«Influence of the English Language on the Contemporary Society in the Pandemic»
The coronavirus pandemic has become the most serious challenge that humanity has faced in the twenty-first century. It has totally and radically changed the world we live in. Education and medicine are among those spheres that have been mostly affected by the global pandemic and those that have demonstrated the importance of the English language proficiency in these spheres.
Relevance of the research is due to the need and attempts to create a universal world language as a global in the process of pandemic. English - "20th century Latin" can be such a language, as it is the language of world communication, and it has been embedded in all spheres of society, especially in education and medicine.
The aim of the study is to investigate and analyze the role and process of establishment of English as a global language in the context of pandemic, as well as its functioning in educational and medical areas.
English has become one of the main instruments of globalization in the context of pandemic and has been embedded in all spheres of society, especially in the areas of education and medicine that have demonstrated the importance of the English language proficiency in these areas.
1. Consider the story behind the globalization of English.
2. Justify the choice of English as the main applicant for this role.
3. Analyse the impact of English on society and its influence on education and medicine in the context of pandemic.
4. Analyse the main reasons for the globalization of English.
5. Conduct the survey and its analysis.
Research methods: analysis, classification, description, questionnaire
The practical significance of the work is that it can be used as a guidance to study the process of globalization in the course of learning English
Scientific novelty: identifying the role and impact of globalization of English on modern society in the context of globalization, which is little studied.
Object of study: English, its role in the process of globalization and influence on modern society in the context of pandemic.
Subject of study: the processes of influence of English as a global language on different spheres of life of society in a pandemic.
1.1 The concept and role of globalization.
There are different views on the emergence of globalization. Historians believe that some features of globalization began to appear already in the era of antiquity, when the Roman Empire expanded and strengthened its possessions, leading to the crosscultural interlasement. Economists find the origins of globalization in the 12th-13th centuries, due to the growth of world trade in Europe. Political scientists believe that globalization was born decades ago, but its formation has not been completed by the beginning of the third millennium. There is no single universally accepted definition of globalization, nor is there a consensus on the origin of the term. It is a relatively new term that has spread widely in the spheres of public life and is used in its particular meaning for each sphere.
Thus, by saying the term "globalization," scientists mean the following processes:
• Expanding the activities and worldwide proliferation of transnational corporations;
• Existence of supranational political, economic and social organizations - UN, NATO, G8, EU, etc., which have a huge influence on the life of countries;
• • Formation of a single financial market;
• • Formation of complex economic relationships of regions;
• Increasing international migration;
• "Americanization" and "Europeanization" of culture;
• • The formation of ethnoplanetic thinking (the ability of people to represent themselves as inhabitants of the Earth rather than residents of a certain country or, at the same time, to be responsible for the whole planet (at least in their minds);
• • Increasing communication of representatives of different countries, cultures, nationalities, etc., through the use of the Internet, television, radio;
• • worldwide spread of English as a global language.
In this study, the most outstanding interest is the process of cultural and, in particular, linguistic globalization, as, in our point of view, the concept of "language" is inseparably linked to the concept of "culture." The common spread of the Internet plays a huge role in cultural globalization.
1.2 Establishment of English as a global language.
Why has English, rather than another language, become the language of international communication? This issue should be considered from two points of view: historical-geographical and socio-cultural. The first point shows us how English achieved dominant position. The second - explains why it continues to maintain the leading position. The combination of these two factors resulted into the rise of English.
With the help of historical evidence, it is possible to trace the spread of English throughout the world since the time of the first expeditions of English explorers to America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
English originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects, which were part of the West German group of languages. The Germans who conquered Britain in the 5th century belonged, according to ancient historians, to three tribes: Angles, Saxes and Utah. These tribes occupied the following territory on the continent: the Angles lived in southern Schleswige, north of the River Schlai; The Saxons - south of the angles, in present-day Holtinia; Utah - north of the angles, on the territory of northern Schleswig, now owned by Denmark. Closely related to this group of tribes were the Frisians, who occupied the North sea coast between the rivers Rhine and Ems, and the hawks, who lived between the Ems and the Elbe. Around the fourth century A.D., these tribes spread further west; The Saxons appeared on the northern coast of Gallia, and separate troops of them penetrated in the 5th century even to the mouth of the Loire River, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
1 Schleswig (German - Schleswig , Dutch - Slesvig, Anglo. Sliaswic) is a historic area in northern Europe, a former duchy. Since 1920 it has been divided between Denmark (North Jutland) and Germany and now forms the interstate economic zone of South Jutland - Schleswig.
The first ever information of the British Isles dates back to the fourth century BC, when a Greek traveler, Pfei, from the city of Massilia, making a journey on his vessel around Europe, reached the land of Kent, in southeastern Britain. During this era, Britain was inhabited by Celtic tribes - Britts and Gaelas who spoke various Celtic languages.
Then in the second half of the 9 century, Anglo-Saxon lands began to be conquered by the Vikings. As a result, words from the Nordic group came to English.
The Middle English period of English development covered the period from 1066 to 1500 A.D. In the middle of the 11 century, during the Middle Ages, England was conquered by the French. Thus in the history of the development of English the era of three languages began: French - for aristocracy and judicial system, Latin - for science and medicine, Anglo-Saxon - for peasantry.
The mixing of these three languages gave rise to the formation of the English that the whole world is studying today. There was a vocabulary split into high (from French) and low (from Germanic) language variants.
In the 14 century, English becomes standard, that is, classic, and it also becomes the language of education and law. In 1474, the first book appeared in English. During this period, the first grammatical rules appeared and there were changes in the phonetic structure of the language. In the early 16 century, London pronunciation became popular in Britain. About 90% of the total population of the country communicated in this dialect.
With the beginning of migration from England to North America, the language began to change in a different direction. In this way British, American and other versions of modern English appeared.
At the same time, the gradual spread of English since 1600 took place in several stages. From 1900 in the colonies, locals could be educated in English, and in the United States, Canada, and Australia, immigrants studied English in special courses.
The last stage, which continues today, includes the events connected with the gaining of independence by all British colonies in 1945. English became the language of science and new technologies. The performance of practically each new invention was followed by the instruction in English. Besides, with the introduction of a number of international organizations, movements, running campaigns the need for universal language of communication appeared and English became such a language. Under the international agreement English began to be used in the work of air traffic controllers, sea navigation, means of communication, business spheres, is a working language of the UN. Certainly, a variety of spheres of distribution of English makes it an international language.
1.3 The importance of English in the process of globalization.
Role, and respectively the status of English has been constantly changing throughout history.
The language became international due to many gains, and it became subsequently global because international business relations are carried out in English.
The importance of knowledge of English in modern society extends to many spheres of life:
1. Knowledge of English is the criterion necessary for successful career.
2. English is the language of the international communication.
3. English is business language. All large businessmen wishing to enter the international market need to know English at high level
4. Knowledge of English gives the opportunity to study at prestigious foreign universities and also get a highly paid job abroad.
5. The most part of interesting and necessary literature is published in English. We should wait for the translation which, as we know, can mangle information and doesn't convey the author's thought in full.
6. The most part of pages on the Internet with the necessary information is spread in English.
7. All international competitions and conferences are held in English
8. Most computer programs and applications are written in English.
The most right factor in acceleration of development of globalization is distribution of English. English has really moved far ahead on the way to acquire the status of international language, and, therefore, actively promotes globalization process.
1.4. The development and impact of the English language as a global on educational sphere in the era of pandemic.
Education is one of the areas, which has been mostly affected by the pandemic on a global scale. COVID-19 had an effect on all levels of education, including higher education, magistracy, residency (medical specialties), postgraduate and doctoral degree studies (scientific personnel).
Some universities and schools had to suspend their educational activities and organize online tutorials and self-study for students. During self-isolation, major educational institutions around the world and educational platforms provided free access to their unique programs, most of which were conducted in English.
What is the role of English in the educational system?
English is a reliable means of familiarizing with scientific and technological progress, a means of satisfying cognitive interests. Thanks to it, there is an expansion and deepening of the subject at the expense of cross-cultural, General humanitarian or technical material focused on the specialty. It provides an introduction to the elements of career guidance and retraining in the country of the language studied, familiarization with the features of the chosen profession and the role of a foreign language in mastering professional skills. In addition, many students, who study English, get the opportunity to participate in international exchange programs, and University students get internships abroad.
The world of computer science "speaks" English. Millions of sites on the Internet use English. Mastering modern computer technology and, especially, the Internet to search for the necessary information is also impossible without knowing English.
English is the language of international communication, so many educational articles and books are written in English. Reading them in the original, without translation, one can get much more pleasure, since the translation isn’t always accurate, it depends on the subjective opinion and the skills of the translator, and is not able to convey the true thoughts and emotions that the author has put in the story. What about technical literature? Having a good command of language, opens up great opportunities for studying machinery and equipment. The same works with computer programs and applications.
So, knowing English is one of the important conditions for progress, because it is needed to obtain new knowledge and experience.
1.5. The development and impact of English as a global language on medical sphere in the era of pandemic.
Globalization and the acceleration of information exchange require knowing language of international communication and, in particular, its features and the use of terminology in medical professions.
Consequently, mastering English becomes a must to acquire reading skills and a good understanding of medical literature in English to achieve the level to communicate with colleagues from the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Israel and other countries known for their significant achievements in the development of medicine.
Why should a doctor know English?
1. The doctor, who speaks English, is more aware of current trends in the field of medicine.
Many prestigious scientific publications are included in the scientific databases of Scopus and Web of Science and many others. Scientists who have publications that are listed in these databases are of greatest authority and are highly valued, which indicates the importance of their research. Scientific articles included in these databases are written in English, which allows the world community to get acquainted with them.
2. Knowing English allows you to constantly improve your skills and be aware of advanced methods of diagnosis and treatment.
3. Having a good command of English you can get or continue medical education abroad, complete an internship in a foreign clinic, take advanced training courses abroad, and participate in international research projects in the field of medicine.
4. Having a good command of English makes it possible to work in a team with foreign specialists. Many domestic clinics cooperate with foreign medical institutions, invite foreign experts to work or consult with them in difficult cases.
5. Knowing English allows the doctor to see foreign patients in private clinics.
English can be considered a competence-based language, since the basis of its content is practical activity. This subject has a great potential for the formation of such key competencies as
1. Value-semantic competence.
2. General Cultural competence.
3. Educational and cognitive competence.
4. Information competence.
5. Communicative competence.
6. Social and labor competence.
7. Personal self-improvement Competence.
The level of education, especially in modern conditions, is not determined by the volume of knowledge, their encyclopedic nature. According to the competence approach, the level of education is determined by the ability to solve problems of different complexity based on existing knowledge.
The competence approach does not negate the value of knowledge, but it focuses on the ability to use the knowledge gained.
According to the Federal component of state educational standards of primary General, basic General and secondary (full) General education, and the goals that it defines, the study of foreign languages should be aimed at the development of foreign language communicative competence in the whole range of its components – speech, language, socio-cultural, compensatory and educational-cognitive.
Speech competence involves the development of communicative skills in four main types of speech activity (speaking, listening, reading, writing).
Language competence is aimed at mastering language means (phonetic, spelling, lexical, grammatical).
Socio-cultural competence introduces to students the culture, traditions and realities of the country of the language studied, forms the ability to represent their country and its culture in the context of foreign-language intercultural communication.
Compensatory competence develops the ability to find a way out of the situation in conditions of a shortage of language resources while receiving and transmitting information.
Educational and cognitive competence contributes to the further development of General and special educational skills, introduces to students the methods and techniques available to learn the language and culture.
Never before had there been a language so widespread and spoken by so many people as English. Therefore, there is no precedent that would help us understand what will happen to it after receiving the global status.
By 2015, half of the world's population will speak or study English, British researchers say. It is expected that over the next decade, two billion people will begin to learn English, and three billion will speak it. Such data are contained in the assessment of the British Council.
Other languages, such as French, run the risk of becoming victims of this "linguistic globalization." However, this boom will end by 2050, and the English language learning industry will be a victim of its own success, says David Graddol, author of the report The Future of the English Language. “Then the number of English learners will drop from 3 billion to 500 million,” he says. “With the spread of English on the planet, more and more people will be bilingual and even multilingual, and such qualities are highly valued in business.”
Graddol predicts that a wave of English is about to sweep the world. "Many governments, especially in countries that have gained independence relatively recently, are introducing English learning under the banner of pragmatism. The native languages of countries like Malaysia and Sri Lanka are often identified with their newfound independence and as such should be protected. However, English dominates in the sphere of business, and in order to be able to compete, enter into profitable contracts, in such countries you need to start learning English in kindergarten. "
Graddol emphasizes that not only English is spreading in the world, and that the world is becoming more and more multilingual. "Chinese, Arabic and Spanish are popular, and they may well become the languages of the future."
Then we decided to conduct a survey.
The questionnaire was held to see how the English language as a global affects modern society in the pandemic.
In total, 150 people took part in the survey, students of grades 8-11.
The tasks that we fulfilled while achieving the goal of the work:
1. Analysing the impact of English on society and its influence on educational and medical spheres in the context of pandemic.
2. Giving a comparative description of students of different ages and adults.
3. Revealing how much our life has changed since the outbreak of the pandemic and establishment of English as an international language.
For the study, a questionnaire was drawn up, including 5 questions:
1. Has pandemic changed your life?
2. Do you come across English in everyday life?
3. Do you need the English language for studying online?
4. Do you need English in the future?
5. In which areas is English most necessary?
6. Has your attitude to the English language changed since the outbreak of the pandemic?
Survey results (see Appendix 1)
Most students come across English in everyday life and consider knowledge of English to be a necessity in the future, primarily for a successful career and self-realization in the society. This indicates that students’ attitude towards English has changes to the better, now they understand the role of the English language in the society and its importance as an international language.
Most students are of opinion that the English language is most necessary in spheres of medicine, education, business and IT. They also need English for studying online because a lot of educational platforms, articles, books are written in English and recognize English as the necessary language of globalization and world communication in the pandemic.
Summing up the above mentioned, we can state with confidence that the pandemic has demonstrated the importance of the English language proficiency in social aspects, especially in educational and medical spheres.
At the beginning of our study, we hypothesized that English has become one of the main instruments of globalization in the context of pandemic and has been embedded in all spheres of society, especially in educational and medical areas, that have demonstrated the importance of the English language proficiency in these fields.
In the process of research, we found out that English is indeed an effective tool of globalization. The pandemic, that has totally and radically changed the world we live in, demonstrated that the English language is in need for development, progress, gaining new knowledge and experience.
Our hypothesis is confirmed. The tasks are accomplished; the goal of the work is achieved.
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