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Учебное пособие для студентов радиотехнического факультета "Reader for Second-Year Students of Radioengineering Department (Part 2)"

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Министерство образования и науки Украины


Донецкий национальный технический университет







Белянская Н. Г., Павлова Л.К., Шкарупа О. Г.





Reader for Students of Radio Engineering Department

(Part 2)












Донецк, ДонНТУ, 2009



Министерство образования и науки Украины


Донецкий национальный технический университет





Белянская Н. Г., Павлова Л.К., Шкарупа О. Г.





Reader for Students of Radio Engineering Department

(Part 2)








Утверждено на заседании

кафедры английского языка

протокол № 7 от 16 апреля 2009


Утверждено советом Института

Международного Сотрудничества

протокол № 11 от 21 апреля 2009






Учебное пособие для студентов третьего и четвертого курсов радиотехнического факультета.(часть 2). Донецк: ДонНТУ, 2009. – 77 стр.



Составители: Белянская Н. Г., Павлова Л.К., Шкарупа О. Г.




































© Донецкий национальный технический университет







Введение


Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов третьего и четвертого курса радиотехнического факультета.

Целью учебного пособия является развитие у студентов навыков чтения и понимания оригинальной технической литературы по специальности на 3 и 4 курсах. Также учебное пособие ставит задачу развить у студентов необходимые навыки устного общения на английском языке в объёме материала, предусмотренного программой, умение передать содержание прочитанного на английском языке, а также умение аннотировать и реферировать тексты. С этой целью даны разнообразные упражнения лексического характера, а также упражнения по содержанию текста.

Учебного пособия состоит из 12 уроков. Каждый урок включает в себя текст и упражнения.

На базе каждого текста разработаны предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения, даны технические термины, встречающиеся в тексте, и их перевод на русский язык. Послетекстовые упражнения ставят своей целью снять лексические и смысловые трудности. С целью проверки усвоения материала урока студентам предлагаются упражнения на перевод с русского языка на английский язык, а также упражнения на передачу содержания прочитанного.

Авторы надеются, что данное учебное пособие поможет студентам приобрести умения и навыки, необходимые при чтении и понимании технической литературы по специальности.







СONTENTS



UNIT 1 Radar……………………………………………6

UNIT 2 Principles of Work of Radar……………………10

UNIT 3 Interference…………... ……………………… .16

UNIT 4 Jamming……………………………………… 22

UNIT 5 Distance Measurement………………………….28

UNIT 6 Phased array.........................................................34

UNIT 7 Air Surveillance Radar………………………....39

UNIT 8 Ground Based Radar……………………………44

UNIT 9 Сomponents of Electronic Warfare…………….49

UNIT 10 Electronic countermeasures…………………….54

UNIT 11 Electronic Intelligence………………………….59

UNIT 12 Electromagnetic pulse…………………………..64

GLOSSARY…………………………………………………...69














UNIT 1


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Radar



List of words:

amplify - усилить

attenuation – затухание

dense fog – густой туман

detect обнаружить

determine – определить

emit - испускать

feasibility – возможность

frequency - частота

map – нанести на карту

precipitation – осадки

propagate - распространяться

receiver - приемник

reflected отраженный

shift - сдвиг

target - цель

transmitter - передатчик

visible - видимый

weak - слабый


Read and translate the text.


Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance or speed, objects such as aircraft, ships, rain and map them. Speed detection is measured by the amount of Doppler Effect frequency shift of the reflected signal. A transmitter emits radio waves, which are reflected by the target, and detected by a receiver, typically in the same location as the transmitter. Although the radio signal returned is usually very small, radio signals can easily be amplified, so radar can detect objects at ranges where other emission, such as sound or visible light, would be too weak to detect. Radar is used in many contexts, including meteorological detection of precipitation, air traffic control, police detection of speeding traffic, and by the military.

Several inventors, scientists, and engineers contributed to the development of radar. The use of radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects via radio waves" was first implemented in 1904 by Christian Hulsmeyer, who demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the presence of ships in dense fog and received a patent for radar as Reichspatent Nr. 165546. Another of the first working models was produced by Hungarian Zoltan Bay in 1936 at the Tungsram laboratory.

The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. This acronym of American origin replaced the previously used British abbreviation RDF (Radio Direction Finding). The term has since entered the English language as a standard word, radar.

A radar system emits powerful pulses of radio waves and listens for any echoes. By analyzing the reflected signal, the reflector can be located and sometimes identified. Although radio waves can be easily generated at any desired strength, the amplitude of the signal returned is usually very small. However, radio signals can easily be detected and amplified many times, so radar is suited to detecting objects at very large ranges where other signals, such as sound or visible light, would be too weak to detect. Radio waves can propagate with less attenuation than light in many conditions, for example, through clouds, fog, or smoke, enabling detection and tracking in conditions that prevent the use of other means.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ,2006, стор.179)


Ex 1.Answer the questions:

1.What is the function of radar?

2.Where do people use radars? 3.Who contributed to the development of radar?

4.What is the meaning of the acronym radar?

5.What are the principles of working of radars?


Ex 2.Give Russian equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Measure,amount,the same locationl,contribute,coin,replace,strength,identify,range,

air traffic control,visible,implement.


Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.The radio signal…..is usually very small.( return)

2.Christian Hulsmeyer demonstrated the feasibility of…..the presence of ships in dense fog.( detect)

3.The reflector can be located by…..the reflected signal.( analyze)

4.Several inventors contributed to the…..of radar.(develop)

5.Radio waves can propagate with less…..than light in many conditions.(attenuate)



Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1) propagate a) apparatus for receiving signals

2) transmitter b) create something new

3) radar c) a piece of equipment which emits

4) receiver radio waves

5) source d) electronic impulse in radio,TV,etc

6) frequency e) a system that uses radio waves to

7) invent detect objects

8) signal f) number of repetitions in a given time

g) spread more widely

h) place from which something comes


Ex5.Fill in the gaps with the proper variant.

1. ….. inventors, scientists, and engineers contributed to the development of

radar.

a)several

b)a lot of

c)many

2.One of the first working radar models was produced by Zoltan Bay in….. .

a)1935

b)1934

c)1936.

3.Speed detection is measured by the amount of Doppler Effect frequency shift of the…..signal .

a)sawtooth

b)reflected

c)remote

4.Radar can detect objects at ranges where other emission, such as sound or visible light, would be too ….. to detect.

a)strong

b)weak

c)powerful

5.The amplitude of the signal returned is usually ….. .

a)large

b)average

c)very small

6.Radio waves can enable detection and tracking in conditions that ….. the use of other means.

a)prevent

b)favour

c)meet

Ex 6.Say if the following statements are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.Radar is a system that uses radio waves for detecting and mapping objects.

2.A transmitter emits radio waves which are reflected by the target and detected by a receiver in the different location as the transmitter.

3.The term RADAR was coined in 1947.

4.A radar system emits powerful pulses of radio waves and listens for any echoes.

5.By analyzing the received signal, the reflector can be located and sometimes

identified.

6.Although radio waves can be easily generated at any desired strength, the amplitude of the signal returned is usually very large.

7.Radio waves can’t propagate through clouds,fog,or smoke.


Ex 7.Translate into English.

1.Радиоволны, испускаемые передатчиком, отражаются целью и обнаруживаются приемником.

2.Возвращаемый радиосигнал обычно очень слаб.

3.Радар используется в метеорологии, дорожной полицией для определения скорости движения транспорта, в авиации, а также вооруженными силами.

4.Анализируя отраженный сигнал, можно определить местонахождение

отражателя.

5.Радиосигналы могут быть легко обнаружены и усилены во много раз.


Ex 8.Give a summary of the text.



















UNIT 2


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Principles of Work of Radar


List of words:


аperture – апертура,щель

avoid - избегать

bounce off - отпрыгнуть

chaff – дипольный отражатель,дипольная помеха

chirp - щебетать

corner - угол

cross section – поперечное сечение

decline - снижаться

density - плотность

edge -край

eliminate - край

fibre - стекловолокно

gain – коэффициент усиления

odd looking – необычно выглядящий

pathloss – потери на трассе

precaution - предосторожность

propagation factor – коэффициент передачи

scatter - рассеиваться

solid - твердый

stealth – скрытый

surface - поверхность

vague – слабый, неясный

vehicle – транспортное средство

wavelet – малая волна


Read and translate the text.


Reflection


Electromagnetic waves reflect (scatter) from any large change in the dielectric or diamagnetic constants. This means that a solid object in air or vacuum, or other significant change in atomic density between the object and what's surrounding it, will usually scatter radar (radio) waves. This is particularly true for electrically conductive materials, such as metal and carbon fibre, making radar particularly well suited to the detection of aircraft and ships. Radar absorbing material, containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances, is used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection. This is the radio equivalent of painting something a dark colour.

Radar waves scatter in a variety of ways depending on the size (wavelength) of the radio wave and the shape of the target. If the wavelength is much shorter than the target's size, the wave will bounce off in a way similar to the way light is reflected by a mirror. If the wavelength is much longer than the size of the target, the target is polarized (positive and negative charges are separated), like a dipole antenna. This is described by Rayleigh scattering, an effect that creates the Earth's blue sky and red sunsets. When the two length scales are comparable, there may be resonances. Early radars used very long wavelengths that were larger than the targets and received a vague signal, whereas some modern systems use shorter wavelengths (a few centimeters or shorter) that can image objects as small as a loaf of bread or smaller.

Short radio waves reflect from curves and corners, in a way similar to glint' from a rounded piece of glass. The most reflective targets for short wavelengths have 90° angles between the reflective surfaces. A structure consisting of three flat surfaces meeting at a single corner, like the corner on a box, will always reflect waves entering its opening directly back at the source. These so-called corner reflectors are commonly used as radar reflectors to make otherwise difficult to detect objects easier to detect, and are often found on boats in order to improve their detection in a rescue situation and to reduce collisions. For similar reasons, objects attempting to avoid detection will angle their surfaces in a way to eliminate inside corners and avoid surfaces and edges perpendicular to likely detection directions, which leads to "odd" looking stealth aircraft. These precautions do not completely eliminate reflection because of diffraction, especially at longer wavelengths. Half wavelength long wires or strips of conducting material, such as chaff, are very reflective but do not direct the scattered energy back toward the source. The extent to which an object reflects or scatters radio waves is called its radar cross section.


Radar equation


The amount of power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation:

hello_html_m25a2d97c.gif

where

. Pt = transmitter power

. Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna

. Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna

. a = radar cross section, or scattering coefficient, of the target

. F = pattern propagation factor

. Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target

. Rr = distance from the target to the receiver.


In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location, Rt = Rr and the term Rt2 Rr2 can be replaced by R4, where R is the range. This yields:

hello_html_m748e2f68.gif

This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range which means that the reflected power from distant targets is very, very small. The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference. The propagation factor accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. In a real-world situation, pathloss effects should also be considered.

Other mathematical developments in radar signal processing include time-frequency analysis as well as the chirplet transform which makes use of the fact that radar returns from moving targets typically "chirp" (change their frequency as a function of time, as does the sound of a bird or bat).


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ,2006, стор.182)


Ex 1.Answer the questions:

1.What does usually scatter radar (radio) waves?

2.What material is used to reduce radar reflection?

3.What does radar waves scattering depend on?

4.What is the difference between early and modern radars?

5.What are corner reflectors used for?

6.What is radar equation used for?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Рассеивать, окрашивать, самолет, форма, отрицательный заряд, разделять,

длинная волна, сопоставимый, отражающая поверхность, столкновение,

избегать, уравнение, отдаленный, помеха.




Ex 3.Complete the sentences with words from the text.

1.Radio waves scatter in a variety of ways (в зависимости от) the size of the radio wave and (формы цели).

2.When the two (масштабa длины) are comparable, there may be resonances.

3.Early radars used very long (волны).

4.Short radio waves reflect from (кривых линий и углов) in a way similar to glint from a rounded piece of (cтекла).

5.(Уравнение) with F=1 is a simplification for vacuum (без помех).

6.In a real-world situation (потери на трассе) should also be considered.

7.Other (математические рассчеты) in radar signal processing include time-

frequency analysis.


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)scatter a)equal in value, amount, meaning

2)conductive b)not clear or distinct

3)equivalent с)go in different directions

4)size d)act or process of making simple

5)vague e)able to transmit (heat,electric current,etc)

6)aperture f)distance between the highest point of one

7)simplification wave and that of the next

8)wavelength g)opening,esp one that admits light

h)degree of largeness or smallness

Ex 5.Fill in the gaps with the proper variant.

1.Electromagnetic waves..… any large change in the dielectric or diamagnetic constants.

a) attract

b) reflect from

c) scatter

2.This is the radio equivalent of painting something a..… colour.

a) light

b) red

c) dark

3.If the wavelength is much...…than the size of the target, the target is polarized like a dipole antenna.

a) shorter

b) longer

c) smaller

4.The most reflective targets for short wavelengths have…..angles between the

reflective surfaces.

a) 90 0

b) 180 0

c) 450

5.A structure consisting of three…..surfaces meeting at a single corner, like the corner on a box, will always reflect waves entering its opening directly back at the source.

a) curved

b) rounded

c) flat

6.Half wavelength long wires or strips of…..material are very reflective.

a) dielectric

b) semiconducting

c) conductive



Ex 6.Say if the following statements are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.A solid object in air or vacuum will always attract radar (radio) waves. This is

particularly true for dielectric materials.

2.Radar absorbing material, containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances, is used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection.

3.If the wavelength is much longer than the target’s size, the wave will bounce off in a way similar to the way light is reflected by a mirror.

4.When two length scales are comparable, there may be resonances.

5.Early radars used very long wavelengths that were larger than the targets and received a strong signal.

6.Modern radars use shorter wavelengths (a few centimeters or shorter) that can’t image objects as small as a loaf of bread or smaller.

7.The so-called corner reflectors are often found on boats in order to improve their detection in a rescue situation and to reduce collisions.


Ex 7.Translate into English.

1.В зависимости от длины радиоволны и формы цели, радарные волны рассеиваются различными способами.

2.Так называемые угловые отражатели обычно используются как радарные отражатели.

3.Противолокационный материал используется на военных транспортных средствах, чтобы уменьшить радарное отражение.

4.Величина мощности, возвращающейся к принимающей антенне, выражена радарным уравнением.

5.Следует также учитывать влияние потерь на трассе.


Ex 8.Entitle each paragraph of the text.


Ex 9.Write the annotation of the text.




































UNIT 3


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Interference



List of words:


actual - фактический

adjust - корректировать

background - фон

bothersome – вызывать беспокойство

clutter – (местные) помехи

countermeasures - контрмеры

degree - степень

discern – различать, распознавать

external - внешний

gain – коэффициент усиления

ghost – побочное изображение

hail - град

inherently - неотъемлемо

interference - помеха

internal - внутренний

isolate – изолировать

jitter – дрожание, подергивание

noise – шум, помеха

outnumber –превосходить численностью

overcome - преодолевать

random - случайный

scan – полный поворот

superimpose - накладываться

thermal - тепловой

visible - видимый

waveguide – волнов


Read and translate the text.


Interference

Radar systems must overcome several different sources of unwanted signals in order to focus only on the actual targets of interest. These unwanted signals may originate from internal and external sources, both passive and active. The ability of the radar system to overcome these unwanted signals defines its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): the higher a system's SNR, the better it is in isolating actual target from the surrounding noise signals.

Noise

Signal noise is an internal source of random variations in the signal, which is inherently generated to some degree by all electronic components. Noise typically appears as random variations superimposed on the desired echo signal received in the radar receiver. The lower the power of the desired signal, the more difficult it is to discern it from the noise (similar to trying to hear a whisper while standing near a busy road). Therefore, the most important noise sources appear in the receiver and much effort is made to minimize these factors. Noise figure is a measure of the noise produced by a receiver compared to an ideal receiver, and this needs to be minimized. Noise is also generated by external sources, most importantly the natural thermal radiation of the background scene surrounding the target of interest. In modern radar systems, due to the high performance of their receivers, the internal noise is typically about equal to or lower than the external scene" noise. An exception is if the radar is aimed upwards at clear sky, where the scene is so cold that it generates very little thermal noise.

Clutter

Clutter refers to actual radio frequency (RF) echoes returned from targets which are by definition uninteresting to the radar operators in general. Such targets mostly include natural objects such as ground, sea, precipitation (such as rain, snow or hail), sand storms, animals (especially birds), atmospheric turbulence, and other atmospheric effects (such as ionosphere reflections and meteor trails). Clutter may also be returned from man-made objects such as buildings and, intentionally, by radar countermeasures such as chaff.

Some clutter may also be caused by a long waveguide between the radar transceiver and the antenna. In a typical PPI radar with a rotating antenna, this will usually be seen as a "sun" or "sunburst" in the centre of the display as the receiver responds to echoes from dust particles and misguided RF in the waveguide. Adjusting the timing between when the transmitter sends a pulse and when the receiver stage is enabled will generally reduce the sunburst without affecting the accuracy of the range, since most sunburst is caused by diffused transmit pulse reflected before it leaves the antenna. While some clutter sources may be undesirable for some radar applications (such as storm clouds for air-defence radars), they may be desirable for others (meteorological radars in this example).

Clutter is considered a passive interference source, since it only appears in response to radar signals sent by the radar. There are several methods of detecting and neutralizing clutter. Many of these methods rely on the fact that clutter tends to appear static between radar scans. Therefore, when comparing subsequent scans echoes, desirable targets will appear to move and all stationary echoes can be eliminated. Sea clutter can be reduced by using horizontal polarization, while rain is reduced with circular polarization (note that meteorological radars wish for the opposite effect, therefore using linear polarization the better to detect precipitation). Other methods attempt to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio. CFAR (Constant False-Alarm Rate, sometimes called Automatic Gain Control, or AGC) is a method relying on the fact that clutter returns far outnumber echoes from targets of interest. The receiver's gain is automatically adjusted to maintain a constant level of overall visible clutter. While this does not help detect targets masked by stronger surrounding clutter, it does help to distinguish strong target sources. In the past, radar AGC was electronically controlled and affected the gain of the entire radar receiver. As radars evolved, AGC became computer-software controlled, and affected the gain with greater granularity, in specific detection cells. Radar multipath echoes from an actual target cause ghosts to appear.

Clutter may also originate from multipath echoes from valid targets due to ground reflection, atmospheric ducting or ionospheric reflection/refraction. This specific clutter type is especially bothersome, since it appears to move and behave like other normal (point) targets of interest, thereby creating a ghost. In a typical scenario, an aircraft echo is multipath-reflected from the ground below, appearing to the receiver as an identical target below the correct one. The radar may try to unify the targets, reporting the target at an incorrect height, or - worse - eliminating it on the basis of jitter or a physical impossibility. These problems can be overcome by incorporating a ground map of the radar's surroundings and eliminating all echoes which appear to originate below ground or above a certain height.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.186)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What may unwanted signals originate from?

2.What are the most important noise sources?

3.What is noise generated by?

4.What does clutter refer to?

5.What methods of detecting and neutralizing of clutter do you know?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Преодолевать, способность, соотношение, оживленная дорога, дипольный

отражатель, радарный приемопередатчик, точность, последующий, устранить, вибрация.





Ex 3.Put in the missing words from the box.


To minimize, returned, detecting, methods, the internal, clutter, adjusted,

the external, horizontal, gain, noise, intentionally.

1.The most important_______sources appear in the receiver and much effort is made _______these factors.

2.In modern radar systems _______noise is typically about equal to or lower than _______scene noise.

3.Clutter may also be_______from man-made objects such as buildings, and

_______, by radar countermeasures such as chaff.

4.There are several methods of_______and neutralizing clutter.

5.Sea clutter can be reduced by using_______polarization.

6.This specific_______type is especially bothersome.

7.Many of these_______rely on the fact that clutter tends to appear static between radar scans.

8.The receiver’s_______is automatically _______to maintain a constant level of overall visible clutter.


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)precipitation a)the sending out of energy,heat,light,

2)respond etc in rays

3)target b)influence

4)application c)find the size,extent,volume,degree,

5)radiate etc of

6)measure d)fall of rain,snow or hail

7)generate e)produce

8)affect f)react to

g)objective,aim

h)putting to a special or practical use



Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.Radar system must overcome several different sources of…..signals in order to focus only on the actual targets of interest.

a)desirable

b)unwanted

c)advisable

2.Noise typically…..as random variations superimposed on the desired echo signal received in the radar receiver.

a)appears

b)disappears

c)vanishes

3.Noise is also generated by external sources, most importantly the natural ….. radiation of the background scene surrounding the target of interest.

a)cosmic

b)thermal

c)nuclear

4.Other methods attempt …..the signal-to-clutter ratio.

a)to decrease

b)to lessen

c)to increase

5.Some clutter may also be caused by a…..waveguide between the radar transceiver and the antenna.

a)long

b)short

c)small

6.Radar…..echoes from an actual target cause ghosts to appear.

a)delayed

b)multiple

c)multipath


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.These unwanted signals may originate from internal and external sources, both

active and passive.

2.The lower the power of the desired signal, the easier it is to discern it from the noise.

3.Noise figure is a measure of the noise produced by a receiver compared to an ideal receiver, and this needs to be maximized.

4.Clutter refers to actual radio frequency echoes returned from targets which are by definition uninteresting to the radar operators in general.

5.Such targets mostly include natural objects such as ground, sea, precipitation, sand storms, animals, atmospheric turbulence, and other atmospheric effects.

6.In the past, radar AGC was electrically controlled and affected the gain of the

entire radar receiver.

7.The radar may try to unify the targets, reporting the target at an incorrect height, or – worse – eliminating it on the basis of jitter or a physical impossibility.




Ex 7.Translate into English.

1.Большие усилия предпринимаются, чтобы минимизировать самые важные шумовые источники, появляющиеся в приемнике.

2.Помеха может быть возращена от искусственных объектов.

3.Поскольку помеха появляется только в ответ на радарные сигналы, посланные радаром, её считают пассивным источником вмешательства.

4.Морские помехи могут быть уменьшены при использовании горизонтальной поляризации.

5.Эхо самолета отражается многопутевым образом от земли, появляясь на локаторе как идентичная цель ниже действительной цели.


Ex 8.Write a summary of the text.































UNIT 4


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Jamming



List of words:


agile – быстрый, проворный

assets - активы

barrage jamming – заградительное подавление сигналов

chaff – дипольный отражатель

clutter up – заваливать, загромождать

corner – угол, угловой

deceive - обмануть

decoy – ложная цель, ловушка

degrade – ухудшить

figure out - вычислять

get within range – держать (быть) на расстоянии выстрела

intentional - намеренный, умышленный

jammer - станция активных преднамеренных радиопомех

jamming – заглушение (забивание) станции, помехи при приёме от работы других станций

masking - маскировка

random noise – случайные помехи

repeater – ретранслятор, усилитель

saturate - насыщать

scope – индикатор, экран

shift – сдвигаться, смещаться

spot jammingселективная (прицельная) помеха, направленная помеха

strip - полоса

sweep – перестраиваемый глушитель

track on - отслеживать

unintentional - неумышленный

unsecure – ненадежный, небезопасный

сloak - маскировка,скрывание





Read and translate the text.



Jamming


Radar jamming refers to RF signals originating from sources outside the radar, transmitting in the radar's frequency and thereby masking targets of interest. Jamming may be intentional (as an anti-radar electronic warfare (EW) tactic) or unintentional (e.g., by friendly forces operating equipment that transmits using the same frequency range). Jamming is considered an active interference source, since it is initiated by elements outside the radar and in general unrelated to the radar signals. Jamming is problematic to radar since the jamming signal only needs to travel one-way (from the jammer to the radar receiver) whereas the radar echoes travel two-ways (radar-target-radar) and are therefore significantly reduced in power by the time they return to the radar receiver.

Radar jamming is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with false information. There are two types of radar jamming: Mechanical and Electronic jamming.


Mechanical jamming


Mechanical jamming is caused by devices which reflect or re-reflect radar energy back to the radar to produce false target returns on the operator's scope. Mechanical jamming devices include chaff, corner reflectors, and decoys.

Chaff is made of different length metallic strips, which reflect different frequencies, so as to create a large area of false returns in which a real contact would be difficult to detect. Chaff is often aluminum for weight purposes and is usually coated with something such as a plastic.

Corner reflectors have the same effect as chaff but are physically very different. Corner reflectors are multiple-sided objects that re-radiate radar energy. An aircraft can't carry as many corner reflectors as it can chaff.

Decoys are maneuverable flying objects that are intended to deceive a radar operator into believing that they are actually aircraft. They are especially dangerous because they can clutter up radar with false targets making it easier for an attacker to get within weapons range and neutralize the radar. Corner reflectors can be fitted on decoys to make them appear larger than they are, thus furthering the illusion that a decoy is an actual aircraft.


Electronic jamming


Electronic jamming is a form of Electronic Attack where jammers radiate interfering signals toward an enemy's radar, blocking the receiver with highly concentrated energy signals. The two main technique styles are noise techniques and repeater techniques. The three types of noise jamming are spot, sweep, and barrage.

Spot jamming occurs when a jammer focuses all of its power on a single frequency. While this would severely degrade the ability to track on the jammed frequency, a frequency agile radar would hardly be affected because the jammer can only jam one frequency. While multiple jammers could possibly jam a range of frequencies, this would consume a great deal of resources to have any effect on a frequency agile radar, and would probably still be ineffective.

Sweep jamming is when a jammer's full power is shifted from one frequency to another. While this has the advantage of being able to jam multiple frequencies in quick succession, it does not affect them all at the same time, and thus limits the effectiveness of this type of jamming

Barrage jamming is the jamming of multiple frequencies at once by a single jammer. The advantage is that multiple frequencies can be jammed simultaneously; however, the jamming effect can be limited because this requires the jammer to spread its full power between these frequencies. So the more frequencies being jammed, the less effectively each is jammed.

Base jamming is a new type of Barrage Jamming where one radar is jammed effectively at its source at all frequencies. However, all other radars continue working normally.


Countermeasures


Constantly changing the frequency that the radar operates on will limit the effectiveness of most jamming, making it easier to read through it. Modern jammers can track a predictable frequency change, so the more random the frequency change, the more likely it is to counter the jammer.

Cloaking the outgoing signal with random noise makes it more difficult for a jammer to figure out the frequency that a radar is operating on.

Limiting the unsecure radio communication concerning the jamming and its effectiveness is also important. The operator could be listening, and if he knows that a certain technique is effective he could direct more jamming assets to employ this method.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.190)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What is jamming?

2.Why is jamming problematic to radar?

3.What is mechanical jamming caused by?

4.What types of electronic jamming do you know?

5.What can you say about countermeasures?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations

Передавать, дипольный отражатель, радиочастота, возвращаться, полоса,

отражать, угловой отражатель, отслеживать, ограничивать, одновременно,

летающий объект, глушитель.

Ex 3. Put in the missing words from the box.


Mechanical, spot, change, barrage, to counter, jamming, initiated, length.


1.There are two types of radar________ .

2.Jamming is________by elements outside the radar.

3.________jamming devices include chaff,corner reflectors, and decoys.

4.Chaff is made of different ________metallic strips.

5.________jamming occurs when a jammer focuses all of its power on a single frequency.

6.________jamming is the jamming of multiple frequencies at once by a single jammer.

7.Modern jammers can track a predictable frequency ________.

8.The more random the frequency change, the more likely it is ________the

jammer.


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)mask a)false target

2)interfere b)throw back (light,heat,sound)

3)echo c)method of doing smth expertly

4)decoy d)hinder, prevent

5)reflect e)conceal

6)reduce f)mislead(on purpose)

7)technique g)sound reflected or sent back

8)deceive h)make smaller in size, number, etc



Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.Radar jamming refers to RF signals originating from sources…..the radar.

a)inside

b)near

c)outside

2.Jamming is considered …..interference source.

a)an active

b)a passive

c)a neutral

3.Mechanical jamming is caused by devices which…..radar energy back to the radar to produce false target returns on the operator’s scope.

a)attract

b)move

c)reflect

4.Chaff is often….for weight purposes and is usually coated with something such as a plastic.

a)iron

b)aluminum

c)copper

5.Corner reflectors have the same effect as chaff but they are physically very ….

a)different

b)similar

c)like

6. …..the unsecure radio communication concerning the jamming and its effectiveness is also important.

a)limiting

b)weakening

c)strengthening


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.Jamming may be intentional or unintentional.

2.Radar jamming is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with true information.

3.Corner reflectors are one-sided objects that re-radiate radar energy.

4.The two main technique styles are noise techniques and repeater techniques.

5.Spot jamming is when a jammer’s full power is shifted from one frequency to

another.

6.The advantage of barrage jamming is that multiple frequencies can be jammed

simultaneously.

7.Cloaking the outgoing signal with random noise makes it easier for a jammer to figure out the frequency that a radar is operating on.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Заглушение считают активным источником вмешательства.

2.Cyществуют два типа помех радиолокационным станциям :механические и электронные.

3.Угловые отражатели имеют такой же эффект, как и дипольные отражатели.

4.Селективная (прицельная) помеха имеет место, когда станция активных радиопомех фокусирует всю свою мощность на одной частоте.

5. Дипольные отражатели обычно покрывают каким-нибудь материалом,

например, пластиком.


Ex 8.Summarize the text.






































UNIT 5


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Distance Measurement



List of words:


accurate - точный

altimeter - высотомер

broadcast - радиопередача

carrier - носитель

comparison – сравнение

continuous wave – незатухающая волна

delay - задержка

distinct – отличимый, чёткий

high-performance - эффективный

impose - налагать

lend - предоставить

measurement - измерение

memory – запись, регистрация

offset – смещение, сдвиг; поправка на смещение (цели)

pattern – шаблон, образец, схема

product - (мат.) произведение

ramp speed - скорость пилообразного сигнала

range – дальность, расстояние; радиус/дальность действия

relative – по отношению к; относительно

round-trip time - время оборота

sawtooth - пилообразный

slide rule - логарифмическая линейка

terrestrial – земной, наземный

timing – синхронизация; согласование во времени; распределение интервалов времени

to be at odds - иметь разногласия

with respect to – относительно





Read and translate the text.


Transit time


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Principle of radar distance measurement using pulse round trip time.


One way to measure the distance to an object is to transmit a short pulse of radio signal, and measure the time it takes for the reflection to return. The distance is one-half the product of round trip time (because the signal has to travel to the target and then back to the receiver) and the speed of the signal:


Range =ct / 2

where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and t is the round trip time. For radar, the speed of signal is the speed of light, making the round trip times very short for terrestrial ranging. Accurate distance measurement requires high-performance electronics. The receiver cannot detect the return while the signal is being sent out - there is no way to tell if the signal it hears is the original or the return. This means that a radar has a distinct minimum range, which is the length of the pulse multiplied by the speed of light, divided by two. In order to detect closer targets one must use a shorter pulse length.

A similar effect imposes a specific maximum range as well. If the return from the target comes in when the next pulse is being sent out, once again the receiver cannot tell the difference. In order to maximize range, one wants to use longer times between pulses, the inter-pulse time.

These two effects tend to be at odds with each other, and it is not easy to combine both good short range and good long range in a single radar. This is because the short pulses needed for a good minimum range broadcast have less total energy, making the returns much smaller and the target harder to detect. This could be offset by using more pulses, but this would shorten the maximum range again. So each radar uses a particular type of signal . Long range radars lend to use long pulses with long delays between them, and short range radars use smaller pulses with less time between them. This pattern of pulses and pauses is known as the Pulse Repetition Frequency (or PRF), and is one of the main ways to characterize a radar. As electronics has improved many radars now can change their PRF.


Frequency modulation


Another form of distance measuring radar is based on frequency modulation. Frequency comparison between two signals is considerably more accurate, even with older electronics, than timing the signal. By changing the frequency of the returned signal and comparing that with the original, the difference can be easily measured.

This technique can be used in radar systems, and is often found in aircraft radar altimeters. In these systems a "carrier" radar signal is frequency modulated in a predictable way, typically varying up and down with a sine wave or sawtooth pattern at audio frequencies. The signal is then sent out from one antenna and received on another, typically located on the bottom of the aircraft, and the signal can be continuously compared.

Since the signal frequency is changing, by the time the signal returns to the aircraft the broadcast has shifted to some other frequency. The amount of that shift is greater over longer times, so greater frequency differences mean a longer distance, the exact amount being the "ramp speed" selected by the electronics. The amount of shift is therefore directly related to the distance travelled, and can be displayed on an instrument. This signal processing is similar to that used in speed detecting Doppler radar.


Speed measurement


Speed is the change in distance to an object with respect to time. Thus the existing system for measuring distance, combined with a little memory to see where the target last was, is enough to measure speed. At one time the memory consisted of a user making grease-pencil marks on the radar screen, and then calculating the speed using a slide rule.

However there is another effect that can be used to make much more accurate speed measurements, and do so almost instantly (no memory required), known as the Doppler effect. Practically every modern radar uses this principle in the pulse doppler radar system. It is also possible to make a radar without any pulsing, known as a continuous-wave radar (CW radar), by sending out a very pure signal of a known frequency. Return signals from targets are shifted away from this base frequency via the Doppler effect enabling the calculation of the speed of the object relative to the radar.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.194)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What does accurate distance measurement require?

2.How can the distance to the object be measured?

3.What is PRF?

4.What is the amount of shift related to?

5.What is speed?

Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Цель, точное расстояние, скорость сигнала, частотная модуляция, высотометр, дно, количество, подобный, непрерывно, значительно, сдвиг,

обнаружить.



Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.Accurate distance…..requires high-performance electronics. (measure)

2.Another form of distance measuring radar is based on frequency….. .

(modulate)

3.In these systems a “carrier” radar signal is frequency modulated in a…..way.

(predict)

4.The amount of shift is…..related to the distance travelled. (direct)

5…..every modern radar uses this principle in the pulse doppler radar system.

(practical)


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)transit a)space completely empty of gases

2)offset b)measurement from end to end (space

3)vacuum or time)

4)total c)least possible amount, degree, etc

5)length d)device of two rulers with logarithmic

6)minimum scales

7)instrument e)sending, carrying or being sent

8)slide rule across, over or through

f)implement, apparatus

g)complete, entire

h)shift


Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.In order to detect closer targets one must use a….pulse length.

a)longer

b)more average

c)shorter

2……distance measurement requires high-performance electronics.

a)approximate

b)accurate

c)inaccurate

3.In order to…..range, one wants to use longer times between pulses, the inter-pulse time.

a)minimize

b)maximize

c)lessen

4.As…..has improved many radars now can change their PRF.

a)electronics

b)electrons

c)electricity

5.Another form of…..measuring radar is based on frequency modulation.

a)distance

b)time

c)speed

6.This signal processing is ….. that used in speed detecting Doppler radar.

a)different from

b)distinct from

c)similar to


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.For radar, the speed of signal is the speed of sound, making the round trip times very short for terrestrial ranging.

2.A radar has a distinct minimum range, which is the length of the pulse multiplied by the speed of light.

3.If the return from the target comes in when the next pulse is being sent out, once again the receiver cannot tell the difference.

4.Long range radars lend to use short pulses with long delays between them.

5.Short range radars use smaller pulses with less time between them.

6.By changing the frequency of the returned signal and comparing that with the original, the difference can be easily measured.

7.The existing system for measuring distance, combined with a little memory to see where the target last was, isn’t enough to measure speed.

Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Для обнаружения более близких целей нужно использовать более короткую длительность импульса.

2.Каждый радар использует специфический тип сигнала.

3.Скорость – это изменение расстояния к объекту относительно времени.

4.Один из способов измерения расстояния основан на частотной модуляции.

5.Для правильного измерения расстояния требуется высокоточная электроника.


Ex 8.Make up the plan of the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text according to your plan.






































UNIT 6


Topic: Radar stations


Text: Phased array



List of words:


Aegis combat system – защитная боевая система

aerial - антенна

alter - изменять

beam – луч

cancel – погашать, отменять

confined - ограниченный

coverage – охват, покрытие

dispose - размещаться

face - грань

fighter aircraft - самолет- истребитель

irradiate – освещать, облучать

lack – недостаток

multiple target – групповая цель

missile defence – противоракетная защита

moving - движущийся

narrow- сужаться

offset – возмещать(ся)

phased array – фазированная антенная решетка

plane - плоскость

reinforce – усиливать(ся)

relative - соответствующий

scanning – разворот, поворот

search – поиск

space - расставлять (с промежутками)

split – расщепляться, разделяться

spread - расширяться

steering - управление

surveillance – наблюдение, надзор

track - отслеживать

triangular – треугольный

value – ценить

weather radar - метеорадиолокатор


Read and translate the text.


Phased array


Another method of steering is used in a phased array radar. This uses an array of similar aerials suitably spaced, the phase of the signal to each individual aerial being controlled so that the signal is reinforced in the desired direction and cancels in other directions. If the individual aerials are in one plane and the signal is fed to each aerial in phase with all others then the signal will reinforce in a direction perpendicular to that plane. By altering the relative phase of the signal fed to each aerial the direction of the beam can be moved because the direction of constructive interference will move. Because phased array radars require no physical movement the beam can scan at thousands of degrees per second, fast enough to irradiate and track many individual targets, and still run a wide-ranging search periodically. By simply turning some of the antennas on or off, the beam can be spread for searching, narrowed for tracking, or even split into two or more virtual radars. However, the beam cannot be effectively steered at small angles to the plane of the array, so for full coverage multiple arrays are required, typically disposed on the faces of a triangular pyramid.

Phased array radars have been in use since the earliest years of radar use in World War II, but limitations of the electronics led to fairly poor accuracy. Phased array radars were originally used for missile defence. They are the heart of the ship-borne Aegis combat system, and the Patriot Missile System, and are increasingly used in other areas because the lack of moving parts makes them more reliable, and sometimes permits a much larger effective antenna, useful in fighter aircraft applications that offer only confined space for mechanical scanning.

As the price of electronics has fallen, phased array radars have become more and more common. Almost all modern military radar systems are based on phased arrays, where the small additional cost is far offset by the improved reliability of a system with no moving parts. Traditional moving-antenna designs are still widely used in roles where cost is a significant factor such as air traffic surveillance, weather radars and similar systems.

Phased array radars are also valued for use in aircraft, since they can track multiple targets. The first aircraft to use phased array radar was the Mikoyan MiG-31. The MiG-31M's SBI-16 Zaslon phased array radar is considered to be the world's most powerful fighter radar.



Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What is the principle of work of a phased array?

2.How long have phased array radars been in use?

3.Where were phased array radars originally used?

4.What is based on phased arrays?

5.Are phased arrays reliable? Why?

Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Отменять, усиливать, луч, самолет-истребитель, плоскость, недостаточная

точность, фазированная антенная решетка, наблюдение, излучать, антенна,

защита, изменять, метеорологическая РЛС.


Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.Another method of…..is used in a phased array radar. (steer)

2.Phased array radars were…..used for missile defence. (original)

3.Almost all modern military radar systems are…..on phased arrays. (base)

4.The Mig-31 M’s SBI-16 Zaslon phased array radar is considered to be the world’s

most powerful…..radar. (fight)

5.Traditional moving-antenna designs are still widely used in roles where cost is a …..factor. (signify)

Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)surveillance a)exactness, correctness

2)emission b)aeroplane

3)antenna c)limited or unoccupied place or area

4)value d)ray or stream of light

5)aircraft e)aerial

6)accuracy f)close watch kept on

7)space g)estimate

8)beam h)sending out or giving off (light, heat)


Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.The phase of the signal to each individual aerial is controlled so that the signal is …..in the desired direction.

a)weakened

b)reinforced

c)attenuated

2. Because phased array radars require no physical movement the beam can scan at ….. of degrees per second.

a)thousands

b)hundreds

c)millions

3.The beam cannot be effectively steered at small angles to the …..of the array.

a)edge

b)side

c)plane

4. For full coverage multiple arrays are required, typically disposed on the faces of a ….. pyramid.

a)regular

b)right

c)triangular

5. Phased array radars have been in use since…. .

a)the World War II

b)the World War I

c)the Great Patriotic War

6. As the price of electronics….., phased array radars have become more and more common.

a)has risen

b)has increased

c)has fallen

Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.If the individual aerials are in one plane and the signal is fed to each aerial in phase with all others then the signal will reinforce in a direction parallel to that plane.

2.By turning some of the antennas on or off, the beam can be spread for searching, narrowed for tracking, or even split into two or more virtual radars.

3.The beam can be effectively steered at small angles to the plane of the array, so for full coverage multiple arrays are required, typically disposed on the faces of a triangular pyramid.

4.Phased array radars were originally used for missile defence.

5.Phased array radars are the heart of the ship-borne Aegis combat system, and the Patriot Missile System.

6.Traditional moving-antenna designs are still widely used in roles where cost isn’t a significant factor such as air traffic surveillance, weather radars and similar systems.

7.Phased array radars are also valued for use in aircraft, since they can track multiple targets.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Радары с фазированной антенной решеткой применяются со времен Второй мировой войны.

2.Первоначально радары с фазированной антенной решеткой применялись

для противоракетной защиты.

3.Фазированные антенные решетки применяются во многих современных военных радарных системах.

4.Фазированные антенные решетки надежны, потому что они не имеют

движущихся частей.

5.Радары с фазированной антенной решеткой также используется в авиации, поскольку они могут отслеживать групповые цели.


Ex 8.Annotate the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text.

UNIT 7


Topic: Types of Radars

Text: Air Surveillance Radar



List of words:


acquisition – поиск

аltitude – высота

bandполоса частот; диапазон

bearing – пеленг, азимут

clutter map – карта помех

сollateral – параллельный

confidence factor – коэффициент уверенности

сonsole – пульт (управления)

designation – обозначение

ECM(electronic countermeasure) – электронное устройство для подавления радиосигналов

engagement – бой, стычка

enhancement – усиление

estimation - определение

high diver mode – режим пикирования

intercept – перехват

key – код, ключ

low-altitude target – невысокая цель

low-observable target – зд.: низколетящая цель

operational features – тактико-технические характеристики

performance – действие

PRF – Pulse Repetition Frequency

radar cross-section – радиолокационное сечение

radial velocity – радиальная скорость

range – дальность, диапазон

scan–полный поворот радиолокатора

search radar – поисковая радиолокационная станция

stateгосударство

surveillance radar – обзорная РЛС

surveillance volume – зона обзора

threat - угроза

weapon system designation radar – радар для обозначения систем вооружения


Read and translate the text.


AN/SPS-49 Very Long-Range Air Surveillance Radar


The AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar is a long-range, two-dimensional air search radar whose primary function is to provide target position data to a ship command and control system. It provides for detection of targets as high as 100,000 feet and over a distance of 2 to 300 miles.

The Radar Set AN/SPS-49 is an L-band, long-range, two-dimensional, air-search radar system that provides automatic detection and reporting of targets within its surveillance volume. The AN/SPS-49 performs accurate centroiding of target range, azimuth, amplitude, ECM level background, and radial velocity with an associated confidence factor to produce contact data for command and control systems. In addition, contact range and bearing information is provided for display on standard plan position indicator consoles.

The AN/SPS-49 uses a line-of-sight, horizon-stabilized antenna to provide acquisition of low-altitude targets in all sea states, and also provides coverage for high diving threats in the high diver mode. External control of AN/SPS-49 modes is provided for self-defense support.

The AN/SPS-49 has several operational features to allow optimum radar performance: an automatic target detection capability with pulse doppler processing and clutter maps, ensuring reliable detection in normal and severe types of clutter; an electronic counter-countermeasures capability for jamming environments; a moving target indicator capability to distinguish moving targets from stationary targets and to improve target detection during the presence of clutter and chaff.

The AN/SPS-49 MPU (Medium PRF Upgrade) incorporates key ship defense enhancements to the Navy's AN/SPS-49 air search radar. Specifically, it provides for increased detection of low-observable targets, reduces reaction time and enhances performance against electronic countermeasures and naturally occurring clutter. The AN/SPS-49 MPU is or is planned to be installed on the following ship classes CV/CVN, FFG-7, LSD 41/49, and LHD.

The AN/SPS-49 long range 2-dimensional air surveillance radar is used for early target detection. The long-range AN/SPS-49 radar operates in the presence of clutter, chaff, and electronic counter-measures to detect, identify, and control low-radar-cross-section threats travelling at supersonic speeds. AN/SPS-49 provides the front-end element for successful target identification, designation, and engagement with either long range (SM-1 or SM-2) missiles and/or short range local defense missiles. A key feature of the most recent version of the radar, the SPS-49A(V)1 is single-scan radial velocity estimation of all targets allowing faster promotion to firm track and improved manоeuvrе detection. This is done using unique signal processing techniques originated and tested by the Radar Division of NRL.

The AN/SPS-49(V) radar is a narrow beam, very long range, 2D air search radar that primarily supports the AAW mission in surface ships. The radar is used to provide long range air surveillance regardless of severe clutter and jamming environments. Collateral functions include air traffic control, air intercept control, and antisubmarine aircraft control. It also provides a reliable backup to the three-dimensional (3D) weapon system designation radar.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.202)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What is the primary function of the AN/SPS -49 Air Search Radar?

2.What are the main specifications of the AN/SPS -49 Air Search Radar?

3.What is external control of AN/SPS-49 modes provided for?

4.What is a key feature of the most recent version of the radar, the SPS-49A(V)1?

5.What do collateral functions of the AN/SPS-49(V) radar include?

Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Скорость, двухмерный, система управления, усиливать, автоматическое обнаружение цели, движущаяся цель, радиальная скорость, сильные помехи, противолодочные самолеты, уровень фона, точный, полоса частот.


Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.Contact range and bearing …..is provided for display on standard plan position indicator consoles. (inform)

2.The AN/SPS-49 has several…..features to allow optimum radar performance. (operation)

3. The AN/SPS-49 long range 2-dimensional air surveillance radar is used for early target….. . (detect)

4.The radar is used to provide long range air surveillance…..of severe clutter and jamming environments. (regard)

5.It also provides a reliable backup to the three-dimensional (3D) weapon system…..radar. (designate)


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)designate a)large boat with an engine

2)external b)mark or point out clearly

3)aerial c)pass electronic beams across an area

4)ship in search of smth

5)missile d)way in which smth is done

6)scan e)outside; situated on the outside

7)mode f)surroundings

8)environment g)that part of a radio or TV system

which receives or sends out signals

h)object or weapon that is shot or

projected



Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.The AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar is ….., two-dimensional air search radar.

a)a short-range

b)a middle-range

c)a long-range 2.The primary function of the AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar is …..target position data to a ship command and control system.

a)to provide

b)transmit

c)interpolate

3. The AN/SPS-49 MPU provides for increased detection of …..targets.

a)fixed

b)simulated

c)low-observable

4. The AN/SPS-49 MPU reduces reaction time and …..performance against electronic countermeasures and naturally occurring clutter.

a)weakens

b)enhances

c)reduces

5. The long-range AN/SPS-49 radar detects, identifies, and controls low-radar-cross-section threats travelling at….. speeds.

a)average

b)supersonic

c)subsonic

6. The AN/SPS-49(V) radar is a narrow beam, very long range, 2D air search radar that primarily supports the the AAW mission in….. .

a) surface ships

b)submarines

c)airships



Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.The AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar provides for detection of targets as high as 100,000 feet and over a distance of 2 to 100 miles.

2.The AN/SPS-49 performs accurate centroiding of target range, azimuth, amplitude, ECM level background, and radial velocity with an associated confidence factor to produce contact data for command and control systems.

3.The AN/SPS-49 uses a line-of-sight, horizon-stabilized antenna to provide acquisition of high-altitude targets in all sea states, and also provides coverage for high diving threats in the high diver mode.

4.The AN/SPS-39 MPU (Medium PRF Upgrade) incorporates key ship defense enhancements to the Navy's AN/SPS-39 air search radar.

5.The long-range AN/SPS-49 radar operates in the presence of clutter, chaff, and electronic counter-measures.

6. A key feature of the most recent version of the radar, the SPS-49A(V)1 is single-scan rotation velocity estimation of all targets allowing faster promotion to firm track and improved manоeuvrе detection.

7.Accessory functions include air traffic control, air intercept control, and antisubmarine aircraft control.

Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Поисковый радар AN/SPS-49 предназначен для передачи данных о местонахождении цели системе управления корабля.

2.Поисковый радар AN/SPS-49 обеспечивает обнаружение цели на высоте

около 3000 метров.

3.Ряд тактико-технических характеристик обеспечивает оптимальную работу радара.

4.В радаре AN/SPS-49 используется горизонтально-стабилизированная антенна для обеспечения поиска низколетящих целей в приморских государствах.

5.Радар AN/SPS-49(V) может также осуществлять регулирование воздушного траффика, контроль перехвата в воздухе и управление противолодочными самолетами.



Ex 8.Make up the plan of the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text according to your plan.







UNIT 8


Topic: Types of Radars

Text: Ground Based Radar



List of words:


acquisition - приобретение

assessment - оценка

at most – самое большое, не больше чем

commit – вводить в действие

discrimination – распознавание, различение

fire – огонь, стрельба

floating плавучий, плавающий

fully populated - полностью заполненный

gain – усиление, коэффициент усиления

grating - решетка

ground based radar - наземная РЛС

incremental – возрастающий, усиливающий

in-flight - происходящий в воздухе

interceptor – истребитель-перехватчик

kill – уничтожение противника

leverage – зд: переключать, переводить

overstate - преувеличить

plausible – вероятный

relegate – переводить, передавать

resolution - разрешающая способность

side lobe – боковой лепесток (диаграммы направленности)

trade-off – компромисс, взаимные уступки

validation hardware - аппаратные средства проверки правильности



Read and translate the text.


Ground Based Radar[GBR] / X-band Radar[XBR]


Ground Based Radar [GBR] / X-band Radar [XBR] is the primary fire control sensor, providing surveillance, acquisition, tracking, discrimination, fire control support and kill assessment for the National Missile Defense (NMD) system. Prior to commitment of interceptors, the radar performs surveillance autonomously, and will acquire, track, classify/identify and estimate trajectory parameters for targets. In post-commit, the radar will discriminate and track the target(s), and provide via the In-Flight Interceptor Communications System (IFICS) an In-Flight Target Update (IFTU) and a Target Object Map (TOM) to the interceptor(s). The GBR is an incremental development program derived from the former NMD-GBR program and will leverage the Theater Missile Defense GBR program to resolve the critical radar issues applicable to NMD. A GBR prototype, designated as GBR-P, was installed at USAKA and was available as part of the NMD integrated system test (IFT-5).

In August 2002 the Pentagon announced plans to build a $900 million radar station on a floating platform off the coast of Alaska. The X-band radar installation, to be built by Boeing Co. and Raytheon Corp., will be linked to as many as 10 ground-based interceptors in Alaska. The initial plan is to integrate the radar in the test program in September 2005.

The XBRs would be ground-based, multi-function radars. For NMD, they would perform tracking, discrimination, and kill assessments of incoming ballistic missiles. XBRs use high frequency and advanced radar signal processing technology to improve target resolution, which permits the radar to discriminate against threats. The XBR will provide data from earlier phases of a ballistic missile trajectory and real-time in-flight tracking data to the Battle Management, Command, Control, and Communications (BMC3).

The XBR has a 50 degree field of view in both azimuth and elevation, and the radars can be rotated to track targets from any direction. The XBR would be radiating during a ballistic missile attack, testing, exercises, training, or when supporting collateral missions such as tracking space debris or a shuttle mission. The XBR radar transmit receive radiation pattern would be a narrow beam with most of the energy being contained within the main beam. Lesser amounts of energy could be emitted in the form of grating or side lobes in the area around the main beam. Each beam consists of a series of electromagnetic pulses. The beam would be able to operate 360 degrees. At no time would the main beam be directed towards ground level.

These radars appear to have an average power of 170 kW and an antenna area of 123 square meters. This would appear to result in a power-aperture product

of about 20 million. However, this overstates the search capability of the XBR, which has a "thinned" array with some 81,000 transmit - receive modules in the antenna, only one fifth the number of radiating elements that would be present in a fully populated phased array antenna. This thinned array decreases the gain of the radar by a factor of about 5, with more of the radar's energy going into side lobes, producing an effective power-aperture product of less than 4 million. Fully populating the XBR antenna would increase its effective power-aperture by a factor of about 25. However, the additional transmit receive modules would greatly increase the cost of the radar, since these solid-state active components are the dominant cost of the system.

The thinned array does permit a narrower beam, which allows greater tracking accuracy. This design trade-off illustrates the extent to which the XBR is intended almost exclusively as a tracking and discrimination radar, relegating the surveillance function to the Upgraded Early Warning Radars [UEWR]. Since tracking information from the UEWRs will locate targets within a single XBR beam width, the XBR can concentrate its power output into one or at most a few beam positions. This means they can detect and track targets at long ranges despite their limited power-aperture. Against typical warheads ranges in excess of 4,000 km should be possible, and even against reduced signature targets ranges of 2,000 km appear plausible. More detailed signature analysis for discrimination of decoys requires a higher signal/noise ratio than simple tracking, and the range at which discrimination is possible would be significantly less than the maximum detection and tracking range.

The NMD Radar Technology Demonstrator (RTD) effort leverages developments made under the Theater Missile Defense (TMD) ground based radar (GBR) program to resolve the issues of discrimination, target object map, kill assessment, and electromechanical scan. In 1997, the existing TMD-GBR demonstration validation hardware was used to construct a limited field of view RTD with sufficient range to support NMD test requirements.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.206)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What are the primary functions of GBR and XBR?

2.Why do the GBR leverage the Theater Missile Defense GBR program ?

3.What functions do XBRs perform?

4.What does a thinned array decrease?

5.What does more detailed signature analysis for discrimination of decoys require?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Распознавание, датчик управления, истребитель-перехватчик, программа защиты, наземный, баллистическая ракета, средняя мощность, точность прослеживания, обработка сигналов, боеголовка.


Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.The radar performs surveillance ….. . (autonomous)

2.The GBR is an incremental….. program derived from the former NMD-GBR program. (develop)

3.The X-band radar installation will be linked to as many as 10 ground-based….. in Alaska. (intercept)

4.Fully populating the XBR antenna would increase its ….. power-aperture by a factor of about 25. (effect)

5.This thinned array….. the gain of the radar by a factor of about 5. (decrease)


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition

1)acquisition a)action of, power or advantage gained by,

2)leverage using a lever

3)available b)that may be used or obtained

4)float c)long-range rocket for use in war

5)ballistic missile d)scattered broken pieces, wreckage

6)debris e)lattice, grid

7)grating f)explosive head (of a torpedo,shell,etc)

8)warhead g)gaining, collecting

h)be held on the surface of a liquid,or up in air


Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.In August 2002 the Pentagon announced plans to build a $900 million radar station on a….. platform off the coast of Alaska.

a)launching

b)floating

c)travelling

2.The XBRs would be….. multi-function radars.

a)ground-based

b)search

c)weather

3. Lesser amounts of energy could be emitted in the form of grating or side lobes in the area ….. the main beam.

a)around

b)inside

c)parallel to

4)Each beam consists of a series of ….. pulses.

a)reflected

b)heating

c)electromagnetic

5. The XB radars appear to have an ….. power of 170 kW and an antenna area of 123 square meters.

a)maximum

b)average

c)minimum

6.The XBRs can detect and track targets at ….. ranges despite their limited power-aperture.

a)mean

b)short

c)long


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.A GBR prototype, designated as GBR-R, was installed at USAKA and was available as part of the NMD integrated system test (IFT-5).

2.For NMD, the X-band radar would perform tracking, discrimination, and kill assessments of incoming ballistic missiles.

3.The XBR will provide data from earlier phases of a controlled missile trajectory and real-time in-flight tracking data to the Battle Management, Command, Control, and Communications (BMC3).

4.The XBR has a 50 degree field of view in both azimuth and elevation, and the radars can be rotated to track targets from only one direction.

5.The XBR radar transmit receive radiation pattern would be a narrow beam with most of the energy being contained within the main beam.

6. However, the additional transmit receive modules would greatly increase the cost of the radar, since these solid-state active components are the dominant cost of the system.

7.Since tracking information from the UEWRs will locate targets within a single XBR beam width, the XBR can concentrate its power output into many beam positions.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Пентагон объявил о своих планах построить РЛС стоимостью 900 млн долларов на плавучей платформе близ берегов Аляски.

2.Эти радары имеют среднюю мощность 170 квт.

3.Площадь антенны составляет 123 м2.

4.Наземные радары могут обнаруживать и отслеживать цели в длинных диапазонах .

5.Более детальный анализ сигнатуры для распознавания ловушек требует более высокого соотношения сигнал/помеха, чем простое прослеживание.


Ex 8.Make up the plan of the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text according to your plan.


Ex 10.Summarize the text.






UNIT 9


Topic: Electronic Warfare


Text: Сomponents of Electronic Warfare



List of words:


adversary – противник, неприятель

counterpart - копия

deception - обман

deny – отрицать; не допустить

electronic warfare - радиоэлектронная война

employ - использовать

enforcing - усиление

facilities - средства

frequency-hopping - прыгание частоты

incapacitate - вывести из строя

infantry - пехота

intelligence – сведения, информация

intercept - перехватывать

personnel - персонал

protection - защита

spread spectrum - спектр распространения

support – поддержка; прикрытие

vehicles - транспортные средства



Read and translate the text.


Electronic warfare


Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components:


Electronic Attack (EA)


This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary.Most EA activity is in the form of jamming or electromagnetic deception. EA can also include the use of devices that employ electromagnetic or directed energy weapons in order to destroy enemy vehicles and incapacitate or kill opposing infantry forces. An older term for EA is Electronic counter measures (ECM).


Electronic Protection (EP)


This includes all activities related to making enemy EA activities less successful by means of protecting friendly personnel, facilities, equipment or objectives. EP can also be implemented to prevent friendly forces from being affected by their own EA. Active EP includes technical modifications to radio equipment (such as frequency-hopping spread spectrum), while passive EP includes education of operators (enforcing strict discipline) and modified battlefield tactics or operations. Older terms for EP are Electronic protective measures (EPM) and Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM).


Electronic Support (ES)


This is the passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum to gain intelligence about other parties on the battlefield and to find, identify, locate and intercept potential threats or targets. This intelligence might be used directly as fire missions for artillery or air strike orders, for mobilization of friendly forces to a specific location or objective on the battlefield or as the basis of EA/EP actions. Older term for ES is Electronic warfare support measures (ESM).

EA and active EP can be detected by an adversary due to their active transmissions. ES, however, can be conducted without the enemy ever knowing it. Its strategic counterpart, SIGINT is continuously performed by most of the world's countries in order to gain intelligence about potential enemies' electronic equipment and tactics.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.227))


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What main components does Electronic Warfare have?

2.What is Electronic Attack used for?

3.What does active Electronic Protection include?

4.What is Electronic Support?

5.How can EA and EP be detected by an adversary?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Радиоэлектронная война, пехота, радиолокационное противодействие, электронная защита, электронная поддержка, неприятель, оборудование, вывести из строя, непрерывно, угроза, использовать.

Ex 3.Put in the missing words from the box.



Passive, main, all activities, support, jamming, Electronic Protection, EA, an adversary.



1.Most EA activity is in the form of_______ or electromagnetic deception.

2.Active_______ includes technical modifications to radio equipment.

3.Electronic warfare has three_______ components.

4.An older term for_______ is Electronic counter measures (ECM).

5._______ EP includes education of operators and modified battlefield tactics or operations.

6.EA and active EP can be detected by_______ due to their active transmissions.

7.Electronic Protection includes_______ related to making enemy EA activities less successful.

8.Electronic_______ can be conducted without the enemy ever knowing it.



Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)adversary a)soldiers who fight on foot

2)incapacitate b)war

3)infantry c)staff, esp in large companies and the

4)counterpart armed forces

5)warfare d)make unfit

6)personnel e)make changes in; make different

7)modify f)place where a battle is or was fought

8)battlefield g)enemy

h)person or thing exactly like, or closely

corresponding to, another




Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.This is the active use of the …..spectrum to deny its use by an adversary.

a)electric

b)electromagnetic

c)electrometric

2. Electronic Protection includes all activities related to making enemy EA activities less successful by means of….. friendly personnel, facilities, equipment or objectives.

a)attacking

b)assaulting

c)protecting

3.Electronic Protection can also be implemented to prevent ….. forces from being affected by their own Electronic Attack.

a)friendly

b)hostile

c)enemy

4. …..EP includes technical modifications to radio equipment.

a)active

b)passive

c)emergency

5. …..term for Electronic Support is Electronic warfare support measures (ESM).

a)modern

b)older

c)new

6.EA and active EP can be detected by an adversary….. their active transmissions.

a)in spite of

b)despite

c)due to


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.Electronic warfare (EW) has four main components.

2.Most EA activity is in the form of jamming or electromagnetic deception.

3.Electronic Support includes all activities related to making enemy EA activities less successful by means of protecting friendly personnel, facilities, equipment or objectives.

4.Active EP includes education of operators (enforcing strict discipline) and modified battlefield tactics or operations.

5.ES is the passive use of the electromagnetic spectrum to gain intelligence about other parties on the battlefield and to find, identify, locate and intercept potential threats or targets.

6.Modern terms for EP are Electronic protective measures (EPM) and Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM).

7.SIGINT is continuously performed by most of the world's countries in order to gain intelligence about potential enemies' electronic equipment and tactics.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Радиоэлектронная война включает три главных компонента.

2.Пассивная радиозащита включает также обучение операторов.

3.В основном, радиоэлектронная атака осуществляется в виде заглушения или элетромагнитных ловушек.

4.Активная радиозащита включает технические модификации радиооборудования.

5.Радиоэлектронная поддержка может осуществляться без ведома неприятеля.


Ex 8.Retell the text.

































UNIT 10


Topic: Electronic Warfare


Text: Electronic countermeasures



List of words:


blip – изображение на экране радара

bounce back - отпрыгнуть

cell phone - сотовый телефон

chasm - пропасть

defensive – защитный, оборонный

detection system - система обнаружения

electronic countermeasures - радиоэлектронное подавление

enhancement - усиление

flare - вспышка; осветительная ракета

guided missile - управляемая ракета

homer – устройство самонаведения

low – самый низкий уровень

offensive – наступательный, нападающий

overdrive – вывести из строя

overpower - подавлять

overwhelmed - подавлять

patch – небольшой участок

randomly - беспорядочно

ripple - рябь

sonar - сонар, гидролокатор

spoof - обмануть

string - струна

strum - бренчать

yell – крикнуть


Read and translate the text.


Electronic countermeasures


Electronic countermeasures (ECM) are any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to "spoof” radar, sonar, or other detection systems. They may be used both offensively or defensively in any method to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make there appear to be many separate targets or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to protect aircraft from guided missiles. Most air forces use them to protect their aircraft from attack.

Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming. Defensive ECM includes using chaff and flares against incoming missiles, as well as blip enhancement and jamming of missile terminal homers.

ECM is practiced by nearly all military units—land, sea or air. Aircraft are the primary weapons in the ECM battle because they can "see" a larger patch of earth than a sea or land-based unit. When employed effectively ECM can keep aircraft from being tracked by search radars, surface-to-air missiles and air-to-air missiles.

ECM is a function of the electromagnetic spectrum or frequency of energy that is directed toward a target. Every type of radar functions in the electromagnetic spectrum and can be sensed by the proper equipment. Since radar works very much like an echo you hear if you yell into a chasm or canyon, it can be timed and identified by the frequency at which it operates. For example, if you strum an open low "A" string on a guitar, it resonates at a frequency of 110 hertz. The sound waves travel out like ripples in a pond and in all directions. When the waves reach the other side of the canyon, they are reflected or bounced back toward the source. The sound arrives at your ear after a short time and you hear the "echo". If someone on the other side of the canyon has a guitar tuned to 112 Hz and they strum it as soon as they hear the sound from your guitar, their sound will reach you at approximately the same time as your echo. This combination of sounds will sound strange to you. A radar system is much more accurate (in detecting frequencies) while it listens for the echo. If it sends out 110 Hz, it expects to "hear" a reflected 110 Hz. If the sound comes back at 112 or 115 Hz, then the radar receiver or "ear" can be confused.

ECM deals with jamming, covering (concealing) from and eliminating threats. Many sophisticated methods of jamming an electromagnetic signal exist. Covering involves overpowering a signal so that the radar receiver is overwhelmed and cannot process the echo. Elimination consists of anti-radiation missiles and bombs that home in on the radar signal and destroy the source.

Another kind of ECM is more offensive in theory. It involves using an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to overdrive or burn out all electronics. This can be used to destroy the enemy's ability to communicate quickly, even though nowadays many communication centers, mobile and fixed, are protected against EMP. EMP is, however, also a very good psychological weapon as it can render all TVs, radios, computers, cell phones and similar electronic devices useless.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.230))



Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What are ECM designed for?

2.What is the difference between offensive and defensive ECM?

3.What kinds of military units is ECM practiced by?

4.What does ECM deal with?

5.What does covering involve?



Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Система наблюдения, управляемая ракета, наступательный, усиление, вспышка, точный, устройство самонаведения, психологическое оружие,

сложные методы, подавлять, электронные устройства, вывести из строя.































UNIT 11


Topic: Electronic Warfare


Text: Electronic Intelligence



List of words:



Admiralty – адмиралтейство, морское министерство

air raid – воздушный налет

assets - актив

Electronic Intelligence – электронная разведка

evadе – ускользать, избегать

fighter - истребитель

flight profile – маршрут полета

High Frequency Direction Finder - высокочастотный пеленгатор

patrol - патрулирование

рertinentотносящийся к; имеющий отношение

plot – составлять план

premier – первый

rival – противник

semi-mobile air defense system - полумобильная система ПВО

sensor – датчик, чувствительный элемент

stealth – скрыто, тайно

U-boat – немецкая подводная лодка

warfare – война, приемы ведения войны


Electronic Intelligence


ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors.

The data gathered is typically pertinent to a rival's defense network, especially the electronic parts such as radars, surface-to-air missile systems, aircraft, etc. It can be performed from ground stations near the opponent's territory, ships off their coast, aircraft near or in their airspace, or by satellite. The USA is believed to be the premier ELINT expert. They are known to gather data on countries such as Russia (ex-USSR) and China.

The primary goal of ELINT is to acquire data which would be invaluable in the event of a conflict. Knowing where each surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery system is and its type means that air raids can be plotted to avoid the most heavily defended areas and to fly on a flight profile which will give the aircraft the best chance of evading ground fire and fighter patrols. It also allows for the jamming or spoofing of the enemy's defense network.

ELINT can also acquire data about where the ships, command and control centers, surface-to-air missile systems and other assets of the enemy are so they can be struck in the event of a war. Good electronic intelligence can be very important to stealth operations; stealth aircraft are not totally undetectable and need to know which areas to avoid. Similarly, conventional aircraft need to know where fixed or semi-mobile air defense systems are so that they can shut them down or fly around them. ELINT is an important component of the sensor grid for Network-centric warfare.

Combining other sources of information and ELINT allows traffic analysis to be performed on electronic emissions which contain human encoded messages. The method of analysis differs from SIGINT in that any human encoded message which is in the electronic transmission is not analyzed during ELINT. What is of interest is the type of electronic transmission and its location. For example during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II, Ultra SIGINT was not always available because Bletchley Park was not always able to read the U-Boat Enigma traffic. But "Huff-Duff" (High Frequency Direction Finder) was still able to find where the U-Boats were by analysis of radio transmissions and the positions through triangulation from the direction located by two or more Huff-Duff systems. The Admiralty was able to use this information to plot courses which took convoys away from high concentrations of U-Boats.


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.233)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What does ELINT stand for?

2.What is the primary goal of ELINT?

3.What can good electronic intelligence be very important for?

4.How does the method of analysis differ from SIGINT?

5.How was "Huff-Duff" able to find where the U-Boats were?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Пеленгатор, скрыто, ракетная система “земля-воздух”, избегать, датчик,

закодированный, ускользать, источник информации, бесценный, защитная система, неприятель, имеющий отношение к, истребитель, наземная станция.



Ex 3.Put in the missing words from the box.


an important component, the electronic transmission, fixed, pertinent, refers, the premier, the assets, stealth,


1.ELINT…..to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors.

2.The USA is believed to be…..ELINT expert.

3.ELINT can also acquire data about where…..of the enemy are.

4.ELINT is…..of the sensor grid for Network-centric warfare.

5.Good electronic intelligence can be very important to…..operations.

6.The method of analysis differs from SIGINT in that any human encoded message which is in…..is not analyzed during ELINT.

7.Conventional aircraft need to know where…..or semi-mobile air defense systems are.

8.The data gathered are typically…..to a rival's defense network.


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)evadе a)make a plan, map or diagram of

2)plot b)referring directly; relevent

3)premier c)German submarine

4)рertinent d)thing,circumstance,that is puzzling

5)intelligence e)keep or get away from; escape

6)U-boat f) first in position, importance, etc

7)avoid g)get or keep out of the way of

8)enigma h)government department that secretly

collects information on enemies


Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.The primary goal of ELINT is…..data which would be invaluable in the event of a conflict.

a)to send

b)to swap

c)to acquire

2.The…..gathered are pertinent to a rival's defense network, especially the electronic parts such as radars, surface-to-air missile systems, aircraft, etc.

a)data

b)information

c)knowledge


3.Stealth…..are not totally undetectable and need to know which areas to avoid.

a)missiles

b)ships

c)aircraft

4.Combining other sources of information and ELINT allows traffic analysis to be performed on electronic emissions which contain human…..messages.

a)decoded

b)encoded

c)deciphered

5.What is of interest is the type of electronic…..and its location.

a)relaying

b)transmission

c)broadcast

6. The…..was able to use this information to plot courses which took convoys away from high concentrations of U-Boats.

a)War Ministry

b)Ministry of Transport

c)Admiralty

Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.Knowing where each air-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery system is and its type means that air raids can be plotted to avoid the most heavily defended areas.

2.Stealth aircraft are totally undetectable and need to know which areas to avoid.

3.Conventional aircraft need to know where fixed or semi-mobile air defense systems are so that they can shut them down or fly around them.

4.ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors.

5.During the Battle of the Atlantic in World War I, Ultra SIGINT was not always available because Bletchley Park was not always able to read the U-Boat Enigma traffic.

6.The USA is believed to be the premier ELINT expert. They are known to gather data on countries such as Russia (ex-USSR) and China.

7.The data gathered are typically pertinent to a rival's defense network, especially the electronic parts such as radars, air-to-air missile systems, aircraft, etc.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.ELINT (электронная разведка) имеет отношение к сбору информации при помощи электронных датчиков.

2.Собранные данные обычно относятся к защитной сети неприятеля, особенно электронным устройствам, таким как радары, ракетные системы земля-воздух, самолеты, и т.д.

3.Первичная цель ELINT состоит в том, чтобы приобрести данные, которые были бы бесценны в случае конфликта.

4.ELINT может также получить информацию о том, где находятся суда, командные центры и центры управленния, ракетные системы земля-воздух и другие активы врага, так что они могут быть поражены в случае войны.

5.США, как полагают, являются главным экспертом ELINT.


Ex 8.Make up the plan of the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text according to your plan.

































UNIT 12


Topic: Electronic Warfare


Text: Electromagnetic pulse



List of words:


artifact – предмет материальной культуры

avionics - авиационная радиоэлектроника

beyond - вне

blast - взрыв

broadband - широкополосный

couple with – соединяться

current – ток; электрический ток

cyberpunk - киберпанк

damage - повреждение, разрушение

deflect - отклонить

detonation – детонация, взрыв

distort - исказить

electromagnetic pulse - электромагнитный импульс

explosion - взрыв

fluctuating - колебание

geographical features - географические особенности

intervenе - вмешиваться

lightning rod - молниеотвод

meaning - значение

noticeable - заметный

nuclear - ядерный

scatter - разбрасывать, рассеивать

science fiction - научная фантастика

shockwave – ударная взрывная волна

surge - волна

surrounding medium - окружающая среда

term - термин

voltage – электрическое напряжение

vulnerable - уязвимый

yield – производительность, выход




Read and translate the text.


Electromagnetic pulse

In telecommunications and warfare, the term electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the following meanings:

The electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially nuclear explosions) or an intensely fluctuating magnetic field caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photo-electrons from photons is scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges.The effects are usually not noticeable beyond the blast radius unless the device is nuclear or specifically designed to produce an electromagnetic shockwave.

In the case of a nuclear detonation or a meteor impact, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz.

In works of fiction, EMP has made many appearances, particularly in science fiction. In the cyberpunk sub-genre, EMP is often portrayed as a superweapon that distorts social order by destroying technological artifacts central to a society.

The worst of the pulse lasts for only a second, but any unprotected electrical equipment and anything connected to electrical cables, which act as giant lightning rods or antennas, will be affected by the pulse. Older vacuum tube (valve) based equipment is much less vulnerable to EMP; Soviet cold war era military aircrafts often had avionics based on vacuum tubes. There are a number of websites that explore methods for protecting equipment in the home or business from the effects of an EMP attack.

It is important to note that many nuclear detonations have taken place using bombs dropped by aircraft. The aircraft that delivered the atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not fall out of the sky due to damage to their electrical or electronic systems. This is simply because electrons (ejected from the air by gamma rays) are stopped quickly in normal (dense) air for bursts below 10 km, so they don't get a chance to be significantly deflected by the Earth's magnetic field (the deflection causes the powerful EMP seen in high altitude bursts), but it does point out the limited use of smaller burst altitudes for widespread EMP. If the B-29 planes had been within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then they would have suffered effects from the charge separation (radial) EMP. But this only occurs within the severe blast radius for detonations below about 10 km altitude. Several major factors control the effectiveness of an EMP weapon. These are:

1. The height of the weapon when detonated

2. The yield of the weapon

3. The distance from the weapon when detonated

4. Geographical depth or intervening geographical features


(Source: Златніков В.Г. Практичний курс з вивчення іноземної мови. Київ, 2006, стор.239)


Ex 1.Аnswer the questions.

1.What meanings does EMP have?

2.How is most of the energy distributed?

3.How is EMP portrayed in the cyberpunk sub-genre?

4.What explores methods for protecting equipment in the home or business from the effects of an EMP attack?

5.What major factors control the effectiveness of an EMP weapon?


Ex 2.Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations.

Взрыв, электромагнитный импульс, ядерный, ударная взрывная волна, разрушение, географические особенности, электрическое напряжение,

уязвимый, вмешиваться, заметный, значение, незащищенный.


Ex 3.Use the word in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.

1.The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce…..current and voltage surges. (damage)

2.Most of the energy is…..throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz. (distribute)

3.Older vacuum tube (valve) based …..is much less vulnerable to EMP. (equip)

4.Many nuclear…..have taken place using bombs dropped by aircraft. (detonate)

5.Several major factors control the…..of an EMP weapon. (effect)


Ex 4.Match the words with their definitions.


word definition


1)explosion a)ray of very short wavelength from

2)medium radioactive substances

3)fiction b)metal rod to prevent damage by

4)gamma ray lightning

5)telecommunications c)send out (liquid, etc)

6)lightning rod d)sudden and violent bursting

7)eject e)turn aside or move in a different

8)deflect direction

f)surroundings in which smth exists or

moves

g)branch of literature concerned with

stories,novels, etc

h)communications by cable, telegraph,

telephone, radio or TV


Ex 5.Fill in the blanks with the proper variant.

1.In the case of…..detonation the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum.

a)a nuclear

b)an induced

c)electric

2.The effects are usually not noticeable…..the blast radius unless the device is nuclear or specifically designed to produce an electromagnetic shockwave.

a)within

b)in

c)beyond

3.The resulting electric and magnetic…..may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges.

a)rays

b)induction

c)fields

4.It is important to note that many nuclear…..have taken place using bombs dropped by aircraft.

a)radiation

b)detonations

c)wars

5.EMP is often portrayed as a superweapon that distorts social order by …..technological artifacts central to a society.

a)creating

b)destroying

c)developing

6.Soviet cold war era military aircrafts often had avionics based on vacuum….. .

a)vacuum tubes

b)electron-beam tubes

c)cathode-ray tubes


Ex 6.Say if the following statesments are true or false.Correct the false ones.

1.The high-frequency radiation from an explosion (especially nuclear explosions) is scattered in the materials of the electronic or explosive device or

in a surrounding medium.

2.In works of fiction, EMP has made many appearances, particularly in science fiction.

3.The worst of the pulse lasts for only a second, but any protected electrical equipment — and anything connected to electrical cables, which act as giant lightning rods or antennas, will be affected by the pulse.

4.There are a number of websites that explore methods for protecting equipment in the home or business from the effects of a double pulse attack.

5.The aircraft that delivered the atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not fall out of the sky due to damage to their electrical or electronic systems.

6.If the B-29 planes had been within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, then they would have suffered effects from the charge separation (radial) EMP.

7.This only occurs within the severe blast radius for detonations below about 100 km altitude.


Ex 7. Translate into English.

1.Большая часть энергии распределяется в пределах низких частот между

3Hz и 30kHz.

2.Оборудование, работающее на вакуумных электронных лампах, намного меньше поддается воздействию электромагнитного импульса.

3.Электромагнитная радиация, вызванная ядерным взрывом, рассеивается в окружающей среде.

4.В случае ядерного взрыва электромагнитный импульс состоит из сплошного частотного спектра.

5.Электромагнитный импульс воздействует на любое незащищенное электрооборудование.


Ex 8.Annotate the text.


Ex 9.Retell the text.

















Glossary



A

accurate - точный

acquisition – поиск

actual - фактический

adjust - корректировать

Admiralty – адмиралтейство, морское министерство

adversary – противник, неприятель

Aegis combat system – защитная боевая система

aerial - антенна

agile – быстрый, проворный

air raid – воздушный налет

alter - изменять

altimeter – высотомер

аltitude – высота

amplify - усилить

аperture – апертура,щель

artifact – предмет материальной культуры

assets - активы

attenuation – затухание

avionics - авиационная радиоэлектроника

avoid – избегать


B

background - фон

bandполоса частот; диапазон

barrage jamming – заградительное подавление сигналов

beam – луч

bearing – пеленг, азимут

beyond - вне

blast - взрыв

blip – изображение на экране радара

bothersome – вызывать беспокойство

bounce back - отпрыгнуть

bounce off - отпрыгнуть

broadband - широкополосный

broadcast – радіопередача



C

cancel – погашать, отменять

carrier - носитель

cell phone - сотовый телефон

chaff – дипольный отражатель,дипольная помеха

chasm - пропасть

chirp - щебетать сloak - маскировка,скрывание

clutter – (местные) помехи

clutter map – карта помех

clutter up – заваливать, загромождать

сollateral – параллельный

comparison – сравнение

confidence factor – коэффициент уверенности

confined - ограниченный

сonsole – пульт (управления)

continuous wave – незатухающая волна

corner – угол, угловой

countermeasures - контрмеры

counterpart - копия

couple with – соединяться

coverage – охват, покрытие

cross section – поперечное сечение

current – ток; электрический ток

cyberpunk – киберпанк


D

damage - повреждение, разрушение

deceive - обмануть

deception - обман

decline - снижаться

decoy – ложная цель, ловушка

defensive – защитный, оборонный

deflect - отклонить

degrade – ухудшить

degree - степень

delay - задержка

dense fog – густой туман

density - плотность

deny – отрицать; не допустить

designation – обозначение

detect обнаружить

detection system - система обнаружения

determine – определить

detonation – детонация, взрыв

discern – различать, распознавать

dispose - размещаться

distinct – отличимый, чёткий

distort – исказить


E

ECM(electronic countermeasure) – электронное устройство для подавления радиосигналов

edge -край

electromagnetic pulse - электромагнитный импульс

electronic countermeasures - радиоэлектронное подавление

Electronic Intelligence – электронная разведка

electronic warfare - радиоэлектронная война

eliminate - край

emit - испускать

employ - использовать

enforcing - усиление

engagement – бой, стычка

enhancement – усиление

estimation - определение

evadе – ускользать, избегать

explosion - взрыв

external – внешний


F

face - грань

facilities - средства

feasibility – возможность

fibre - стекловолокно

fighter - истребитель

fighter aircraft - самолет- истребитель

figure out - вычислять

flare - вспышка; осветительная ракета

flight profile – маршрут полета

fluctuating - колебание

frequency - частота

frequency-hopping - прыгание частоты


G

gain – коэффициент усиления

geographical features - географические особенности

get within range – держать (быть) на расстоянии выстрела

ghost – побочное изображение

guided missile - управляемая ракета


H

hail - град

high diver mode – режим пикирования

High Frequency Direction Finder - высокочастотный пеленгатор

high-performance - эффективный

homer – устройство самонаведения


I

impose - налагать

incapacitate - вывести из строя

infantry - пехота

inherently - неотъемлемо

intelligence – сведения, информация

intentional - намеренный, умышленный

intercept – перехват; перехватывать

interference - помеха

internal - внутренний

intervenе - вмешиваться

irradiate – освещать, облучать

isolate – изолировать


J

jammer - станция активных преднамеренных радиопомех

jamming – заглушение (забивание) станции, помехи при приёме от работы других станций

jitter – дрожание, подергивание


K

key – код, ключ


L

lack – недостаток

lend - предоставить

lightning rod - молниеотвод

low – самый низкий уровень

low-altitude target – невысокая цель

low-observable target – зд.: низколетящая цель



M

map – нанести на карту

masking - маскировка

meaning - значение

measurement - измерение

memory – запись, регистрация

missile defence – противоракетная защита

moving - движущийся

multiple target – групповая цель

narrow- сужаться

noise – шум, помеха

noticeable - заметный

nuclear - ядерный


O

odd looking – необычно выглядящий

offensive – наступательный, нападающий

offset –смещение, сдвиг; поправка на смещение (цели)

operational features – тактико-технические характеристики

outnumber –превосходить численностью

overcome - преодолевать

overdrive – вывести из строя

overpower - подавлять

overwhelmed – подавлять


P

patch – небольшой участок

pathloss – потери на трассе

patrol - патрулирование

pattern – шаблон, образец, схема

performance – действие

рertinentотносящийся к; имеющий отношение

phased array – фазированная антенная решетка

plane - плоскость

plot – составлять план

precaution - предосторожность

precipitation – осадки

premier – первый

PRF – Pulse Repetition Frequency

product - (мат.) произведение

propagate - распространяться

propagation factor – коэффициент передачи

protection – защита

R

radar cross-section – радиолокационное сечение

radial velocity – радиальная скорость

ramp speed - скорость пилообразного сигнала

random - случайный

random noise – случайные помехи

randomly - беспорядочно

range – дальность, диапазон; расстояние; радиус/дальность действия

receiver - приемник

reflected отраженный

reinforce – усиливать(ся)

relative – по отношению к; относительно; соответствующий

repeater – ретранслятор, усилитель

ripple - рябь

rival – противник

round-trip time - время оборота


S

saturate - насыщать

sawtooth - пилообразный

scan – полный поворот радиолокатора

scanning – разворот, поворот

scatter - разбрасывать, рассеивать(ся)

science fiction - научная фантастика

scope – индикатор, экран

search – поиск

search radar – поисковая радиолокационная станция

semi-mobile air defense system - полумобильная система ПВО

sensor – датчик, чувствительный элемент

shift – сдвиг; сдвигаться, смещаться

shockwave – ударная взрывная волна

slide rule - логарифмическая линейка

solid - твердый

sonar - сонар, гидролокатор

space - расставлять (с промежутками)

split – расщепляться, разделяться

spoof - обмануть

spot jammingселективная (прицельная) помеха, направленная помеха

spread - расширяться

spread spectrum - спектр распространения

stealth – скрыто, тайно; скрытый

steering - управление

string – струна

strip - полоса

strum - бренчать

superimpose - накладываться

support – поддержка; прикрытие

surface - поверхность

surge - волна

surrounding medium - окружающая среда

surveillance – наблюдение, надзор

surveillance radar – обзорная РЛС

surveillance volume – зона обзора

sweep – перестраиваемый глушитель


T

target - цель

term - термин

terrestrial – земной, наземный

thermal - тепловой

threat - угроза

timing – синхронизация; согласование во времени; распределение интервалов времени

to be at odds - иметь разногласия

track(оn) - отслеживать

transmitter - передатчик

triangular – треугольный


U

U-boat – немецкая подводная лодка

unintentional - неумышленный

unsecure – ненадежный, небезопасный


V

vague – слабый, неясный

value – ценить

vehicle – транспортное средство

visible – видимый

voltage – электрическое напряжение

vulnerable – уязвимый





W

waveguide – волнов

wavelet – малая волна

weak - слабый

weapon system designation radar – радар для обозначения систем вооружения

weather radar - метеорадиолокатор

with respect to – относительно


Y

yell – крикнуть

yield – производительность, выход












































Белянская Н.Г., Павлова Л.К., Шкарупа О.Г.


Reader for Students of Radio Engineering Department

(Part 2)








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Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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