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Early Tudor Costume Men Men's clothing gave them a square shape. they wore short doublets over their hose and the shoulders of their coat were cut wide. It was fashionable for their sleeves to be slashed and their flat hats were often decorated with feathers. Women Women's clothing gave them a triangular shape. Their corsets were tight fitting while their kirtles and gowns were very full. Their head-dress consisted of a coif that fitted closely round the face, to which was attached the cornet - a long piece of black Materia l that often hung down the back.
Late Tudor Costume Women The style of dress had changed considerably. the bodice was longer, and the skirt was worn over a farthingale (a circular frame) to give it its unique shape. the head-dress had been replaced by jewels in the hair and an elaborate ruff of lace was worn around the neck. Men The men's fashion had not changed as much as the women's. However, the square shape was replaced by a sleeker look. Men still wore doublet and hose, but the coat had been replaced by a short jacket. Men also wore ruffs around their necks.
Getting Dressed Putting on an Elizabethan gown was not a simple process and, including time taken for hair and makeup, could take as long as half-an-hour. This is the order in which clothing had to be put on: Stockings, ear rings and shoes. Chemise - the main item of underwear. Petticoat - for extra warmth Farthingale- stiffened with willow to give the triangular shape to the costume. Corset - stiffened with wood to flatten all lumps and bumps. Bumroll - worn on the hips to give extra flare to the skirt Parlet - worn over the corset Kirtle - the main underskirt Gown - split at the front to reveal the kirtle. Sleeves were either sewn in or tied on. Chemise Petticoat Farthingale Corset Bumroll Parlet Kirtle Gown
Women's clothing gave them a triangular shape. Their corsets were tight fitting making their waists very thin, while their petticoats and gowns were very wide. Men's clothes made them look square. They wore short jackets and the shoulders of their coat were cut wide. Why did Tudor mens clothes look like a square and ladies triangular?
Tudor jewelry replicas from the Court paintings of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, featuring jewels, dress jewels (ouches) and hair decorations. These are all acurate replicas, cast in lead- free pewter, gold plated and set with semi-precious stones such as Black Onyz, Carnelian and Garnet. Using the links given below you will be able to re-create the costumes shown in great detail or simply add some glamour and sparkle to an existing outfit.
This 1500 Brooch, shown below, is copied from a detail of a portrait of the Virgin, painted by Gerard David, hanging in the National Gallery. With reference to the numbers at the Last Supper, it has thirteen fleur-de-lys (the Flower of Innocence and a symbol of the Virgin) interspersed with thirteen simulated pearls (symbolising purity). At the centre is a very large Carnelian cabochon. Diameter 70mm. Price £25.00. Referred to as "The Tudor Brooch" (as it was my first replica jewel fromhe period), the brooch shown below is copied from a drawing which was dated 1592. The jewel originally belonged to the Duke of Lorraine but he gave it to the Duchess of Elbeuf to help pay off the ransom for her husband who had been kidnapped. With advances in the techniques of cutting precious stones in Antwerp the original jewel would have been set with table cut diamonds. This replica jewel uses the finest diamond simulated stones made from cubic zirconia. It measures 70mm. Price £45.00.
The jewel shown below is copied from a sketch by Holbein who was a prolific jewelry designer. It comprises a centra l Carnelian cabochon, surrounded by simulated pearls and Black Onyx cabochons. No illustration is available at present. This Spanish Dragon pendant is dated to circa 1560. The crest bears a Garnet cabochon. The Dragon is engraved on both sides and measures 52mm by 52mm. Supplied with a gold plated chain. Price £22.50. This Garnet Pendant is dated to circa 1600 and was designed by Arnold Lulls, who worked for Anne of Denmark and James I. The central cubic zircon stone is surrounded by Garnets. The original would have been set entirely with table cut diamonds. It measures 50mm by 43mm. Supplied with a gold plated chain. price £37.50.
This medieval Crown or Coronal is made by the technique of joining together panels. It is dated to the fourteenth century and is probably German or North European. In the Middle Ages churches hired our such crowns for weddings. This Coronal has the widespread form of fleuron s and the extensively decorated panels are set with imitation pearls and a Carnelian cabochon. These Coronals would have had a padded band inside for comfort and also to adjust the fit. Available in two sizes: nine segments gives a circumference of 55cm: Price £90.00, the ten segment Coronal gives a circumference of 61cm: Price £100.00.
The Medieval Reliquary Case, shown below, is based on the famous Middleham Jewel. It is dated to circa 1475. The original had a sliding rear panel to open the case, whereas this copy is hinged, with a small brass pin to act as a secret lock. The central depiction shows the Crucifixion. Above the figure of Christ is the Dove which represents the Holy Ghost, and above this is the figure of the Lord, his hand raised in blessing. The motto around the edge is in black letter and filled-in with blue enamel. The inscription has the words of John the Baptist, spoken at the baptism of Christ (Gospel of St.John, chapter 1, verse 29) "Ecce agnus dei qui tollis peccata mundi"-"Behold the Lamb of God who takest away the sins of the world". In addition to this is the phrase "Miserere Nobis"-"Have mercy on us". On the back of the jewel, at the top, is the added inscription of the word "Ananizapta". This was a magical word and used as a charm against the falling sickness (epilepsy) and also against drunkenness,. The case measures 72mm by 68mm. The blue glass cabochon simulates the sapphire of the original. Price £65.00.
Tudor Sports All kinds of sports were very popular in the Sixteenth Century Jousting Tennis Football Hunting Bear-baiting Some sports were banned! A law was passed in 1512 that banned ordinary people from a whole range of games including tennis, dice, cards, bowls and skittles. This was because the government wanted people to work more and play less.
Poor Tudors Life for the poor in Tudor times was harsh. Helping the poor - Poor Laws During the reign of Elizabeth l, many laws were passed to help the poor. 1563 — Justices of the Peace were given powers to raise compulsory funds for the relief of the poor. The poor were put into different categories those who would work but could not: They lived in their own homes but could not find a job. They were given help with food and clothes or by being given work in return for a wage. those who could work but would not: These were the (lazy) poor. They were punished e.g. whipped through the streets, publicly, until they learned the error of their ways. those who were too old/ill/young to work: They were looked after in almshouses, hospitals, orphanages or poor houses. 1572 — the first compulsory local poor law tax was imposed making the alleviation of poverty a local responsibility 1601 — the 'Elizabethan Poor Law' was passed The law offered help: The able-bodied poor were to be set to work in a House of Industry. Materials were to be provided for the poor so they could do the job. The idle (lazy) poor and vagrants were to be sent to a House of Correction or even prison. Pauper children (poor children who received charity) would become apprentices. The people who were unable to work due to disability, illness or old age were to be looked after either in almshouses, hospitals, poor houses or in their own homes.
Education This Tudor baby walker is on display at the Old House Museum in Hereford High Town. During the Middle Ages, a career in the church had allowed for a certain amount of social mobility in an otherwise static social system. Through patronage of a clergyman the son of a tradesman could eventually aspire to a place at university and forge a career for himself. Long hours studying and working didn't stop Tudor children having fun and playing games. Toys were often made from wood or materials which were easily available, such as clay, stone and animal bones. Pig bladders were blown up to make footballs, hoops were made from old barrels, and pebbles or cherry stones were used to play marbles or jacks.
The Cathedral School in Hereford Choristers, aged between seven and fifteen, lived within the cathedral precinct (boarding with individual canons) and attended lessons, such as learning to sing plainsong (simple unadorned and unharmonised chant) which was part of the daily services. By the Tudor period, polyphonic music (music in several contrasting parts) had been developed and the role of choristers in cathedral services became more pronounced. To what extent and for how long pupils were educated free of charge at the Cathedral School is unclear. In the early 17th century there are records of endowments which allowed pupils to study at the cathedral school and for a limited number to continue their studies at Oxford. For instance, Charles Langford, dean of Hereford, left 298 acres of farmland to the school in 1607. Four Hereford-born boys, chosen by the trustees, were funded by this bequest. These pupils were expected to attend services in the Cathedral dressed in gowns and surplices. In 1615, Roger Philpotts, mayor of Hereford, lef a house (in what is now Church Street) to the school to pay for two of its scholars at Brasenose College, Oxford. Hereford Record Office Hereford Cathedral
Grammar Schools Plaque on schoolhouse in Marden Old schoolhouse in Marden With the increase of trade and the breakdown of feudal society, the demand for literacy and education grew, even in rural areas. According to one scholar, there were 17 grammar schools in Herefordshire during the period of the dissolution of the monasteries and the chantries. Some of these schools took in boarders but most of them provided an education for pupils from the surrounding area.
Door in Hereford City wall, probably belonging to Thomas Church. (note faint engraving above door). Dyers liked doorways leading to the moat so they could easily dispose of their waste materials.) One interesting case of 1619 shows that ruthless masters sometimes tried to get apprentices to run away near the end of their term, so they would not have to return the bond. Thomas Lucas petitioned the mayor of Hereford, John Clark, "against his master for cruel ill - treatment." He alleged that his master, the dyer Thomas Church, had called him a thief, born of a whore and begotten of a devil. Thomas Church with the aid of his son had also beat him not only with a "bull's pizell" (the private parts of a bull used as an instrument for flogging) but also with a great staff and a set of keys and broken his head in eight places as well as his arm.
A great number of artifacts were uncovered during excavation, including navigational and medical equipment, carpentry tools, guns, longbows, arrows with traces of copper-rich binding glue still remaining on the tips, cooking and eating utensils, lanterns, backgammon boards, playing dice, logs for the galley's ovens and a total of ninety-one guns.
Battles of the Wars of the Roses May 22, 1455 - The first battle of St Albans September 23, 1459 - Bloreheath October 13, 1459 - Ludford Bridge June 20, 1460 - Sandwich July 10, 1460 - Northampton December 30, 1460 - Wakefield February 2, 1461 - Mortimer's Cross February 17, 1461 - second battle of St. Albans March 28, 1461 - Ferrybridge March 29, 1461 - Towton April 25, 1464 - Hedgeley Moor May 15, 1464 - Hexham July 26, 1469 - Edgecote March 12, 1470 - Empingham April 14, 1471 - Barnet May 4, 1471 - Tewkesbury August 22, 1485 - Bosworth Field July 16, 1487 - Stoke
Richard's army was just under 12,000 strong, but 4,000 of his troops were commanded by the Stanley brothers, whose loyalty was suspect. Richard was at Nottingham, and marched from there to Leicester on 19 August, and by 21 August the two armies were facing each other about two and a half miles south of Market Bosworth. Richard took the superior position, but did not take advantage by attacking Henry while he was still deploying his troops. He was unsure of Northumberland's allegiance and positioned him in a supportive role only, perhaps to watch over the Stanleys whose allegiance was even more suspect. The Stanley's though commanded a third of his troops, Richard had to rely upon them, so placed them to the north, near to Shenton to enclose Henry's army to the North.
In 1485, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, set sail from the port of Harfleur in France with 2000 troops, aiming to seize the English throne. He landed at Milford Haven in Wales on August 7 and gathered reinforcements as he marched through Wales, then through Shrewsbury, Stafford and Atherstone. On the day of battle he commanded an army of 5000 men. Marching eastwards to meet his adversary, King Richard III, Henry had qualms about the task ahead. Between Lichfield and Tamworth he spent a night away from his soldiers contemplating the wisdom of his mission. It is said that he even considered deserting. However, a secret meeting in Atherstone with Lord Stanley, a leader of the enemy forces, restored his nerve. What was said at the meeting, we do not know, but its outcome decided the future of England. Henry entered the battlefield before Richard and took position at the base of Ambion Hill rather than the seeming advantage of taking the hill's crest, perhaps hoping that the marshy ground to his south would hinder any attackers.
All through the War of the Roses the Stanleys had switched allegiances depending on political expedience and which house would provide them with the most power. Before the Battle of Bosworth, Lord Stanley was considering switching his allegiance to Henry, who happened to be his stepson. Stanley's forces had pitched their tents in a dale north of Atherstone, perhaps at the confluence of the Rivers Sence and Anker, near the place somewhat inappropriately marked on the map as 'King Dick's Hole'. Stanley heard mass in St Mary's chapel on Sunday 21st August. Possibly that night, under cover of darkness, Henry crept down from the woods, across the town and met his supposed adversary. Stanley stepped out the next morning with all the appearance of joining Richard's formations, but neither Henry nor Richard could know for certain which side the Stanleys' 4000 troops he would take in the battle.
Northumberland Although the Earls of Northumberland fought for the Lancastrian succession, Richard had assisted them in reestablishing their lands and rule against the Scots. It was with this legacy in mind that Lord Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, bought his 3000 strong army on to the battlefield in support of Richard. Under orders from Richard, his troops were situated to Richards' Flank and to the East of the Stanleys.
Henry's forces were the first to attack, under the command of the Earl of Oxford, they met Richard's vanguard, under the command of the Duke of Norfolk, who charged downhill in to a desperate hand-to-hand struggle between hacking and slashing ranks of common soldiers. The first part of the battle lasted an hour, and although their ranks were severely depleted Henry's men had managed to kill Norfolk, depriving Richard of a valued commander. The Stanleys and Northumberland, commanded by Richard had remained non-combatants. As the battle became more desperate, Henry and his entourage became cut off and were spotted by Richard from the top of Ambion Hill. Richard seeing his enemy's depleted ranks, spurred forward, apparently furious and determined to slay his opposite number, and with him thundered a glittering array of some 1,500 mounted knights in the last great cavalry charge of the medieval era.
Seeing this writhing wall of steel and horseflesh heading towards him, it appears that Henry was dumbstruck and his command faculties fled temporarily. Nevertheless, Henry and his faithful retainers formed a tight knot and braced themselves for the impact. Legend would have us believe that Richard drew upon reserves of almost superhuman strength in his furious charge, and hacking and slashing and stabbing, he carved a swathe directly towards Henry Tudor. He and his forces cut down Henry's standard bearer and Richard himself is said to have come within a greatsword-length of his quarry before the press of men and horses carried him off course. At that point, seeing the moment, the Stanleys acted decisively. With a battle cry of, "A Stanley, a Stanley!" their troops crashed into Richard's formation. Richard's army disintegrated, and he himself was forced into the swampy ground, thrashing out furiously, determined to sell his life dearly. In a last desperate attempt to salvage the battle and his throne, Richard managed to send orders to Northumberland to attack Stanley, but Northumberland either couldn't obey due to the terrain or simply chose not to.
Either way Richard was eventually cornered by a large group of polearm fighters who unhorsed him before they hacked and smashed him into. This is the moment of Shakespeare's famous line: "A horse, my kingdom for a horse!" The entire battle lasted two hours. History is unsure what happened to Richard's body, it was either cast in to the bog or tethered to a horse and displayed to the victors. What is certain is that Henry Tudor was crowned Henry VII on the field by his new ally, Lord Stanley. Whatever else may be said about the man, from whom he had usurped the crown, Richard had certainly died "a bold and valiant prince". Richard was the last king of England to die on the battlefield. His death effectively ended the Wars of the Roses, and Henry VII started a dynasty that would last for over 100 years, the Tudors.
After the battle, Henry Tudor was crowned as King Henry VII, marking the beginning of the 118-year r eign of the Tudor dynasty in England. Henry Vll (representing the Lancaster family) married Elizabeth of York (representing the York family). This marriage united the two families. Henry created the Tudor rose, containing both the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. It symbolized the end of a struggle between York and Lancaster,
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