Сведения о представляемой работе
Задание для лингводидактического тестирования ЗУН в:
лексике и грамматике;
множественный выбор с выбором единственно верного ответа (multiple choice);
множественный выбор с выбором всех (нескольких) правильных ответов (multiple select);
краткий ответ (short answer);
установление достоверности утверждения – “верно”/”неверно” (true/false);
соотнесение элементов тестовых ответов (matching);
числовой ответ (numeric answer).
Test on reading
A1. Read the texts A-B and match them with the titles 1-4.
A universal transport animal
The kinds of transportation in the tundra
Different tools of reindeer farmers
The origin of the reindeer sledge
Nomadic lifestyle of Yamal Nenets communities was formed in, and perfectly suited to severe Arctic conditions. The tundra - a frozen desert in northern Russia. The principal means of transport was the reindeer sledge there. There was no better way for deer farmers to get around in tundra. Dog sleds were mostly used by those hunters who owned no reindeer. The Nenets used two types of skis: “golitsy skis” and “podvoloki” skis padded with reindeer kamus. Kamus - light and durable skin from deer's legs. Kamus skis - wide skis, covered with kamus underneath. Skis were mostly used by hunters in the wood, and very rarely – when attending to reindeer herds at pasture. No sticks were used. In summer the Nenets travelled both by reindeer harness and by boat. The most ancient type of native boat is a canoe dug in a whole tree trunk. The other later type is a boat made of planks.
Scholars are at variance to the origin of the Nenets reindeer sledge. It is suggested that the reindeer sledge was modified from the dog sledge, the log canoe or cargo sled. Apparently, the original Nenets reindeer sledge had a single runner and looked like a sledge with a boat-shaped body and a single broad runner underneath. One old Nenets explained, “First, our people had no sledges. In summer they would get around by boat; in winter they would attach runners made from split larch trunks underneath the boats and ride them.” This is confirmed by drawings from the old chronicles. The Nenets reindeer sledge could have been created as an imitation of a similar dog sledge.
When the Samoyeds first came to tundra, they were mainly engaged in hunting wild animals. They kept a number of domestic animals as an emergency stock of meat. They hardly used reindeer for transportation. Due to severe climatic conditions the species of northern reindeer is rather small and not suitable for riding. So northern reindeer were used only as harness animals. Domestic reindeer became a universal transport animal while the dog sledge became less popular. As the migrant Samoyeds were too numerous for tundra, the population of wild reindeer gradually declined while the number of domestic reindeer increased in keeping with the needs of human livelihood.
A nomadic caravan – argish – consisted of sledges arranged in a certain order. The owner’s sledge would come first, followed by a sledge laden with sacred articles, a women’s sledge, and several shipping sledges with clothing and other possessions. The last sledges in the convoy carried poles and boards for the teepees. Reindeer drivers used khoreys to drive their harnesses. A khorey is a long birch pole with a bone tip attached to protect the reindeer from injuries. The main tool of a reindeer farmer has always been “tynzyan” –a long rope (lasso) with one end tied in a circle, used for catching deer.
A2. Choose the right answer according to the texts A-D.
1. A frozen desert in northern Russia is ...
2. Nenets people led ... lifestyle.
3. Scientists give ... about the appearance of a reindeer sledge.
4. Northern reindeer is ...
used only for transportation
used only for food
not suitable for riding
5. A long rope with one end tied in a circle, used for catching deer is called ... .
A3. Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the texts A-D.
The best way to get around tundra was the reindeer sledge. ________
In summer the Nenets travelled by boat. ________
The dog sledge became a universal transport in the tundra. ________
The last sledges in the argish carried women and children. ________
B1. Match the texts A-D with the statements 1-5. There is one extra statement in the list 1-5! Put the answers into the table.
First the Samoyeds hunted wild reindeer and kept a number of them as a stock of meat and later began to use reindeer for transportation.
A teepee (choom) – a Nenets dwelling of conical form made of sticks covered with reindeer skins, used for nomadic life in tundra.
Different kinds of transportation in tundra are connected with nomadic lifestyle and suit to severe Arctic conditions.
Reindeer farmers use different tools for catching reindeer and to drive their harnesses.
The original Nenets sledge looked like a boat with one runner and then was developed as an imitation of a similar dog sledge.
Авторская разработка компетентностно-ориентиованных заданий в тестовой форме для педагогических измерений уровня сформированности языковых знаний, умений и навыков обучающихся по английскому языку на понимание письменной речи / текстуальной информации (Reading Comprehension);
Номер материала: ДВ-084812
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