced in London by George Shillibeer, a coach builder who used the French name Omnibus which was obtained from the Latin word meaning “for all”. His omnibuses were driven by three horses and had seats for 22 passengers. Then in the 20th century reliable petrol engines became available, and by 1912 the new motor buses were fast replacing horse-driven buses.
Trams were introduced in the middle of the 19th century. The idea was that, as the rails were smoother than roads, less effort was needed to pull a tram than a bus. The first trams were horse-drawn but the later trams were almost all driven by electricity. The electric motor driving the tram was usually with electric current from overhead wires. Such wires are also used by trolleybuses, which run on rubber tyres and do not need rails.
Another form of transport used in London, Paris, Berlin, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev and some other crowded cities is the underground railway.
London’s first underground railway of the “tube” type was opened in 1863, the Moscow underground in1935.
What do the longest oil pipe-lines connect?
The pipe-lines, which were in use by the ancient Romans for carrying water supplies to their houses, are now mainly used to transport petroleum. The first pipe-line of this kind was laid in Pennsylvania, the United States, in1865.
Some of the longest oil pipe-lines connect oil-fields in Iraq and near the Persian Gulf with ports on the Mediterranean coast. A famous Pipe-Line Under the Ocean (PLUTO) was laid a cross the English Channel in 1944.
What are the cableways used for?
A form of transport which is quite common in some mountainous parts of the world, especially in Switzerland, is the aerial cableway. Cableways are used at nearly all winter sport centuries to pull or carry skiers to the top of the slopes. Cableways are used by many Alpine villages which lie high up the mountain-sides for bringing up their supplies from the valley below.
Английский язык для инженеров: Учеб./ Т.Ю. Полякова, Е.В. Синявская, О.И. Тынкова, Э.С. Улановская. - 6-е изд., испр. М.: Высш. шк., 2002., с. 203-210