I Введение 2
II The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1 Great Britain. 3
2 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 4
3 Great Britain. (Countries & location) 6
III London - the capital of Great Britain.
1 London. 9
2 London is the capital of Great Britain. 11
3 Places of interest in London. 12
4 Places of interest in London -2. 14
5 London & its places of interest. 15
6 Dialogue “The history of London”. 18
IV Тексты для самостоятельной работы
1 The London Underground. 19
2 System of Government. 20
3 Parliament. 21
V Вопросы для опроса по теме « Великобритания. Лондон.». 24
VI Ключи к упражнениям 26
VII Список использованной литературы 29
Иностранный язык является важным инструментом социализации личности студента. На основе тематического наполнения, методах и приемах подачи материала происходит формирование у студентов представления об окружающем мире и определение своего места в нем. Изучение иностранного языка направлено на достижение следующих целей: практической - совершенствование умений практического владения языком, образовательной - расширение кругозора студентов, воспитательной – развитие умений работать в коллективе и принимать совместные решения.
Целью данной методической разработки являются расширение объема знаний о социокультурной специфике страны изучаемого языка, совершенствование умений строить речевое и неречевое поведение. Целью данной методической разработки является предоставление современной и интересной информации о стране изучаемого языка.
Описанные в разработке приемы работы с текстом значительно облегчают учебную задачу, подводят студента к умению пользоваться информацией, работать с ней, в том числе и отбирать нужные сведения. Большое внимание уделено различным видам чтения: поисковому, изучающему, ознакомительному.
Тексты и упражнения могут быть использованы на занятиях групп второго курса со студентами разного уровня знаний. В разработке представлены тексты различной степени сложности от самых легких и доступных пониманию без использования словаря до усложненных с богатым словарным запасом. Упражнения после каждого текста также разнообразны по сложности. Предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения направлены на проверку понимания содержания текста. Часто текст читается сначала с пониманием основного содержания, а затем послетекстовое упражнения ориентируют на повторное возращение к тексту с целью понять детали все предтекстовые упражнения должны обеспечивать «вхождение» текст, а иногда снятие трудностей и опору на предыдущий опыт. Послетекстовые упражнения обеспечивают проверку понимания текста и дальнейшую работу по углублению понимания текста.
Методическая разработка предназначена для использования преподавателями английского языка для работы по теме «Великобритания» со студентами вторых и третьих курсов как на уроках, так и на дополнительных занятиях.
I I The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland.
Level 1 Уровень 1
Read the text and answer the questions:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) occupies the territory of the British Isles. It consists of four main parts which are: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the country.
The UK is an island country, it consists of 5,500 islands, large and small. The two biggest islands are: Great Britain to the east and Ireland to the west. They are separated by the Irish Sea.
The area of the country is 244.100 square kilometres. The UK is situated off the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover.
The population of the UK is over 57 million people. The main rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn and the Thames. There are many lakes in the northern part of the UK. The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Belfast, Glasgow and Manchester.
What is the population of the UK?
What are the main rivers of the UK?
What is the area of the UK?
What are the biggest islands of the UK?
What separates the country from the Continent?
Level 2 Уровень 2
Read the text and answer the questions:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and the North Sea on the east.
The UK includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom has an area of 94,249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is the official language.
The population of the UK is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3 million — in Wales. A little over 5 million — in Scotland. About 1.5 million — in Northern Ireland. London's population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is the Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities, colleges, libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.
The UK is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of two Houses; the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The main political parties of Great Britain are the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party. The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded in 1920.
The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom is one of the world’s most industrialized countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin.
Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables, oats.
1 mile =1609 метров Mild - мягкий
Flat - плоский, ровный
Monarchy - монархия
Oats - овес
The English - англичане
Suburbs - пригород
1)Where is Great Britain situated? 4) What is the official language in England?
2) What is the area of the 5) How many rivers are there in Great Britain?
United Kingdom? 6) What does the British Parliament consist of?
3) What is the capital of the 7) What are the main political parties in Great
8) When was the Communist Party of Great Britain founded?
9)What are the main industrial centres in Great Britain?
10) Name the largest cities of the country.
11) What do you know about the population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?
12) What does the British nation consist of?
13) Are there many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom?
14) What is the climate of Great Britain?
Read the text and do the exercises:
(Countries & location)
Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Great Britain is separated from the Continent by the English Channel. "Great Britain" is a geographical expression but "The United Kingdom" is a political expression. The name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelands. Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland.
Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total is 242,534 sq. km. Britain is just under 1,000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland, and just under 500 km across in the widest part.
The population of the United Kingdom is 57 million people. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland, with its capital in Dublin. The larger, with London as its capital, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This long title is the result of a complicated history. The Island of Great Britain contains three "nations" which were separated at earlier stages of their history: England, Scotland and Wales. Wales had become part of the English administrative system the 16th century. Scotland was not completely united with England until 1707. The United Kingdom is a name which was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain became united with Ireland.
The largest and most densely populated part of the United Kingdom is England. The population of England is 47,837 million people. England is washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The name "England" is derived from the Angles. Roman rule lasted for over 300 years from A. D. 43. The last invasion of England took place in 1066 when Duke William of Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. At that time the English language was very much transformed.
The capital of England is London, which is the largest city in Britain. It is situated on the River Thames (the most important one). There are many rivers in England, the longest is the Severn. England is mostly a lowland country. Upland regions are in the north and the south-west. Northern England, Midland and South England — each part is different but very picturesque.
The English like to spend their holiday in the Lake District, which is in the Northern England.
The main industries in England are the wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and Bradford), heavy machinery, shipbuilding, the cotton industry (the centre is Manchester).
Scotland is the most northern part of the island of Great Britain. Its population is over 5 million people. Scotland was inhabited mainly by the Picts.
In the 6th century, the Scots from Ireland (or Scotia) settled in what is now Argyll, giving their name to the present-day Scotland. During the 9th century, the various parts of Scotland united in defence against the Vikings. The powerful monarchy which existed in England threatened Scottish independence throughout the Middle Ages. In 1603 James VI of Scotland became also James I of England when Queen Elizabeth I of England died without children. In 1651 Scotland was united with England, although
Scotland kept its own parliament. In 1707, both countries, realizing the benefits of closer political and economic union, agreed on a single parliament for Great Britain.
The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and Scotland. The greater part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. Scotland includes the Hebrides off the west coast and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast. It is bounded by the North Sea on the east.
Scotland is divided into three parts: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Highlands are among the oldest mountains in the world. There are a lot of valleys and lakes in this region, the best known lake is Loch Ness.
Most of the population of Scotland is concentrated in the Lowlands. The biggest city is Glasgow. It is an industrial city and an important port in the United Kingdom. Shipbuilding is the leading industry. But other industries such as iron and steel, engineering and coal-mining are highly developed too. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. It is the cultural centre of Scotland.
In 1301 after defeating the native princes of Wales, King Edward I of England named his son Prince of Wales. Since then the eldest son of the King or Queen of England has traditionally been given this title. In 1536 Wales was brought into the English system of national and local government by the Act of Union.
Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts until the 4th century. Welsh and English are both official languages in Wales now.
The population of Wales is over 3 million people. About 75% of the people of Wales live in urban districts.
Wales is a highland country of old, hard rocks. North Wales is a country of mountains and deep valleys. South Wales is a land of high hills. The capital of Wales is Cardiff (an industrial city and a port). Cardiff is an administrative and educational centre. Such industries as coal-mining, steel production, electronics, electrical engineering are developed in this part of the country.
The Welsh are fond of folk music, singing and poetry. Welsh literature is one of the oldest in Europe.
A number of kingdoms had emerged in Ireland before the Christian era. Ireland didn't escape the invasion of the Vikings, who dominated the country during the 10th century. In 1169 Henry II of England launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been granted its overlordship by the English Pope Adrian IV who wanted to bring the Irish church into full obedience to Rome.
The English Civil Wars (1642—1651) led to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed by Cromwell. During the 18th century various efforts were made by British Government to achieve stability. In 1800 the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was signed. The "Irish question" continued as one of the major problems of
British politics during the 19th century. In 1985 the Angle-Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland. The population of Northern Ireland is about 1.5 million people. It occupies one-sixth of the territory of the United Kingdom. 53% of the population live in urban areas. The largest industry is agriculture. The main industrial centre and a large port is Belfast.
1) Answer the questions.
1) When did Scotland and Wales start being governed from London?
2) What are the Welsh fond of?
3) Why is Britain warmer than other countries on the same latitude?
4) How can you explain that London is drier than continental cities?
5) Why is the south of Great Britain better suited to farming than the west or the north?
6) Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. Where does this title come from?
7) What are the main industries in England?
8) What regions is Scotland divided into?
9) When was the Act of Union between Great
Britain and Ireland signed?
2) Fill in the gaps.
1) "Great Britain" is a ... expression.
2) Great Britain is a group of islands which lies between ... and ... .
3) The total area of Great Britain is ....
4) The capital of the Republic of Ireland is ....
5) The name of the United Kingdom was introduced in ... .
6) Roman rule in England lasted for over ... years.
7) ... is an administrative and educational centre of Wales.
8) ... mark the boundary between England and Scotland.
9) ... dominated Ireland during the 10th century.
10) In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed in ....
3) Choose the right answer.
1.The longest river is
a) the Thames.
b) the Severn.
c) the Avon.
2. England is separated from Scotland by...
a) the Pennines.
b) the Southern Uplands.
c) the Cheviot Hills.
III London - the capital of
Level 1 Уровень 1
Read the text and answer the questions: London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is two thousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it is also a huge port. London is situated upon both banks of the Thames. There 17 bridges across the river. The population of London is about 9 million people. London has got three parts: the City of London, the West End, the East End.
The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom.
The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben. It is interesting that the clock "Big Ben" came into service in 1859. Big Ben is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.
The other interesting place is Westminster Abbey, which was founded in 1050. It is situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin and others.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.
There are many nice squares in London. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of the West End. One can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square.There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was fond of paintings and collected many pictures.
The British Museum is a very interesting place in London. It was founded in 1753. The library of this museum has a lot of books. The East End of London is the district for the working people. There are many factories, workshops, docks there. There are many cars and buses in London. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too. It is a nice
one. One can say that the City is the money of London, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is the hands of London.
The Houses of Parliament – здание парламента huge - огромный
The Thames — p. Teмзa pavement - тротуар
Population – население workshop – мастерская, цех
1. What is the capital of Great Britain?
2. What do you know about the population of Great Britain?
3. Are there any beautiful parks in London?
4. Name three main parts of London.
5. What kind of interesting places are there in London?
6. Where is Trafalgar Square?
7. What do you know about the British Museum?
8. Where is the official London residence of the Queen?
9. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London, isn't it?
10. Have you been to London?
Level 2 Уровень 2
Read the text and do the exercises:
London-the capital of Great Britain
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. London is an ancient city. It is more than twenty centuries old. The population of London, including its suburbs, is more than nine million people. London is one of the biggest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. It is situated on the banks of the River Thames.
The City is the financial and the business centre of the country. There are a lot of banks and various offices here. It is the ancient part of London. One of the greatest English churches - St Paul's Cathedral - is here. It was designed and built by an outstanding English architect Christopher Wren in 1710. St Paul's Cathedral is the second large church in Europe. Admiral Nelson is buried here. Not far away is Westminster — the administrative centre of London. The Houses of Parliament are situated here. It is the seat of the British Government. The building is very beautiful with its two towers and a big clock called Big Ben. Westminster Abbey where kings and queens are crowned is opposite the Houses of Parliament. The ancient building was founded in the eleventh century. It was destroyed and rebuilt several times. Many famous people are buried here, among them Newton, Darwin, Dickens and Kipling. The West End is the part of London where the rich people live. Fine houses, wide streets, numerous parks are to be found in this part of the capital. The best cinemas, theatres, concert halls, famous shops, comfortable hotels, restaurants, large museums are situated here. The most beautiful London park — Hyde Park — is in this district too. The East End includes the port, the docks stretching for miles and the great industrial areas, which depend on shipping. London is famous for its outstanding places of interest. There are many architectural, art and historic monuments in London such as the British Museum, the Tower of London, the National Gallery, Buckingham Palace, Nelson's Column and many others. The London Underground is the oldest one in the world. It was opened in London in 1863.
capital —столица economic — экономический
ancient — древний population — население
Europe — Европа be situated — быть расположенным
bank — 1) берег; 2) 6aнк Thames — Темза
suburbs — окрестности crown – короновать
1. Is London the capital of Great Britain?
2. Is London also a sea port?
3. What is the most significant building in the City?
4. Whom was it designed by?
5. What is Westminster Abbey famous for?
6. Do the Houses of Parliament consist of one or more building? 7. Is the traffic in London heavy?
8. When was the first London Tube built?
Put the questions in English.
1. Лондон – столица Великобритании, да? 5. Назовите знаменитых людей,
2. Из каких частей состоит Лондон? похороненных там?
3. В какой части Лондона находится порт? 6. Кем был построен собор св.
4. Чем знаменито Вестминстерское аббатство?
Level 1 Уровень 1
Read the texts and do the exercises:
Places of Interest in London
The British Museum
The British Museum was opened in 1753. It grew out of collections of three rich men. George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757. The collection is enormous, and covers ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China and Japan, as well as prehistoric times.
Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert. It grew out of the collection of objects bought for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851.
National Gallery has a collection of Italian, Dutch, German and French pictures. The National gallery is rich in paintings by Italian masters such as Raphael and Veronese. It has pictures of European schools of art such as works by Rembrandt, Rubens and El Greco. The gallery is open seven days a week and admission is free.
The Tate Gallery opened in 1897and is named after Sir Henry Tate, who donated his collection of 65 paintings to the nation. Now it is the National Gallery of Modern Painting. There is a large collection of European twentieth-century art there.
The Tower of London is a very old building. It is more than 900 years old. English kings lived in it many years ago, but now it is a museum. People who come to London like to go to the Tower. It was a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. The ravens are another famous sign. The legend says that without them the Tower will fall.
The Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum was first opened to public in April 1881. The museum was just a department of the British Museum. Today, the Natural History Museum is famous throughout the world for its beautiful galleries. The Museum is well known for its exhibition which include "Human biology", "History of the Earth", "Discovering mammals", etc.
Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Queen. When the flag is flying on the top she is at home.
Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament is the largest modern building in the richest Gothic style completed in 1857. It stands on the left bank of the river Thames and is 940 ft in length. Those who want to get a front view of the building should look at it from a boat on the Thames. Clock Tower, overlooking Westminster Bridge is 316 ft high and 40 ft square. People are allowed to get inside the Tower so they can see the works of Big Ben. There is no lift and there are three hundred and forty steps up to Big Ben. The faces of the clock are very large. The minute hand is 14 ft long, the hour hand is 9 ft, the figures are 2 ft long.
Nelson's Column is named after the greatest admiral Lord Nelson. It is a very tall column and a figure of Nelson on top of it. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. This is the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde Park Corner. It is sometimes named as Number One, London. Like Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St Paul’s Cathedral.
1) Find the English equivalents in the text.
Королевская библиотека, огромный, древний, доисторический, назван в честь, картина, современное искусство, крепость, тюрьма, вороны, легенда, готический стиль, ступени, минутная стрелка, колонна, герцог.
2) Find in the text and put the words in the correct order.
1) gallery, open, the, days, admission, free, a week, is, and, is.
2) London, very, building, Tower, is, a, old, the, of.
3) flying, when, is, on, top, she, at home, the, flag, the, is.
3) True or False
1) Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria.
2) George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757.
3) National Gallery has a collection of Italian and Dutch pictures.
4) The National History museum was just a department of the British
5) Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Prime Minister.
6) Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of
7) The legend says that without the ravens the Tower will fall.
8) People are not allowed to get inside the Tower.
9) Nelson's Column is named after the Duke of Wellington.
10) The Duke of Wellington led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Level 2 Уровень 2
Read the text and do the exercises:
Places of interest in London -2
The Buckingham Palace
The Buckingham Palace is the Royal residence. It was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. King George III bought the palace in 1761. It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth and the British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red carpet.
Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar , two sport clubs, a disco, a cinema and a swimming pool. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work for the Palace.
The two houses of Parliament, the House of Commons and House of Lords, meet in the Palace of Westminster. It was designed in the Gothic style by the architect Sir Charles Barry and built between 1840 and 1860. The original Palace of Westminster had been a home for the Royal Family until the 16th century. Then it became the meeting place for the Parliament. There was a terrible fire in 1834 and most the original Palace was burnt.
Westminster Abbey was a Norman church of the Benedictine monks in Westminster. The present building in the English Gothic style was started in 1245 by King Henry III. Westminster Abbey is a very important church. Nearly all the English kings and queens since William the Conqueror (1027—1087) were crowned in Westminster Abbey. In 1952, Queen Elizabeth was crowned there.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London was begun by William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. Later kings made it larger and stronger, and kept soldiers, armour, weapons, treasure, and sometimes important prisoners there. For nine centuries the Tower has kept watch over London and River Thames. It was not until 1850 that the Tower became a tourist attraction. At the center of the Tower of London there is the White Tower (1078). This tower is nearly 30 metres high. The walls are very strong. At the bottom of the tower, the walls are nearly 5 metres thick.
During the reign of King Henry III (1216—1272) a wall and more towers were built. The next king Edward I (1272—1307) built the second wall, outside Henry III's wall, and dug the moat.
The palace at the Tower had its own Zoo. It began when Henry III was given three leopards by the German Emperor, a polar bear by King of Norway, and an elephant by the King of France. Soon it became a tradition that there should always be lions at the Tower, for heraldic lions appear in the Royal arms of England.
In 1834 the Tower Zoo was closed, and some of the animals were sent to a new London Zoo in Regent's Park. The Tower of London has a grim history. It was a fortress, a royal house, a church, a prison, an arsenal and a mint. For many famous people the Tower was a prison. Thomas More, the saint and martyr, Queen Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I and Sir Walter Raleigh, the traveller and the friend of Queen Elizabeth I, all spent time as prisoners in the Tower.
Today the Tower is home for about one hundred and fifty people, including the Tower officers, the Yeoman Warders and their families. In fact the Tower is rather like the traditional English village.
The ravens are certainly among the most important residents in the Tower, for — so the story goes — if they ever leave, the Tower will fall and England with it.
I True or false
1) The Buckingham Palace is the museum now.
2) There are nearly eight hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red
3) About 700 people work for the Palace.
4) The Buckingham Palace was designed in the Gothic style.
5) The Palace of Westminster becomes the meeting place for the Parliament.
6) Westminster Abbey was a Norman church of the Benedict monks in
7) In 1952, Queen Elizabeth was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
8) The palace at the Tower had its own Zoo.
9) For many famous people the Tower was a prison.
10) Today the Tower is home for about one hundred and fifty prisoners.
1) What places of interest do you know in London?
2) What do you know about the history of these places?
Level 3 Уровень 3
Read the text and do the exercises:
London and Its Places of Interest
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is the chief port of Great Britain. It is one of the greatest cities of the world. Its population is about 9 million people.
The origin of the city may be dated as the beginning of the 1st century A. D, when a tribe of the Celtic family settled near the Thames. The Roman town, LONDINIUM, grew up on the two hillocks near St Paul's Cathedral and Cornhill, not far from the Tower of London. The English are very proud of the long history of their capital. The city became extremely prosperous during the 16th century. Then in 1665 and 1666 two catastrophes occurred: the first was epidemic of plague which killed 100,000 citizens, and the second was the Great Fire which destroyed the whole of the City, including St Paul's Cathedral. London is a real museum of architecture. Most of the finest buildings date from the second half of the 17th century. At the beginning of the 19th century England was at the height of her power. During Queen Victoria's long reign (1837—1901) the construction of the Underground began. And the first line between "> At the same time the City became exclusively a commercial centre. The City is one part of London. Traditionally London is divided into: the City, the West End, Westminster and the East End.
The City is the heart of London, its financial and business centre. The City was described as a "busy emporium for trade and traders” as early as Roman times. The City has within its square mile such famous institutions as the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, the Royal Courts of Justice and Guildhall. The City has its own Lord Major Corporation as well as its own police force. Few people live in this part of London but over a million come here to work.
There's a lot of famous ancient buildings within the City. The most striking of them is St Paul's Cathedral, Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece. It was built between 1675 and 1710 to replace the 13th century cathedral which had been destroyed by the Great Fire.
The City of Westminster is one of the most famous historic areas in London as it contains both the seat of Government and the crowning place of kings and queens. Westminster was the first important inhabited area outside the City.
The Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey face each other across Parliament Square. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful Gothic building. In the 11th century Edward the Confessor founded a great Norman Abbey. But nothing is left of this church. Henry III wanted a brighter and bigger building. Master Henry, John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverly succeeded in the work of constructing Westminster Abbey. The work went on until the 18th century when Nicholas Hawksmoor altered the facade and added the towers. Almost all the monarchs since William the Conqueror have been crowned in Westminster and many are buried there.
There are memorials of many statesmen, scientists and writers in Westminster. Westminster Abbey is not a Cathedral. It is a "Royal Peculiar", royal property. It is dependent directly on the monarch.
The Houses of Parliament — the seat of British Parliament, which is officially known as the Palace of Westminster.
The first building was constructed as early as the 11th century ( the magnificent Westminster Hall was built between 1097—1099 by William Rufus). Most of the old palace was destroyed in a fire in 1834. The present Houses of Parliament were completed in 1865. The Houses of Parliament comprise the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The division of Parliament into two Houses goes back as 700 year.
The West End is the centre of London. There are historical palaces, museums, beautiful parks, large department stores, hotels, restaurants, theatres and concert halls in this part of London. One of the most beautiful palaces is Buckingham Palace, the official residence of the Queen. Palace takes its name from Buckingham House which was built in 1703 as the home of the Duke of Buckingham and then bought by George III in 1762. Today the Queen lives at the Palace for only part of the year and when she is in her residence the Royal Standard is flown. Although the main palace is not open to the public items from the Royal Collection can be seen at the Queen's gallery. The oldest of all the royal residences in London is the Tower of London. The Tower today bears the official title Of "Her Majesty's Palace and fortress of the Tower of London." Founded by William the Conqueror in 1078 the fortress was enlarged several times. Now it is a museum, which houses the national collection of armour and the Crown Jewels. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, the Royal residence, the Royal Mint, the first Royal Observatory. But it is perhaps most famous for being a prison. The Yeomen of the Guard (Beefeaters) were originally formed to be a body-guard for Henry VII. They still wear the Tudor uniform chosen by the King and now give guided tours of the Tower. The ravens whose forefathers used to live in the Tower still live there. The Yeomen Raven Master is responsible for feeding and caring for the ravens at the Tower. There is a legend that if the ravens disappear the Tower will fall.
The broad Mall leads from Buckingham Palace to Trafalgar square. Trafalgar Square, named to commemorate Nelson's great naval victory of 1805, is dominated by Nelson's Column. On its pedestal there four bronze reliefs cast from captured French cannon, representing scenes from the battles of St Vincent, the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. The bronze lions at the corners of the pedestals are the work of Landseer.
From Trafalgar Square it is only a short way to Piccadilly Circus. In the centre of Piccadilly Circus is a bronze fountain. It was designed by Sir Alfred Gilbert in 1893.
Downing Street, 10 is the official residence of the Prime Minister.
If you go to the east of the City, you'll find yourself in the East End. This is an industrial part of London. The Port of London is also in the East End. A great amount of space in London is devoted to parks and gardens. Most of them used to be private gardens or hunting forests of kings and queens. Later they were transformed into their present design. Today nothing could be more relaxing and peaceful than a walk in a beautiful park.
I. Answer the questions
1) What is the population of London?
2) What parts does London consist of?
3) What part of London can be called its centre?
4) What masterpieces of architecture in London do you know?
5) Who is the architect of St Paul’s Cathedral?
6) What is the historical value of the Tower of London?
7) What is the residence of the Queen?
8) What does the legend about the ravens in the Tower say?
9) What events does Trafalgar Square commemorate?
10) Where is the official residence of the Prime Minister?
II. Choose the right answer.
1. London became extremely prosperous during …
a) the reign of King Alfred.
b) the 16th century
c) the 19th century
2.The construction of London Underground began …
a) in the 18th century
b) in the 20th century
c) during Queen Victoria’s reign
3. The heart of London is …
b) the West End
c) the City
4. Westminster’s construction was completed in …
a) the 10th century
b) the 13th century
c) the 18th century
5. The official residence of Queen is...
a) Kensington Palace.
b) Buckingham Palace.
c) the Tower of London.
6. The oldest royal residence is…
a) Buckingham Palace.
b) the Tower of London.
c) Westminster Abbey.
7. The ravens in the Tower of London are taken care of because …
a) they are very old.
b) they are very rare.
c) of a legend.
Read, translate and act the dialogue:
Dialogue “The history of London”
- What awful events did London survive?
- London survived the Plague, which killed nearly 100,000 people, and the Great
Fire which followed.
- Were there many changes in the rebuilding of London after that?
- The rebuilding of London followed the medieval street plan, but the old wooden
houses were replaced by buildings of brick to reduce the future fire risk.
- What was the main course of tremendous destruction of London?
- World War II was. Large areas of London were destroyed by bombs during
World War II.
- What is the name “West End” associated with?
- The name “West End” associated with wealth, luxury and goods of high quality.
- What best-known streets are in the West End?
- The best- known streets are: Whitehall with important government offices,
Downing Street, the residence of the Prime Minister and Fleet Street which
stands for the press.
- What is there in the East End?
- The port of London is in the East End. It is an area of docks, unattractive in
appearance, but very important in the country's commerce.
- What does Trafalgar Square look like as a rule?
- When the square is not used for demonstrations, it is full of visitors feeding the
pigeons or watching the traffic.
- Why is Trafalgar Square so named?
- The square was so named to commemorate Nelson's victory at the Battle of
Trafalgar in 1805, and the monument in the centre, known as Nelson's Column,
is surmounted with a statue of Nelson 16 feet high. The pedestal of the Column
is decorated with basreliefs representing Nelson's most familiar victories. At the
base of Nelson's Column are four lions.
- Who is the security of Tower ensured by?
- The security of the Tower is ensured by a military garrison arid the Yeoman
Warders, or "Beefeaters” who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform.
- What else is Abbey known for?
- The Abbey is also known for its Poets’ Corner. Graves and memorials to many
English poets and writers are clustered round about.
- Where does the Unknown Warrior lie?
- Near the West Door of the Abbey the Unknown Warrior lies in a simple grave
commemorating the men who died in the First World War.
- Has the Tower of London been built and extended?
- Since the times of William I (the Conqueror) various kings have built and
extended the Tower of London.
VI Тексты для самостоятельной работы
Read the text and answer the questions:
The London Underground
The London Underground is the oldest one in the world. The first line was opened in 1870. It was like a tube, that's why it was called the Tube. English people call the old lines the Tube, the new lines — the Underground.
One can see the word "Underground" across a large circle. It shows you where the stations are. When you want to find the metro stations in Moscow you look for the letter "M".
The old Tube runs across the centre. It has got many stations. The London Underground is long. It is about 300 kilometres long and it has got almost 300 Underground stations. Some of them are closed on Sundays. The other stations are closed on Saturdays and Sundays. Many stations of the London Underground have got «Car Park». The price of tickets is not low. It depends on the distance. There are comfortable seats in the carriages at the Underground. The walls are white or grey. There are a lot of advertisements everywhere in the Underground in London. You can see escalators and also lifts at some stations. Only half of the Underground trains in London go under ground, new lines that connect London with the country go over ground.
1) When was the tube opened?
2) How do English people name the old and the new lines?
3) How many stations has the London Underground got?
4) What do you know about the price of tickets in the London Underground?
5) Does the price of tickets depend on the distance?
6) Is the price of tickets high or low?
7) What kind of seats are there in carriages?
8) What can you see everywhere in the London Underground?
9) Are there any lifts in the London Underground?
Read the text and do the exercises:
System of Government
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch - Queen Elizabeth II - as a head of State.
Today the Queen is not only head of State but also an important symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is:
"Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith." In law the Queen is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the Supreme Governor of the established Church of England.
The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies. They visit different parts of Britain; they are involved in the work of many charities. In practice the monarch has no actual power: they say, the monarch reigns but doesn't rule. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and the Prime Minister is the virtual ruler of the country.
Parliament comprises the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role. The Queen summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament. She opens each session with a speech. It is her duty to make appointments to all important state offices. The Queen must see all Cabinet documents. She has the power to conclude treaties, to declare war and make peace.
The Commons has 651 elected Members of Parliament (MPs).
The Lords is made up of 1,185 hereditary and life peers, and the two archbishops and the 24 most senior bishops of the established Church of England. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons. The leader of the party that obtains a majority in the House of Commons is the Prime Minister. The party which has majority of the seats in the House of Commons is called the Government, and the other is the Opposition. The Government may hold office for five years.
All the affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen, but really the Prime Minister is responsible for every measure submitted to Parliament. As a head of the Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers, of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet (the senior group which takes major policy decisions). Ministers are responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own departments. The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an alternative programme.
I. Answer the questions.
1. Is Britain a monarchy?
2. Who is the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown?
3. What are the duties of the Queen?
4. Who rules the country?
5. What is the supreme legislative authority in Britain?
6. How is the Government formed?
II . Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. The head of State -
2. The power is limited -
3. The leader of the party -
4. Majority of the seats -
5. To hold office for five years –
6. To be responsible for -
7. To present an alternative programme -
III. True or false?
1. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy.
2. The Prime Minister is head of State.
3. The Queen only takes part in traditional ceremonies.
4. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament.
5. The Parliament is the supreme legislative authority.
6. The Lords are elected members of Parliament.
7. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons.
8. All affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen.
9. The Prime Minister declares war and makes peace.
10. Ministers are responsible for their own departments.
Read the text and do the exercises:
The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (The Houses of Parliament). It contains offices, committee rooms, restaurants, libraries and even some places of residence. It also contains two large rooms. One is where the House of Lords meets, the other is where the House of Commons meets. The British Parliament is divided into two Houses and its members belong to one or other of them. (Only members of Commons are known as MPs — Members of Parliament.) The Commons is more important of the two Houses.
The person who chairs and controls discussion in the House of Commons is the Speaker. He (or she) decides which MP is going to speak next and makes sure that the rules of procedure are followed. In fact, Speaker is, officially, the second important "commoner" in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister. In 1992 for the first time a woman was pointed Speaker, so nowadays MPs address her "Madam Speaker".
Traditionally, MPs were not supposed to be professional politicians. They were supposed to be ordinary people, bringing their experience into Parliament. They were not even paid until the beginning of this century. They were supposed to be doing a public service. But that meant that only rich people could be MPs.
Politics in Britain in the last forty years has become professional. Most MPs are full-time politicians and do another job (if at all) only part-time.
Traditionally the House doesn't sit in the morning. It starts its business at 2.30 p. m. (only on Friday it starts in the morning). MPs’ mornings are devoted to committee work, research, preparing speeches. Weekends are not free for MPs.
The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one side for the governing party and the other for the opposition. The first two rows of seats are occupied by the lead members of both parties (frontbenches).
Each session lasts for 160—175 days. A proposed law (a bill) has to go through three stages (readings) to become an Act of Parliament. If the majority of MPs vote for the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords. When the Lords agree it is taken to the Queen for Royal assent.
Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords ("peers") are not elected. They are holders of an inherited aristocratic title. The House of Lords is therefore a relic of earlier times. The House of Lords has more than 1,000 members, but only about 250 take an active part in the work of House. The House of Lords has little real power nowadays. The power to refuse a proposal for a law (which has been agreed by the Commons) is limited.
The modern House of Lords is a forum for public discussions. The division of Parliament into two Houses dates back as 700 years. Today the elected House of Commons has real political power, although members of the House of Lords occupy important posts.
I Answer the questions.
1.What is the official name of the Houses of Parliament? .
2.Who is the second important person in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister?
3.When was a woman appointed Speaker for the first time?
4.Who has more real power: the House of Lords or the House of Commons?
5.How are the first two rows of seats in the House of Commons called?
6. How many readings has the bill to pass?
II Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. MPs - 4. Royal assent -
2. The Speaker - 5. Full-time politicians -
3 frontbenches - 6. A relic of earlier time -
III. Complete the sentences.
1. The British Parliament works in a large building, called ....
2. The British Parliament is divided into two ....
3. The Speaker makes sure that the rules....
4. In ... a woman was appointed....
5. The House of Commons is made up of ... members.
6. When the Lords agree the bill is taken to ... for ....
7. The House of Lords has more than ... members.
8. Members of the House of Lords are holders of....
9. The division of Parliament into two Houses dates back as ....
10. Today the ... has real political power.
IV Вопросы для опроса по теме
« Великобритания. Лондон.»
1. What is the capital of the UK?
2. Where is Trafalgar Square?
3. Who was Nelson?
4. Where does the Queen live?
5. What's the capital of Northern Ireland?
6. People who live in Scotland are called ...
7. What are the main colours of the British flag?
8. What food is traditional at Christmas?
9. When is Halloween celebrated?
10. Name the river London is situated on.
11. What is St. Paul's Cathedral?
12. Name any English holiday.
13. Who is Agatha Christie?
14. Name any members of the Queen's family
15. What sea is the UK washed by?
16. What is the population of the UK?
17. Who does the real power in Great Britain belong to?
18. Where did the great Fire of London begin: in the house of the King's butcher or
the King's baker?
19. What animal is the symbol of the English might or strength?
20. Name the member of the English royal family who lived to be more than 100
21. Name any national English game.
22. What was the Tower of London in the past?
23. What plant is the symbol of Ireland?
24. Where did William the Conqueror come from?
25. Where is the political centre of London?
1.Where do English people keep the Queen's crown: in the Tower of London or in
2. How many years did it take Sir Christopher Wren to build St. Paul's Cathedral: 35
years or 15 years?
3. Name any places you'd like to visit in London.
4. What is the Tower of London now?
5. What parts does the UK consist of?
6. What is Buckingham Palace?
7. Give the Russian equivalent of the English proverb “An Englishman's house is his
8. When did William the Conqueror come to London?
9. What is Robert Burns famous for?
10. Where does the British Prime Minister live: at 10, Downing Street or at 12,
11. Name any famous English person.
12. Where is the business centre in London?
13 People who live in Ireland are called ...
14. What is the capital of Wales?
15. How many crosses does the British flag consist of?
16. What is the traditional children's food on Easter Sunday?
17. When is April Fool's Day celebrated?
18. What is the most democratic park in London?
19. The Houses of Parliament consist of 2 Houses. What are they?
20. What ocean is the UK washed by?
21.What is the name of the House of Parliament whose members are permanent?
22. What are the names of the Queen's daughters?
23. What are the names of the British Saints?
24. What plant is the symbol of Scotland?
25. Do English people have а good sense of humour?
1. What is Londinium?
2. When is Christmas celebrated in Britain?
3. What parts does Britain consist of?
4. Who built Londinium: the Scots or the Romans?
5. What is the capital of Scotland?
6. People who live in Wales аre called ...
7. What is the name of the British flag?
8. Who built London bridge: the Romans or the Irish?
9. What is celebrated on February, 14?
10. Who built St. Paul's Cathedral: Sir Christopher Wren or Sir David Copperfield?
11. Name any English holiday or tradition.
12. What plant is the symbol of England?
13. How many sons does Prince Charles have?
14. What is the name of the Queen?
15. What separates the UK from the continent of Europe?
16. Name any sports developed in Britain
17. What bird do English people take care of?
18. What is cricket?
19. What are the biggest industrial cities of the UK?
20. What is William Shakespeare famous for?
21. Who is the Official Head of State in Britain?
22. What is the name of the biggest clock in London?
23. What place in London is usually visited by tourists?
24. When do English children go from house to house and say: "Trick or Treat”
25. What is the most popular English holiday?
V Ключи к упражнениям
Keys to the questions:
1 London 14 her husband Prince Philip, her sons Prince
Charles, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward,
her daughter Princess Аnne and Princess
2 in London 15 the North Sea
3 а British admiral 16 more than 56 m people
4 in Buckingham Palace 17 Parliament
5 Belfast 18 in the house of the King’s baker
6 the Scots 19 the Lion
7 red, blue, white 20 the Queen mother
8 roast turkey 21 football, rugby, cricket
9 October, 31 22 а fortress, а palace, а prison, the King's Z00
10 the Thames 23 the shamrock
11 а church 24 Normandy, France
12 25 Westminster
13 а detective story writer
1 in the Tower of London 14 Cardif
2 35 years 15 3 crosses
3 16 Chocolate eggs and rabbits
4 а museum 17 April, 1
5 Great Britain and Northern Ireland 18 Hyde Park
6 the Queen's residence 19 the House of Lords and the House of
7 Дом англuчанuна - его крепость 20 the Atlantic Ocean
8 1066 21 the House of Lords
9 Scottish national poet 22 Anne and Margaret
10 at 10, Downing Street 23 St. George, St. Aпdrew, St. Patrick, St. David
11 24 the thistle
12 the City 25 Yes, they do
13 the 1rish
1 London 12 the rose
2 Deceтber,25 13 2 sons: William and Harry
3 England ,Scotland, Wales 14 Elizabeth II
4 the Romans 15 the English Channel and the Straight
5 Edinburgh 16 golf, cricket, football, hockey, rugby
6 the Welsh 17 the raven
7 the Union Jack 18 а national game
8 the Romans 19 Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham,
9 St. Valentine’s Day 20 а poet, а playwright
10 Sir Christopher Wren 21 the Queen
11 22 Big Ben
23 the Tower
24 on Halloween
Keys to the text “London” (Level 2)
Answers to the questions:
Yes, it is. It is one of the largest and most interesting cities in the world, isn't it?
2. Yes, it is the largest port of the world.
3. It is St Paul’s Cathedral. It is the second biggest cathedral of the world.
4. It was designed by Christopher Wren. The construction of the cathedral lasted 35 years
— from 1675 till 1710.
5. It's an important place. Many of the kings and queens have been crowned in this church,
and many outstanding people have been buried here.
6. There is only one building (a part of the Palace of Westminster), but it is called "the
Houses" because it is divided into two chambers — the House of Commons and
the House of Lords.
7. Yes, it is very heavy, especially during rush hours, except the City. Due to the
narrowness of its streets the traffic in the City is slow.
8. The first Tube was opened in 1863
The translations in English:
1. London is the capital of Great Britain, isn't it?
2. What parts does London consist, of?
3. What part of the city port is situated in?
4. What is Westminster Abbey famous for?
5. Can you name famous people which were buried there?
6. Who was St Paul's Cathedral built by?
Keys to the text “ Places of interest in London” (Level 1)
The royal library, enormous, ancient, prehistoric, is named after, paintings, modern painting, a fortress, a prison, the ravens, the legend, Gothic style, steps, the minute hand, column, Duke.
The gallery is open days a week and admission is free.
The Tower of London is a very old building.
When the flag is flying on the top she is at home.
3) 1) -, 2) +, 3) -, 4) +, 5) -, 6) -, 7) +, 8) -, 9) -, 10) +.
Keys to the text “ Places of interest in London ” (Level 2)
I True or false : 1) - , 2) - , 3) + , 4) - , 5) +, 6) -, 7) +, 8) +, 9) + 10) - .
Keys to the text “ Great Britain” (Level 3)
II 1. geographical; 2. the North Sea; the Atlantic Ocean;3. 242.534 sq. km; 4. Dublin; 5. 1801; 6. 300; 7. Cardiff; 8. the Cheviot Hills; 9. the Vikings; 10 Belfast, III l.b;2.c
Keys to the text “System of Government” III. 1.T; 2. F; 3.T; 4.T; 5.T; 6.F; 7.T; 8.T; 9.F; 10.F.
Keys to the text “ Parliament”
III. 1. the House of Parliaments; 2. Houses; 3. are followed; 4.1992; Speaker; 5. 650; 6. the Queen; Royal assent; 7.1,000; 8. an inherited aristocratic; 9. 700 years; 10 elected House of Commons.
Keys to the text “ London and its places of interest” : II 1b, 2c, 3c, 4c, 5b, 6b, 7c
Список использованной литературы:
1) Е. М. Базанова, И. Ю. Баканова: «600 устных тем по англ. яз.», М., «Дрофа»,
2) Ю. В. Куреленко: «400 тем по английскому языку для школьников, абитуриентов, студентов и преподавателей», М., БАО-ПРЕСС, 2004.
3) Ж. Г. Степанова: «Английский язык. Самые распространенные разговорные темы», М., АСТ: Восток – Запад, 2007.
4) Т. В. Градская, В. В. Сюбаева: «Путешествие за рубеж», М., АСТ: Восток – Запад, 2007.
ФГОУ СПО «Моршанский текстильный техникум»
( Сборник текстов и упражнений)
Доклад одобрен предметной (цикловой) комиссией
на методическую разработку на тему:
«Страноведение на уроках английского языка. Великобритания»
Преподавателя английского языка Моршанского
текстильного техникума Скатковой В.А.
В методической разработке рассматриваются вопросы обучения страноведению на уроках английского языка. Большое внимание уделено Великобритании.
В разработке приводится примеры текстов и разнообразных упражнений для обучения различным видам чтения: поисковому, изучающему, ознакомительному.
Методическая разработка предназначена для использования преподавателями английского языка, чтобы побудить студентов к активному использованию языка для осуществления успешной практической деятельности.
Описанные в данной разработке приемы значительно облегчают учебную задачу. Тексты и упражнения могут быть использованы на занятиях групп второго курса со студентами разного уровня знаний.
Рецензент: Ушакова Е. В.
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