О важности изучения страноведения.
St. George was known in England by at least the 8th century. Returning crusaders popularised his cult, but he was not recognized as England’s patron saint, until after Edward 111 made him the patron of the newly founded order of the Garter – English order of knighthood from 1348 – the highest British civil and military honour obtainable, the Garter was worn below the left knee, the Order’s Sash is dark blew, since 1805, membership is limited to 25 knights – the royal family and foreign royalties, appointments are made by the sovereign alone, the knights write KG after their names, St. George’s Chapel in Windsor is the chapel of the order. The earliest records of the Order were destroyed by fire, it’s difficult to reconstruct its history, its motto; the Garter symbolized the homage paid by knights to ladies. Edward 111 celebrated victories with banquets, wine and women, he lead his nobles into great wars as early as1344 and he told his court that a new Round Table of knights would be mustered for jousting tournaments – two teams of 12: he would lead one, the Black Prince the other. The motto “Honi soit qui mal y pense” means “Shame to those who thinks evil of it” – blue was the French royal colour and its use was a deliberate slight to the French and underlined English claim to the throne. Edward was dancing with Joan of Kent, Countess of Salisbury, when one of her blue garters dropped to the floor. As bystanders snickered, the king gallantly picked up the garter, tied it up the Black Prince’s leg and uttered the words that became the motto. There were first 25 knights besides the king. In 1831 the Order was reorganized and its membership was increased to include the Prince of Wales, descendants of king George 1 and some foreign rulers. The English monarch is always sovereign of the Order. Women joined in 1987. Today it is composed of the reigning monarch, the Prince of Wales and 24 knights, in addition to a number of English princes, foreign sovereigns and other specially chosen members. During the knights’ lifetime, their heraldic banners are hung in St. George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle.
The Speaker – the ritual of dragging the Speaker to his chair recalls centuries of tension between executive royal power and a determined commons. The task of conveying the house’s decision furious and tax-hungry kings often fell to the Speaker, the first person to hold the office. The first Speaker to make demands of his monarch, was Sir Peter de la Mare, who in 1376 was sent by the Commons to confront Edward 111, soon he was staring at the world through a set of iron bars. The Speaker is: the mouthpiece of the House in its relation with the Crown, the House of Lords and other authorities so he or sometimes she presides over the debates of the House and enforce the observance of all rules for preserving order. Старшее должностное лицо in the House of Commons , председательствует на её заседаниях, следит за соблюдением правил парламентской процедуры и порядком дебатов; он избирается из числа членов палаты, не принимает участия в дебатах и голосовании, за исключением тех случаев, когда голоса делятся поровну, тогда его голос является решающим, на заседаниях одет in the gown, the full-bottom wig and shoes with buckles. Пост существует с 1377 и означал первоначально выступающий, спикер выступал от имени Палаты на всех заседаниях парламента. Speaker’s Chair – его кресло, the Mace lies on the Table of the House as the symbol of his power. Mace-bearer is a special person who carries the Mace on the solemn ceremonies. To catch the Speaker’s eye – получить слово для выступления в дебатах, обыкновенно по предварительной договоренности, употребляется в случае, когда просят слова несколько MPs. The Speaker of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor, в его отсутствие обязанности выполняет peers из списка, утверждённого монархом. Занимала пост женщина, бывшая танцовщица, незамужняя Бетти Бутройд, сейчас снова мужчина.
Poet Laureate- поэт – лауреат, придворный поэт, (раньше в его обязанность входило сочинение стихов по поводу рождения наследника, коронации и т.д., в последнее время - пожизненное почётное звание, эти поэты получают вознаграждение в размере 99 ф. ст. в год и 600 бутылок Хереса, во время королевы Виктории был Уильям Вордсворт, с 1930 по 1967 был Джон Мейсфилд, потом Джон Бетчеман, сейчас впервые за 340 лет стала женщина – поэт, драматург.
Королева Елизавета 11 впервые назначила дворецким госпожу Линдси Стилл, она мечтала об этом с 10 лет; эта работа по дому включает: накрывать на стол, чтобы было душевно, хранить пожизненный обет молчания о секретах членов королевской семьи. Другой до неё дворецкий залил вином ковёр за 60.000 фунтов, его пьяные коллеги фотографировались на троне.
The Royal Ascot – a 4 (5) days horse racing event at the Ascot race course in Berkshire. Each year about 300.00 people buy tickets to watch races. Ascot is very popular with members of the R.F. and the rich and famous/celebrities. It is also a fashion show. TV presenters love to comment on what everyone’s wearing, the ladies’ smart hats.
Yeoman Warders. The site of the Tower of London dates back to the 11th century and is guarded by the Y.W. or “Beefeaters”. King Henry v111 first introduced them in 1485 when he used them as bodyguards. Their duties included looking after the prisoners in the Tower and guarding the Crown Jewels. These days though their main role is to act as guiders for many tourists. They also take care of 8 big black ravens that live there. There are 36 Y.W. at the Tower and they were all men till recently, who were in the armed forces for 22 years or more; they live here with their families. The Beefeaters are most famous for their striking red and gold uniform but they actually wear this on formal occasions. Most of the time they are clad in a dark blue uniform with red trimmings. No one is sure where this name has come from. One theory says that the warders used to be paid with meat instead of money. Others say that the name comes from the French word buffetiers who were guards in the palace of French kings. They protected the kings’ food.
A cup of tea – cuppa; 7cups of tea make you up in the morning, 9 cups will put you to sleep at night. If you are hot, tea’ll cool you off, if you are cold, it’ll warm you up, if you are depressed, it will cheer you up, if you are exciting, it’ll calm you down.
The icons were designed by architect Giles Gilbert Scott in the 1920th to make them easy to spot: – the rose, the V – sign, the Hadrian’s Wall, the Angel of the North by the sculptor Anthony Gormley, who is about to produce the second one - the Goddess of the North in 2008 – 10 miles away, fish and chips shops, the first appeared in London in 1860, Wimbledon means tennis grass, white dresses, strawberries and cream; the mini-car in 1959, Christmas pudding which O. Cromwell banned to eat because it was very rich and it ‘s sinful so anyone could be fined or sent to jail, the oak- tree has always been seen as the national tree because of its age, height and strength, it’s the king of a forest and the symbol of endurance; it sheltered the king Charles 11 when he was on the run from his enemies (hot on the trail) in 1651), he escaped to France. That tree died long ago but you can still see an other old oak in the grounds at Boscombel House, the Sutton Hoo Helmet – an ancient burial site in Suffolk, the Beatles, “ Alice in Wonderland “– the queen Victoria loved the book and she ordered to send her another book by L. Carroll. It was on math, a mini – skirt designed by Mary Quant in 1965, a red telephone box ( nowadays as a tourist attraction, some people buy them to convert for different purposes: a library, a bar and so on, by the way you can see it even in Krasnoyarsk, a red letter box and a red double – decker, Holbein’s portrait of Henry V111 when he was 46, it was made better on one of the walls of White Hall Palace, it was destroyed by fire in June, 1698 but there were some copies, Big Ben is the nick name of the largest bell at the top of the Stephen’s Tower (96 m. high), the Great Bell of the Westminster since 1858. In 1962 the New Year was 10 minutes late because of heavy snow and on the 27th of May, 2005 the clock stopped 90 minutes because of hot weather.
Britain is a nation of tea-loving, 75% drink tea – the Earl Grey, soap opera fans, who value privacy, pet lovers (53% treat them like a member of the family), they grumble about the weather (39% think the weather is the most annoying aspect of living) and are very proud of their sense of humour, some of them don’t mind queuing and can be spotted abroad by their tanned skin, in football shirts, wearing socks with sandals and a pint (0,57 l) of beer in their hand.
There is a tradition in Britain that it’s somehow “not very nice” to talk about money. Many people will happily tell you intimate secrets about their past, their love life or their health. Yet ask them how much money they have in their bank account or how much they earn, and they’ll be shocked into silence. As for young people today, particularly students, are remarkably open about their finances. Perhaps it’s because they are mostly earning money to survive, or to pay for occasional good times. They haven’t yet joined the adult culture where money buys power and respect.
To make the world a friendly place one must show a friendly face, if you want to be on top don’t let education ever stop.
I crossed my fingers, crossed my toes. I crossed my eyebrows over my nose. I crossed my legs and then my eyes. I crossed my heart and hoped to die. But I crossed too much and now I am stuck. Seems a lot of crossing brings bad luck.
Май 2009. Впервые поэт – лауреат (придворный) за 340 лет стала женщина, поэт – драматург. Награда 600 бутылок Хереса и 99 фунтов в год.
Впервые Королева Е 11 назначила дворецким госпожу Линдси Стил, она мечтала о работе по дому с 10 лет: накрывать на стол, чтобы было душевно, пожизненный обет молчания о секретах членов королевской семьи. Привычки:
-королева – крепкий чай, ополаскивать чайник кипятком;
-принц Филипп – газеты и расписание скачек;
-принцесса Анна – завтракает одна;
-принц Эндрю – открыть шторы, чтобы проснулся.
Корги делают всё, что хотят. Другой (до неё) дворецкий залил вином ковёр за 60,000 фунтов, его пьяные коллеги фотографировались на троне.
Children are losing their marbles and parents are worried that the traditional playground games are disappearing from primary schools. Only one in five of today’s children play chase or tag games< one in ten enjoy skipping, one in twenty play conkers and less than one in a hundred play marbles. Cat’s cradle has vanished altogether.
The ABC of Happiness
Aspire to reach your potential,
Believe in yourself,
Create a good life,
Dream about what you might become,
Glorify the creative spirit,
Humour yourself and others,
Imagine great things,
Joyfully live every day,
Kindly help others,
Love one another,
Nurture the environment,
Organize for harmonious action,
Praise performance well done,
Regulate your behavior,
Work for the common good,
X –ray and carefully examine problems,
Yearn to improve,
Zestfully pursue happiness,
Like a song that’s made to sing, friendship is a doing thing.
Golden Goose Is a continuing source of wealth and profit.
They dress what they like, they are interested in sports;
They partake in all activities if they think they ought.
They all succeed in doing their work in five short days,
Which leaves them the two longest ones- to spend in different ways.
Then some indulge in gardening or walking in the rain.
And some delight in cricket or riding in the plain.
In spite of what’s around him the average Englishman
Does crosswords in newspapers in pencil – if he can.
Involved in any accident the English take a pride
Being unemotional they take things in their stride.
In any circumstances whatever they may be
The English solve their problems with a nice cup of tea.
An Irishman’s Philosophy.
There only two things to worry about: either you are well or you are sick.
If you are well then there is nothing to worry about.
But if you are sick there are two things to worry about:
Either you will get well or you’ll die.
If you get well there is nothing to worry about.
If you die there two things to worry about:
Either you’ll go to the heaven or to the hell.
If you go to the heaven there is nothing to worry about.
But if you go to the hell you’ll be so damn busy shaking hands with your friends,
You won’t have any time to worry about.
The English Character
“Oh, don’t give us that. Oh, come on then, one thing at a time. Time is money. In conversation the English hardly ever lie but they would not dream of telling you the truth, (it’s a challenge).
«Кокон» - это личное пространство, сохранение дистанции; (для разных культур существует разное расстояние: для комфорта, убедительности, флирта, угрозы). Британцев упрекают в холодности, высокомерии. Они воспринимают время линейно, а именно: прошлое, настоящее, будущее как дорога, его можно потратить, потерять, сэкономить. Это время изолирует людей, принятая информация обрабатывается последовательно, стремление избегать перегруженности. Они в воспитании стараются не конфликтовать, не вторгаться в чужую территорию, обходить углы, не в лоб бестактно. Табу: возраст, личные доходы, стоимость покупки, не проявлять эмоции, держаться молодцом, не обижать нескромными вопросами. Клише – small talk, for Russians it is waste of time. How are you? One mustn’t grumble. Coming late is impolite – it’s well-known. I must be going. Did you have a good evening out? Lots of fun. Literally covered them with flowers! Oh, my! Oh, dear. That’s incredible< poor thing< he must be very upset.
Claim the fame, Elizabeth 1 did much for the glory of the country as her Father had done.