Обучение интерактивному общению на уроке английского языка
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Обучение интерактивному общению на уроке английского языка

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Международный унверситет Silkway

 

 

Абдиллаева Дилфуза Хайраллақызы

 

Teaching of interactive communication on English lessons at school

 

 

 

ДИПЛОМНАЯ РАБОТА

 

 

 специальность 5В011900 – «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка»

 

 

 

      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Шымкент, 2020

 

 

 

Международный унверситет Silkway

Кафедра иностранной филологии

 

 

 

 

«Допущена к защите»

«__»________2020г.

Заведующий кафедрой

 ________к.ф.н. Ф.И.Артыкбаева

 

 

ДИПЛОМНАЯ РАБОТА

 

 

 

 

На тему: «Teaching of interactive communication on English lessons at school»

 

 

 

по специальности 5В011900 – «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка»

 

 

 

 

       Выполнила                                                                Абдиллаева Д.Х.

 

 

    Научный руководитель                           

        к.ф.н.                                                                       Артыкбаева Ф.И.

 

 

       Нормоконтроль                                                        Спатай А.О.

 

 

 

 

 

Шымкент, 2020

 

 

Международный унверситет Silkway

Факультет филологический

 

Специальность 5В011900-Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка

 

Кафедра иностранной филологии

 

«Утверждаю»

Заведующий кафедрой

__________Ф.И.Артыкбаева

«___» ________ 201__г.

 

 

ЗАДАНИЕ

на выполнение дипломной работы (проекта)

 

Студенту Абдиллаевой Д.Х. 4 курса группы 119-64 по специальности 5В011900-Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка, очная форма обучения

1.Тема дипломной работы «Teaching of interactive communication on English lessons at school» утверждена приказом ректора от «__» __2019 г. №___

2.Срок сдачи студентом  законченной работы «____» ___2020г.

3.Исходные данные к работе: научно-исследовательская работа студента по данной теме.

4.Перечень вопросов, подлежащих к разработке в дипломной работе:

а) введение

б) проведение эксперимента

в) подведение итогов

5. Перечень графических материалов (чертежи, таблицы, диаграммы и т.д.)

6. Перечень основной рекомендуемой литературы

                   1     Пассов Е.И. " Основы методики обучения иностранным языкам". М., 1977

                   2     Пассов Е.И. " Основы коммуникативной методики обучения иноязычному общению". М.,1989

                   3     Петровский А.В., Китайгородская Г.А. " К некоторым вопросам активизации учебной деятельности": - В кн. : Методы интенсивного обучения иностр. яз., вып. 5, М., 1979

7. Консультации по работе (с указанием относящихся к ним разделов работы)

 

Номер, название раздела, главы

Научный руководитель, консультант

Сроки получения задания

 

Задание выдал (подпись)

Задание принял (подпись)

Введение

Агабекова Б.Н.

октябрь 2019г.

 

 

1 основная часть

 

Агабекова Б.Н.

ноябрь 2019г.

 

 

2 экспериментальная часть

Агабекова Б.Н.

декабрь2019

январь 2020

 

 

Заключение

Агабекова Б.Н.

февраль 2020

 

 

Список литературы

Агабекова Б.Н.

Март 2020

 

 

Предзащита

Агабекова Б.Н.

Апрель2020г.

 

 

8. График выполнения дипломной работы

Этапы работы

 

Сроки выполнения этапов работы

Примечание

1

Утверждение темы дипломного проекта

октябрь 2019 г.

 

2

Сбор материалов для подготовки дипломного проекта

ноябрь-декабрь 2019 г.

 

3

Подготовка теоретической части дипломной работы (проекта) (Глава 1)

январь 2020 г.

До отъезда на практику

4

Подготовка аналитической части дипломной работы (проекта) (Глава 2-3)

февраль  2020 г.

Во время практики

5

Завершение чернового варианта полного текста дипломной работы (проекта)

март  2020г.

На первой неделе после окончания учебной недели

6

Предоставление дипломной работы (проекта) на предзащиту

апрель 2020 г.

Во время обзорных лекций (консультаций)

7

Предоставление дипломной работы

(проекта) на рецензию

май  2020 г.

После предзащиты с исправлениями

8

Предоставление окончательного варианта дипломной работы (проекта) с отзывом научного руководителя и рецензией

май  2020 г.

До  защиты согласно графику

9

Защита дипломной работы

по графику защиты

В соответствии с расписанием ГАК

 

Дата выдачи задания    «______» _____________ 2019.

 

Научный руководитель  ____________к.ф.н., ст.преп. Агабекова Б.Н.

 

Задание приняла: студентка ___________ Абдиллаева Д.Х.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENT

 

Introduction ------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------6

1 Modern methods of teaching interactive communication in English classes

1.1 General concept of interactive learning methods ------------------------ 10

1.2 Comparison of traditional and interactive goals

learning approach ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------eleven

1.3 the position of the student and teacher in the educational process -------------- 13

1.4 Organization of communication in the educational process ---------------------------- 15

1.5 Interactive Learning Methods ---------------------------------------------- 18

2 Teaching interactive communication in English lessons ”

2.1 Pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the strategy of interactive teaching methods in English classes -------------------------------------- ------------ 21

2.2 Features of the use of interactive methods at the initial stage of learning a foreign language --------------------------------------- ----------------------- 22

2.3 Research Methodology ----------------------------------------------- -------- 24

2.4 Study Analysis ----------------------------------------------- ---------------- 25

3 Types of interactive learning used in English classes

3.1 The role of listening in teaching interactive communication in English classes --------------------------------------- -------------------------------------thirty

3.2 Learning Content Learning --------------------------------------------- 31

3.3 Psychological features of listening ---------------------------------- 32

3.4 Communicative games as one of the methods of interactive learning English --------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- 46

Conclusion ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- 57

List of references ----------------------------------------------- -59

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

Relevance of the topic. Modern school management as one of its tasks considers increasing the effectiveness of academic work in each unit of time, i.e. optimal intensification of labor. Its main components include: increasing the focus of training, enhancing its motivation, informational capacity of the educational content, applying modern teaching methods, activating teaching methods, activating the pace of educational activities, developing reflexive work skills, using computers and other latest information teaching technical tools.

According to the point of Yu.K. Babansky, any purposeful functional, self-regulatory pedagogical system strives for optimal best results of the educational process on the basis of 2 criteria: each student reaching the maximum possible level of achievement, upbringing and development during this period, and the absence of facts of systematic exceeding of time norms by students and teachers.

In recent years, there has been a tendency in the methodology of teaching foreign languages ​​to move from a communicative approach to its variety - the interactive approach that was proposed by Western methodologists. However, a clear understanding of the term “interactive approach” has not yet been developed.

Some authors identify it with a communicative approach, believing that "an interactive model of language acquisition assumes that learning takes place during and during participation in language acts (speech events)." Others define an interactive method as a modified direct method that includes a number of other methods. [7]

In contrast to this opinion, N.V. Bagramova, referring to K. Yli-Renko, concludes that “the main focus of the communicative-interactive approach is on the very process of communication and the educational situation in the audience”, in while communicative learning puts the focus on the communicative functions of language. This conclusion is consistent with the position of A.A. Leontiev that interaction (interaction) is mediated by communication. Through communication, people can interact, and not vice versa. “Interaction, interaction is a collective activity that we consider not from the side of the content or product, but in terms of its social organization.” BD Parygin considers communication as a two-sided phenomenon: in terms of content it is a “communicative process of mutual expression of mental state and information exchange”, in form it is a behavioral aspect “realized in the process of interaction, that is, the interaction of people, their behavior in relation to each other to friend".

Thus, using an interactive approach to teaching English, you can optimize the process of mastering the skills of basic school foreign language communication and make it more effective in a comprehensive school.

At the early stage of teaching children a foreign language, one of the main tasks of a teacher is to make this subject interesting and loved. At school age, children are very emotional and mobile, their attention is characterized by involuntaryness and instability. It is important to consider the psychological characteristics of children of this age in the learning process. As a rule, schoolchildren pay attention primarily to what causes their immediate interest. And the game, as you know, is the main activity of a school-age child. It serves as a kind of "common language" for all the guys. Using the game as one of the methods of teaching a foreign language greatly facilitates the learning process, makes it closer and more accessible to children. Moreover, gaming technology meets the humanization of the pedagogical process.

Game technology is one of the unique forms of learning, which makes it possible to make interesting and exciting not only the work of students at the creative-search level, but also everyday steps to learn English. Entertaining the conditional world of the game makes the monotonous activity of memorizing, repeating, fixing or assimilating information positively emotionally colored, and the emotionality of the game action activates all the mental processes and functions of the child. Another positive side of the game is that it promotes the use of knowledge in a new situation, that is, the material acquired by students passes through a kind of practice, introduces diversity and interest in the educational process.

In the process of learning English, an opportunity is presented to introduce yourself as an adult, copy the actions you have ever seen, and thereby, gaining certain skills that may be useful to him in the future. Children analyze certain situations in games, draw conclusions, predetermining their actions in similar situations in the future. The game is simultaneously a developing activity, principle, method and form of life, a zone of socialization, security, self-rehabilitation, cooperation, community, co-creation with adults, a mediator between the world of the child and the world of adults. At the same time, a game is, in a sense, a job where every child has his own obligations.

The game is the real and eternal value of the culture of leisure, the social practice of people as a whole. She is on an equal footing next to work, knowledge, communication, creativity, being their correspondent. In the game worldview of children there are truths of a congenial nature, no less important than installation views on the realities of the world. Games teach children the philosophy of understanding the complexities, contradictions, tragedies of life, they teach, not yielding to them, to see the bright and joyful, to rise above the troubles, to live with benefit and festively.

In the teaching methodology, more attention is paid to the games of schoolchildren (N. A. Korotkova, N. Ya. Mikhailenko, A. I. Sorokin, N. R. Eiges), (F. K. Bleher, A. S. Ibragimova, N. M . Konysheva, M. T. Salikhova). This is due to the fact that teachers consider the game as an important educational method for children of school age. A number of special studies on the playing activities of schoolchildren were carried out by outstanding teachers of our time (P.P. Blonsky, L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinshtein, D. B. Elkonin). Aspects of gaming activity in a comprehensive school were considered by S.V. Harutyunyan, O. S. Gazman, V. M. Grigoryev, O. A. Dyachkova, F. I. Fradkina, G. P. Shchedrovitsky.

Object of study: the process of teaching a foreign language in a secondary school.

Subject of research: the use of communicative games at the initial stage of teaching English.

Purpose of work: to reveal the essence of teaching interactive communication in English classes, also to reveal and justify the possibilities of using communicative games in the process of teaching a foreign language at the initial stage.

Achieving the goal is due to a number of tasks:

• reveal the role of the game as a type of educational activity;

• identify features of teaching a foreign language at school age;

• determine the significance of the use of gaming technology in teaching younger students a foreign language;

• substantiate the impact of communicative games on the education of schoolchildren.

The novelty of the study lies in the disclosure of the features of communicative games as a new format of gaming technology when teaching English to schoolchildren: the communicative and active nature of learning, the psychological orientation of lessons on the development of speech-cognitive activity of students using the language studied, optimization of intellectual activity of students in the educational process, the complexity of training, development group forms of work, a decrease in the level of anxiety among schoolchildren and easy overcoming of linguistic about the barrier.

Based on the classification of S. A. Shmakov, a scheme has been developed to form the qualities of the student’s personality as a linguistic personality through gaming technologies.

Practical relevance: the results of the study can be used in the practice of teaching English to schoolchildren, enriching the "pedagogical workshop" of an English teacher in the preparation and development of a series of training sessions on the topics: "Animals", "Food", "Seasons", "Daily Routine ”,“ Summer Plans ”, and grammar material:“ There is / there are ”construct,“ the Present Simple tense ”,“ the Past Simple tense ”,“ the Future Simple tense ”.

Research Methods:

• analysis of the literature of psychological, pedagogical, methodical literature on the topic of research;

• method of content analysis;

• interviewing, questioning, interviewing elementary school students;

• the method of monitoring the activities of students of grade 3 “B” of secondary school No. 3 in Shymkent.

• Testing of the research results took place during teaching practice in the 3rd “B” class of secondary school No. 3 in Shymkent.

 This thesis consists of introduction, four chapters, conclusion and list of references.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Modern methods of teaching interactive communication in English classes

 

1.1 General concept of interactive learning methods

 

The existing educational system seems so understandable for the teacher working in it that the discoveries or conclusions made by psychologists, sociologists in this field seem completely unexpected, lead to bewilderment and cast doubt on all his activities.

The study described in the article by A. Zverev "10 and 90 - new statistics of intelligence", began with the usual experiment conducted by American sociologists. They addressed young people from different countries who had recently graduated from school with a number of questions from various training courses. And it turned out that only an average of 10% of respondents correctly answered all the questions.

The result of this study prompted the Russian teacher M. Balaban to draw a conclusion that puzzles teachers: the school, regardless of which country it is in, successfully teaches only one out of ten of its students.

C. Rogers, reflecting on the effectiveness of teaching at school, writes: “When I try to teach, I am horrified that the results achieved are so insignificant, although sometimes it seems that the training is successful.”

The effectiveness of the pedagogical activity of a secondary school teacher is characterized by all those. Even 10% of students. The explanation is very simple:

“Only 10% of people are able to learn with a book in their hands”

In other words, only 10% of students accept the methods used in a traditional school. The remaining 90% of students are also able to study, but not with a book in their hands, but in a different way: “by their actions, real deeds, all sensory organs.” [1 p. 96]

The results of this study led to the conclusion that learning should be structured differently, differently, so that all students can learn. One of the options for organizing the educational process is the use of interactive teaching methods by the teacher in his activity.

An interactive learning strategy is the organization of a teacher using a certain system of methods, techniques, methods of the educational process, based on:

• subject-subject relations between teacher and student (parity);

• multilateral communication;

• building knowledge for students;

• use of self-esteem and feedback;

• student activity. [16 c. 8]

In order to more fully disclose the content of the category “interactive learning methods”, we will compare traditional learning and active learning by choosing the following options:

1. Objectives

2. The position of the student and teacher

3. Organization of communication in the educational process

4. Training methods.

5. Principles of an interactive approach

 

1.2. Comparison of the goals of the traditional and interactive approach to

Training       

 

Traditional learning sets itself the goal of transmitting to students and learning as much knowledge as possible. The teacher broadcasts information that is already meaningful and differentiated by him, defines the skills that he needs, from his point of view, to develop for students. The task of students is to reproduce the knowledge created by others as fully and accurately as possible.

The knowledge obtained in the process of such training is encyclopedic in nature, it represents a certain amount of information on various academic subjects, which in the student’s mind exists in the form of thematic blocks that do not always have semantic connections. [14, p.14]

Many educators are faced with the problem of the impossibility of linking the content of their subject with the knowledge of students in other academic disciplines. And then a doubt arises as to how deeply the students realized their awareness of the educational material, its appropriation and use in situations beyond the framework of the school. It is difficult enough to dispel this doubt primarily because the process of reproducing educational material also acts as feedback from the student to the teacher. Confirmation of the above is the words of Sh. A. Amonashvili: “Earlier, in the distant past, when I was an imperative teacher, I did not live with my students with one creative burning, and the difficulties that they encountered remained unknown to me. For them, I was only a controller, and for me they were correctly or incorrectly solved tasks ”[15, p. 25]

In the context of interactive learning, knowledge takes other forms. On the one hand, they represent certain information about the world. A feature of this information is that the student receives it not in the form of a ready-made system from the teacher, but in the process of their own activity. The teacher, according to O. Bassis, should create situations in which the student is active, in which he asks, acts. In such situations, "he, together with others, acquires abilities that enable him to transform into knowledge what was originally a problem or an obstacle."

On the other hand, the student in the process of interaction in the classroom with other students, the teacher masters the system of tried (tested) ways of working in relation to himself, society, the world in general, assimilates various mechanisms of knowledge search. Therefore, the knowledge acquired by students is at the same time a tool for their independent acquisition.

Thus, the goal of active learning is the creation by the teacher of the conditions in which the student himself will discover, acquire and construct knowledge. This is a fundamental difference between the goals of active learning and the goals of the traditional education system.

To concretize the conversation about the goals achieved in the strategy of active learning, we use the taxonomy of B. Bloom's cognitive (cognitive) goals, which is now actively discussed in the pedagogical community. If we follow the taxonomy developed by B. Bloom, then knowledge is only the first, simplest level of this hierarchy. Next are five more levels of goals, with the first three (knowledge, understanding, application) being lower-order goals, and the next three (analysis, synthesis, comparison) higher-order ones.

The systematizer of cognitive attitudes, according to B. Bloom, can be represented as follows:

1. Knowledge: the ability to recognize, reproduce special information, including facts, accepted terminology, criteria, methodological principles and theories.

2. Understanding: the ability to literally understand the meaning of any message. B. Bloom identified three types of modes of understanding:

• translation - to perceive the stated material and transfer it to another form (other words, schedule, and so on);

• interpretation - rebuilding ideas into a new configuration;

• extrapolation - assessment and forecasting, based on previously received information.

3. Application: the ability to take and apply in a new situation the principles or processes previously studied, without indicating from the outside. For example, the application of socio-scientific generalizations to individual social problems or the application of natural science or mathematical principles to practical situations.

4. Analysis: the division of the material into separate components, establishing their relationship and understanding the model of their organization. For example, recognition of unformulated assumptions, identification of cause-effect relationships and recognition of forms and techniques in artwork.

5. Synthesis: the creative process of combining parts or elements into a new whole. This is a professional essay writing, suggesting ways to test hypotheses and formulating theories applicable to social situations.

6. Evaluation: the process of developing value judgments about ideas, decisions, methods, etc. These estimates can be quantitative or qualitative, but they must be based on the use of criteria or standards, for example, include evaluating an appropriate treatment method or evaluating the results of work on the basis of standards in this discipline). [3, p. 47-66]

And then the methods, methods and techniques used in traditional learning allow us to achieve the first three levels of goals in the educational process. Let us consider as an example the tasks located at the end of any paragraph of the textbook. In most cases, a simple reproduction of its content is sufficient for their implementation. Tasks that require the student to understand and apply knowledge (the second and third level of goals) are usually marked with a sign and are not always used by the teacher.

Interactive learning methods also ensure that the goals of the first three levels are achieved, more efficiently than the methods of the traditional learning system. A good confirmation of this thesis can be the memorization pyramid, depicted in Fig. 1 (See appendix). And as a result, teachers working in the traditional paradigm often use interactive teaching methods to better learn students' information. In this case, we will only talk about optimizing the traditional educational process. This fixation is very important because it can allow the teacher to decide in the plane of which strategy he is working on.

Continuing the discussion of goals in the context of interactive learning methods, it should be noted that interactive learning methods often achieve higher-order goals (level 4-6) in the educational process.

At the same time, these methods contain another set of goals, the implementation of which contributes to the development of students' social competence (the ability to discuss, work in a group, resolve conflicts, listen to others, etc.) [16, p. 12]

 

1.3 The position of the student and teacher in the educational process

 

Organizing the educational process, the teacher of the traditional school is primarily concerned with the content of his own activities. Analyzing your first lesson plans, lesson plans of fellow teachers, you come to the conclusion that only the activities of the teacher are clearly and thoroughly spelled out in them. Both in plan and in the lesson, the teacher “... is the central actor who dominates the children, who shows or tells, asks,” demanding complete silence in the classroom and restricting student movements.

In such a situation, it is easy enough to determine the student’s position in the lesson - this is the position of a passive listener who is sometimes given the opportunity to verbalize his knowledge.

Trying to answer the question about the effectiveness of such a position, we turned to socio-psychological studies, the results of which are recorded in the form of “Memorization Pyramids” (see Fig. 1 in the appendix).

The memorization pyramid shows that the greater the degree of participation of students in the process of cognition, the more information they learn.

Interactive learning as an active participant in the educational process primarily sees the student. It’s very important, according to K. N. Wenzel, “that the children themselves should state, show, tell and ask more, so that the teacher would have to listen more ... so that the children would be active and not compassionate all the time ...” Returning to the pyramid of memorization, we see that, participating in discussions, discussing various problems, playing situations, the student learns from 70% to 90% of the information. [10, p. 96-97].

A change in the position of the student and teacher as a result of the use of active learning methods leads to a change in the content of the activities of participants in the educational process.

Positive aspects of the application of interactive learning methods:

• “motivation has increased significantly, especially for weak students”;

• “a higher level of assimilation of the material. Fatigue reduction ";

• “the student does not have the opportunity to sit out, he needs to think for himself, not relying on others. Both weak and strong students work. There is an interest in the material being studied ”;

• “all students without exception are organized and included in the work, spoken language is well developed, and the ability to work with various literature is improved”;

• “developing the ability to work in a group”;

• "communicative skills are developed."

• there was an interest in their own pedagogical activity: “I was convinced that such classes bring satisfaction to students and to me, have a return”;

• there was an opportunity to analyze their activities: “there was an interest in how to make it interesting from an uninteresting, boring one; I want to share my "finds" and "mistakes" with like-minded people, together find the best way out ";

• it became possible to take into account your individual characteristics when building a lesson: “expanding opportunities for self-expression allows you to work in an individual rhythm, according to your own methodology and program” "Increased self-control, expanded ideas about the possibilities of influencing the organization of the educational process";

• an opportunity to observe group processes in a group and the manifestation of individual characteristics by students:

“The work has become more interesting. In the lesson there is an opportunity to observe the relationship of children ”;

• the attitude towards the student has changed: “... and, probably, I began to trust children more”; “I began to look differently at my students as employees who have the same goal with me.” The above statements of teachers allow us to talk about changing relationships between the subjects of the educational process. The interaction between the teacher and students begins to build on the basis of parity. Parity relationships assume that the teacher takes the student’s active position, recognizes the right to independent thoughts, expresses opinions, refuses to believe that the only right opinion exists, and it belongs to the teacher.

 

1.4. Organization of communication in the educational process

 

The communication process in the system of traditional education is based on the monologue of the teacher. A teacher with ready-made knowledge goes to the student and, using the system of rewards and punishments, makes him accept the information as necessary and mandatory. The interaction between the participants in the educational process, as we have already noted, is usually built on the initiative of the teacher in accordance with a lesson plan prepared in advance. This process can be represented as a model of one-way communication (Fig. 2)

 

Fig. 1.2. One-way communication model:

A - teacher; B, C ... students

This method of communication allows the teacher to transfer a sufficiently large amount of material in a short period of time, receiving feedback in the form of student responses.

V. F. Shatalov and his colleagues calculated that the average duration of each student’s active speaking for six lessons is two minutes. [1 c. 102]

Only so much time is allotted to him in order to only tell the educational material prepared for several hours at home in the library. V. S. Bibler interprets this model of communication as follows: “with a monologue, there is only one consciousness, one subject (teacher) ...”.

Interactive learning methods suggest a different form of communication in the lesson, which can be fixed in the form of a model of multilateral communication (Fig. 3).

Fig. 1.3. Multilateral Communication Model:

A - teacher; E, C, B, D, K - students

The diagram shows how the position of the teacher (A) changes: he does not dominate the students, but becomes a “participant in the educational activity”. Communication links arise not only between the teacher and students, but also between all students.

We fix a few points, the presence of which in the educational process, in our opinion, is necessary for the organization of multilateral communication:

1. The knowledge that a teacher possesses should not be a given and be irrefutable.

2. For the successful course of the educational process, it is necessary to create situations of “open clash of one’s own doubts and

3. Contradictions with doubts and contradictions of others ”. It is important that the resolution of contradictions is based on a dialogue between the teacher and the students, between the students themselves, taking into account their interests, opinions, views and positions.

4. What teachers traditionally considered to be errors in the students' thought process should be perceived as a process of advancement to knowledge, as a problem at this stage of training. This contributes to the desire of the student to learn and, together with the teacher, to resolve the problems.

5. The presentation of the finished information by the teacher is not excluded from the educational process, but the place and role of this technique is changing. The teacher’s monologue is usually used for:

the need to set students to learn new material;

the inability to independently solve the problem by students due to lack of information. [4]

In this case, the teacher sets out only the main provisions of this topic, organizing their active discussion.

Using the model of multilateral communication allows you to include in the learning process all students in the class.

Psychologists also note the importance of students interacting with each other, motivating this by the fact that counseling provided by students, or training when the role of the teacher is performed by the students themselves, is one of the effective ways to acquire knowledge.

In the process of multilateral communication, students have the opportunity to share their thoughts, impressions and feelings within a certain topic, talk about their own conclusions and listen to the opinions of not only the teacher, but also classmates.

The process of interaction between students on the basis of multilateral communication is possible, on the one hand, provided that they master interpersonal communication skills: the ability to listen to themselves and others, to reproduce what has been said, to clarify, ask questions, etc., on the other hand, if the teacher changes the grounds on which this interaction is being built. In this case, we are talking about using the principles of competition and cooperativeness in the educational process. Teachers who work in the traditional training system often use the principle of competition, the essence of which can be fixed in the following phrase: “I will win if you lose.” After all, there is nothing wrong with a student’s constant desire to be better than others, if such a desire is supported by concrete successes. This encourages students. And if it always turns out to be worse, if always someone else becomes the first and best? Is a learning process possible in such a situation? One can doubt this.

In the strategy of active learning, the interaction between students is based on the principle of cooperativeness, the essence of which can be expressed in the following phrase "I will win if you win." [16 c. 38]

Using the principle of cooperativeness in the process of active learning contributes not only to the effective assimilation of knowledge, but also to the development of social interaction skills: group work, non-violent conflict resolution, substantiation of one’s position, etc.

 

1.5 Interactive Learning Methods

 

To be convinced of the advantage and effectiveness of an interactive learning strategy is possible only with its direct implementation in pedagogical activity. Currently, many of the methods of interactive learning allow us to carry out this process quite successfully.

In pedagogical literature one can often find two categories: “Interactive methods” and “methods of interactive learning”. The difference between these categories lies in the content that is embedded in the word “interactive”. Saying "interactive methods", we thereby focus on the interactivity of the method itself. The student’s activity is secondary, that is, the method stops working - the student ceases to be active. In interactive learning, the main activity is the student’s activity, which is set not only directly by the method, but also by other factors, for example, the educational environment created in the educational institution, etc.

The book "Innovative teaching methods in civic education" outlined an approach to choosing a method of interactive learning in the process of civic education. Here is a quote from this book: “... the choice of method is a painstaking work, which includes a thorough analysis of the group (its composition, previous experience, willingness to study, level of familiarity with this type of work); determination of the purpose of using the method; understanding the problem that the method is affecting; their own problems and difficulties that may arise, and finally, just the technical conditions of use. We believe that this approach can be used in the educational process of secondary and higher schools. [11, p. 22 h 1]

It is necessary to focus on the fact that the method cannot be turned into a means of ridding students of boredom in the classroom. The favorable psychological atmosphere created by the method cannot be the only and sufficient result of the lesson. “You cannot hide incompetence in a meaningful and methodological way, overwhelming the educational process with a variety of methods. Even non-traditional methods cannot alone guarantee the success of the educational process. Only a well-developed and thoughtful application of methods in combination with a thorough knowledge of the topic ensures the systematic development of the educational situation. ”

 

1.5 Principles of an interactive approach.

 

 

Among the main methodological principles of an interactive approach to teaching foreign languages, the following are distinguished:

mutual communication in a foreign language with the aim of accepting and producing authentic information equally interesting for all participants in a situation important for everyone;

joint activity, characterized by the interconnection of three objects: producer of information, recipient of information and situational context;

changing the traditional role of the teacher in the educational process, the transition to a democratic style of communication;

reflectivity of learning, conscious and critical reflection on the action, its motives, quality and results both from the teacher and the students. [9 p.87]

Moreover, the effectiveness of the learning process depends on the implementation of the following principles:

an integrated approach to the learning process on a communicative-situational basis;

interactivity;

differentiated approach;

taking into account individual characteristics;

variability of the operating mode;

problems (both in the organization of educational materials, and in the educational process itself).

The principle of communicative-situational learning involves the use of a complex of communicative situations aimed at developing the student’s speech, which contributes to “overcoming the sharp transition from learning conditions to natural communication due to the formation of strong associative ties among students”. At the same time, English classes are not divided by aspects, but are complex. The principle of interactivity assumes that in the course of the educational process, students not only acquire educational and professionally significant knowledge and skills, but also “change themselves as a result of performing substantive actions”.

The principle of an integrated approach is implemented in the use of all types of speech activity (including speaking) in teaching translation.

Using the principle of problematicity in training means that “knowledge is not presented to the student in a deterministic, completed form, intended only for memorization, but is given in the dynamics of the transition from ignorance to knowledge, with the active participation of the students themselves in obtaining some of this knowledge as a result of independent work on the solution specially selected problem tasks. ” The principle of problematicity plays a large role in generating interest in the content of training and the educational activity itself, which, in turn, increases educational motivation and enables students to show mental independence and initiative.

The principle of variability of the operating mode provides for the exchange of professionally significant information at the group and individual levels, as well as a combination of classroom and homework using modern means of communication.

Combining the principle of a differentiated approach with the principle of taking into account individual characteristics, the teacher becomes more free to choose teaching methods and various incentives that can support students' motivation and mental activity throughout the entire period of study. [7]

Psychologists have proven that the game "justifies" the transition to a new language. It is both an interesting type of work for the student and an analogue of language exercises for the teacher, thanks to which the skills of all types of speech activity are developed. But the new social order has influenced the revision of the goals of education in general and teaching English in particular. Until the last moment, the goal of schooling was the development of skills and abilities, now a new type of personality with 5 competencies is in demand:

social,

tolerance,

communicative,

information

competency that implements the desire to learn all my life. [4]

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 Aspects and features of using interactive teaching methods in English classes

 

2.1 Pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the strategy of interactive teaching methods in English classes

 

Changes in activity in the lesson caused by the use of active learning methods require the student to “enter into the unknown”: in his life experience neither new rules of activity, nor algorithms of actions are presented, his new status in a changed situation is not defined. Previously, he was completely subordinate to the teacher, but now he is expected to show manifestations of activity, expressing his thoughts, ideas and doubts; solving educational tasks and problems, often without a unique answer. The rules of interaction with the teacher and classmates, the norms of self-esteem, and the methods of analyzing their educational activities are subject to revision. All this the student has yet to discover, define and build.

In order for the process of adaptation to new working methods to begin and be successful, the student needs to go beyond the previous framework of the “comfort zone” (see the annex to Fig. 2), expand its boundaries, and feel safe in the new situation. Overcoming fears, insecurity about the new situation, understanding and acceptance by students of new requirements will, in turn, affect the effectiveness of its educational activities.

Business aspect Topic, content, concepts, tasks, time, assignments, control

Social- Fear, Insecurity, Sympathy,

Psychological dislikes, trust, tolerance,

aspect of intolerance, status, security

Scheme 1 "Iceberg"

To confirm this thesis, we turn to the “Iceberg” scheme, which shows that in the activity of any group of students, two aspects can be distinguished (business and socio-psychological), which are closely interrelated and affect the educational process.

The business aspect contains:

• students' work on the content of educational material;

• performance by them of various educational tasks;

• receiving and storing information.

This aspect, as it were, “lies on the surface,” therefore, in its activities, the teacher most often focuses on it: the student has learned the training material or not, performs the task or not, behaves in a disciplined way or not. If the teacher in his activity takes into account only the business aspect, then this threatens to result in a demand for the result "at any cost."

In this regard, we consider in more detail the socio-psychological aspect, which includes:

• desires and fears of students;

• feelings and experiences of students;

• likes and dislikes;

• an atmosphere of trust or mistrust;

• a sense of security.

 

The effectiveness of activities at the business level depends, first of all, on well-being in the socio-psychological aspect. [5, p.40-42]

The student is active if he is not afraid of the atmosphere of the class, consisting of various aspects of the teacher and himself. The student is active if the lesson is not criticized by the teacher or comrades, and the comments are constructive and relate primarily to the results of the activity. He feels safe if any contribution to the educational process is welcome. Only in the absence of fear of the new that the teacher offers him, the student will allow himself to experiment with patterns of behavior, finding the best option for his behavior in class, determining his role in the overall work, choosing and shaping his position, his point of view, “constructing” his knowledge.

Thus, in order to achieve a balance between the business and socio-psychological aspects of educational activities, it is necessary to create an atmosphere of comfort and security. A favorable psychological atmosphere, in our opinion, contributes to the gradual adoption by students of a new situation for them, created by interactive teaching methods.

The implementation of the active learning strategy in the educational process requires, in our opinion, the teacher to create certain conditions that provide various opportunities for the organization of the educational process. Such pedagogical conditions include:

1. The psychological atmosphere created in the audience;

2. The norms of collaboration worked out by the teacher together with the students; (see Attachment)

3. The type of communication implemented in the educational process;

4. Furniture arrangement, equipment for the classroom (see Appendix)

5. Various materials that the teacher and students can use in their activities in the classroom.

 

2.2 Features of the use of interactive methods at the initial stage of learning a foreign language.

 

The organization of a workable, communicative group, especially at the initial stage of training, is extremely important. The group should include both boys and girls belonging to different nationalities.

Before you organize small groups and offer them tasks, you need to carefully prepare the children for this, a new kind of activity for them. The task of the preparatory phase, as a rule, is to

• determine the level of psychological readiness of students to learn the new pedagogical technology;

• create conditions of psychological comfort and success situations for

students.

The technology of learning in cooperation, as a technology of developing learning, involves "awakening and launching" the needs for self-actualization, self-realization, self-improvement, that is, what we hope to develop in children. But this is difficult to do if the child has a low level of self-esteem, self-acceptance, an unmet need for love, understanding and acceptance from other people (teachers, classmates, etc.). Caring for a positive self-esteem and self-esteem of the child is one of the main concerns of a foreign school, in particular an American one, which developed self-esteem & cooperation courses, German with their famous psychological games Klaus Fopel, etc. By organizing interactive games with children, you can help children feel unity with others, teach them to think clearly, explore and analyze, make decisions - independently and in a group, develop openness and courage to express their attitude towards others, and also help to cope with their fears and stress, t .e those qualities and sides of character that they will need when working in a small group. As K. Fopel emphasizes, “the above goals may seem too complicated for a school, which many perceive, first of all, as a place where they gain knowledge. But along with the transfer of knowledge, the school’s task is to prepare children for independent life and their proper socialization.

“A situation of success does not arise where comparison of one child with another, comparison of one group with another is allowed: personality development proceeds unevenly, discretely, and some children with this comparison will always lose, supposedly lag behind the development of other children, and that means they’ll be deprived of a wonderful feeling of their strength and personal success. " Success is the key to a positive attitude to study, to work, to oneself, an incentive to work actively. [6, p. 18]

However, it is necessary to strive for the versatile activities of each student. One student cannot be offered the same role over a series of lessons. Communication at the level of equal partnerships promotes the exchange of knowledge, skills and abilities in the independent solution of the simplest communicative and cognitive tasks. Because. if students communicate within the group and groups with each other, to the extent possible, in a foreign language (using replicas in the mother tongue is allowed when performing the grammar assignment at the stage of skill formation, as well as when checking homework), then at the preparatory stage it is necessary not only to familiarize students with the stages work in small groups of cooperation and its specifics, but also to prepare students themselves for interaction in a foreign language, to familiarize themselves with the features of verbal communication. In order to help the teacher, samples of reminders for work in a small group for younger students can be offered. Memos are issued on sheets for individual use (each on a table), as well as on separate posters for placement in the classroom.

The organization of training in cooperation at the initial stage requires special preliminary training, taking into account the psychological characteristics of the interaction of students in small groups. In this regard, the preparatory phase is of great importance for students to become aware of the specifics of teaching on new technology, to identify motives for cooperation, the qualities of a partner, and create an atmosphere of psychological comfort for children. Based on the selected criteria for the formation of groups, the effectiveness of educational interaction is achieved in solving the problem. [13, p. 41-43]

 

2.3 Research Methodology

 

To confirm my hypothesis, I chose a lexico-grammatical test for research, which could fully provide me with objective results of children's knowledge. During the 6 weeks of my undergraduate practice, I was given five parallels of the sixth grade. I conducted my research in three stages.

All tests were based on approximate recommendations for the preparation of multilevel tasks for conducting control in a foreign language by type of speech activity. The test consisted of several levels in accordance with the ten-point system adopted in Belarus:

1. Low (receptive - 1-2 points)

2. Satisfactory (receptive-productive - 3-4 points)

3. Medium (reproductive and productive - 5-6 points)

4. Sufficient (productive - 7-8 points)

5. High (productive and creative - 9-10 points)

Tests were compiled during the practice, gradually capturing new topics and new vocabulary. The classes in which my study was conducted were not specialized, i.e. English was not a core subject in any of the classes. Children also had different levels of foreign language proficiency - some knew more than what was supposed to be on the program. Some children came to school only in this half-year, and in the previous school they studied another foreign language (German or French), which made it difficult to get the most objective indicators in assessing the knowledge of all students.

The first test was given to children on the first day of practice, the children had to show their current knowledge of grammar and knowledge of vocabulary. The objective of the next test was to show my level of teaching in various classes. And the task of the latter was to show whether the level of knowledge of a foreign language has increased. (see Attachment)

 

2.4 Analysis of the study.

 

The hypothesis of my research was that the use of an interactive approach in teaching foreign languages ​​effectively affects the level of speaking. After observing, I identified 2 classes in which I will use interactive teaching methods, and in the other three parallels, apply traditional training. And look at the result of students' knowledge in practice. What I did you can see in the table (given the average score for writing work for each class):

 

Class 6 "A" 6 "B" 6 "C" 6 "D" 6 "D"

the date of the

01/31/2007 3.6 5.1 6.4 6.3 7.1

16.02.2007 4.1 5.8 6.5 6.9 7.5

07.03.2007 4.5 6.2 6.7 6.5 7.4

 

Looking at this table, we can immediately note that in two weak classes there was progress in the marks. One can note the same progress in other classes, but not so much. Therefore, I consider my research to be successful and my hypothesis achieved.

Although, during my experiment, the children did not always realize that they were studying at the moment, and considered many of the methods I used to be entertainment or a game. There were also problems with discipline when organizing work in groups.

 

2.3 Methods that can be applied in practice:

 

  The Five by Five Method allows you to:

  simultaneously include students in the entire group;

   acquaint with a sufficiently large amount of training material for the lesson;

   develop students' spoken language;

   differentiate tasks in accordance with the level of preparedness of students;

  develop skills in working with text.

  Preparation and conduct

  The teacher selects the text and divides it into several (three to six) approximately equal in volume and finished in meaning parts. He organizes the arrangement of furniture in the office (the “Discussion Club” form, see Appendix) and divides students into small groups, the number of which corresponds to the number of semantic parts of the text. The number of students in groups should be the same and not exceed six.

  Groups are located at separate tables, each student receives one piece of text.

  The teacher offers to work individually over the course of 10 minutes on the content of the received part of the text. When working on the content, the student must carefully read the text in order to convey as accurately as possible its main meaning to other students in an arbitrary form (draws up a plan, theses, etc.).

  At the end of the work, students in each group are invited to settle in order and remember their numbers. Then new groups are formed: the first group is formed from the first numbers of all groups; the second - from the second numbers of all groups, etc. Thus,

  the formed groups consist of students, each of which owns one part of the text.

  Students are encouraged to present the content of the text in a group. Work lasts about 15-20 minutes, depending on the volume and complexity of the material.

  At the end of the work, students can ask questions to each other, the teacher also checks in the form of questions how the students understood the content of the entire text.

  The teacher can collect notebooks for examination in which students recorded the main points.

  Material support: educational text (text of paragraphs of textbooks), photocopies of the article.

  What you should pay attention to:

  • whether all students listen to each other during the presentation of parts of the text;

  • consider a specific mechanism for testing students' understanding of the entire text;

  • calculate the operating time at each stage of the method.

   

  Method "Polina, pizza, Prague" The method allows you to:

  • find out the names of students;

  • create a favorable atmosphere.

  Preparation and conduct

  The teacher offers each student to give their name, as well as a gastronomic dish and city. The name of the dish and city must begin with the first letter of the student’s name. For example, “My name is Polina, the dish is pizza, the city is Prague.”

   

  Method "Norms of work" The method allows you to:

  • organize students to work together to define

  general operating standards;

  • delegate part of the responsibility for success and effectiveness ¬

  the student’s work experience.

  Preparation and conduct

  The teacher hangs out two sheets of paper in the office (A1 format). On one sheet it is written: "It will help in work in the classroom ...", on the other: "In work in the classroom it can interfere ...".

  Each student receives two cards (one card - a quarter of a sheet of A4 format). On one card, the norm is fixed, which will facilitate joint work in the lesson, on the other, the norm, which can interfere.

  The teacher encourages each student to read out their standards and attach cards to the appropriate sheets of paper. The teacher can also suggest his own rules of work.

  After all students and the teacher have expressed their opinions, the general norms of work are determined. Each student approaches the sheets of paper and notes on each of them two norms that are most important to him. Then, the norms that receive the largest number of choices are written out on a separate sheet of paper (A1 format).

  In conclusion, the teacher suggests once again turning to work standards and expressing their attitude to them.

  Material support: sheets of paper (A1 format) - 3 pcs.; cards (or post-it) - two for each student; scotch tape, markers (felt-tip pens, pencils).

  What you should pay attention to:

  • the resulting list is not final. At the suggestion of students or the teacher, it can be supplemented or modified.

  Conclusions: Thus, the idea of ​​active learning requires “thinking through” and theoretical refinement. Today, active learning is reproached for the lack of a clear theoretical concept, for mixing under one name different approaches and methods (in particular, there is no generally accepted classification of methods).

  It is important to note one more important circumstance. Practicing teachers, using active learning methods, note the presence of certain barriers to their use. The article by C. K. Bonwell and T. E. Sutherland, Continuity of Active Learning: Choosing Activities to Enhance Student Learning in the Audience, identifies the following barriers when using active learning methods:

difficulty in presenting a large amount of material to

classes;

• active learning takes too much time to prepare a lesson;

• it seems impossible to use active methods

training in a large audience;

• the possibility of negative consequences: the attitude of colleagues to new

approaches; the impact of student grades on teacher work;

influence on promotion

There is one more barrier - this is students' resistance to new approaches and methods. Moreover, the more experience the students learn, the more resistance can be found in the classroom.

In my opinion, these barriers must be taken into account when planning your lesson and be prepared to make certain efforts to overcome them.

Yes, we can completely agree that interactive methods do not allow us to present a large amount of material in the classroom, possibly, with the exception of some options for an active lecture. But is it necessary? If we adhere to the values ​​of traditional education, then, of course, the amount of information in the lesson is important, and from the perspective of interactive learning, something else is more valuable - how the students gained knowledge of how they use it. After all, information can always be found in books and on the Internet yourself. Here, it is important for the teacher to decide for what purpose he uses the methods of active learning: so that students better remember the teaching material, but then this is an ordinary process of optimizing the traditional educational process, or is he ready for a serious and consistent change in his thinking and his activity, which in turn will lead to a change in the learning activities of students.

We can also agree that there are not always enough materials and sources, but this is not only a problem of interactive learning, because sources and materials are often not enough for traditional classes. Many methods of active learning do not require much material support, and, for example, the availability of textbooks in high school and arrangements with students partially remove the problem of the lack of opportunities for copying materials.

It is rather controversial that the opinion that to prepare for classes using active learning methods requires much more effort than with the traditional method of teaching. After all, the preparation of a high-quality traditional lecture or traditional lesson also requires time and intellectual effort. Although in the strategy of interactive teaching a teacher, in addition to organizing his activities, it is important to keep other planes in the field of attention (organization of students' activities, establishing communication between them, etc.), the new methods also have certain advantages. They help to solve two problems: to transfer part of the load during the training session from the teacher to the student and to share the responsibility for the final result between the students and the teacher equally.

To summarize, I would like to emphasize once again that the idea of ​​interactive learning is not relatively new. However, there is a danger of drowning in words and illusions, repeating the path of numerous fashionable pedagogical innovations that slightly “embellished”, modernized traditional teaching, and then they forgot, without seriously changing anything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Types of interactive learning used in English classes

 

3.1 The role of listening in teaching interactive communication in English classes

Listening is the understanding of listening to speech. It represents a perceptual mental mnemonic activity. Listening is the basis of communication, with it begins the mastery of oral communication. It consists of the ability to differentiate perceived sounds, integrate them into semantic complexes, keep them in memory during listening, carry out probabilistic forecasting and understand the perceived sound chain. [G.V. Rogova, I.N. Vereshchagin: 2000].

Some authors distinguish two types of listening:

• listening with full understanding

• listening to the main content of the heard

The understanding of speech by ear is closely related to speaking. "... In order to learn to understand speech, you must speak, and by how your speech will be accepted, judge your understanding. Understanding is formed in the process of speaking, and speaking in the process of understanding" (Zhinkin). Thus, listening prepares speaking, speaking helps the formation of perception of speech by ear.

Listening is also related to reading. They are united by belonging to receptive types of speech activity. Reading is a translation of a graphic language into a sound one. Reading - out loud or to oneself, a person as if hears a perceived text.

The closest way is connected with listening and writing. In the process of graphic design, a person speaks and hears what he writes.

Thus, being closely associated with other types of speech activity, listening plays an important role in the study of a foreign language, and especially in communicatively oriented learning. The modern methodology of teaching foreign languages ​​both in our country and in other countries emphasizes the need to form listening as a very important skill, without mastering which it is unthinkable to communicate in a language. Listening should occupy an important place already at the initial stage.

Mastering listening provides an opportunity to realize educational, educational and developmental goals. It allows you to teach students to carefully listen to the sound of speech, to form the ability to anticipate the semantic content of the statement and thus cultivate a listening culture not only in a foreign language, but also in their native language. The educational value of the formation of the ability to understand speech by ear, which at the same time has a developing effect on the child, is that it positively affects the development of the child’s memory, and, above all, auditory memory, which is so important not only for learning a foreign language, but and any other item.

Listening is a powerful tool for teaching a foreign language. It makes it possible to master the sound side of the language being studied, its phonemic composition and intonation: rhythm, stress, melody. Through listening is the assimilation of the lexical composition of the language and its grammatical structure. At the same time, listening makes it easier to master speaking, reading and writing.

Listening as a form of speech activity plays a large role at the initial stage in achieving practical, developmental, educational and educational goals, and serves as an effective means of teaching English in school.

3. 2 The content of learning to listen.

Linguistic component. In this case, attention is focused on working out the elements of the language. Children learn to distinguish sounds in isolation and in combinations, hear the difference, for example, [e] and [?], [S] and [?], Hear longitude and brevity, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sounds, rhythm, stress and intonation and their meaning- distinctive function.

Learning to understand words is carried out in speech units with widespread use of visibility. For example, students master the words big, small, short, long, round, square, etc. in the This is a big (small) box structure.

The psychological component is to bring the perception and understanding of English-speaking speech to the level of skill. An indispensable condition in this case is the concentration of attention on what the student should hear. It is necessary to develop the ability of students to perceive, understand and actively process the perceived, which is associated with the ability to divide the speech message into semantic pieces. For the initial stage, this is the ability of students in a perceived sound chain to hear and distinguish words.

No less important is the formation of the ability to keep in memory ever longer sound chains, that is, to develop auditory memory. First, children learn to keep in memory a word, phrase, then a sentence, and finally a few sentences.

The next important skill in listening to speech is the ability to distinguish, find the main idea of ​​a message, and separate the main information from the secondary. This is achieved by the ability to distinguish between communicative types of sentences: narrative, interrogative, incentive, etc. The methodological component is teaching students learning techniques to master listening perception of English. It is necessary to explain to students the importance of careful, focused listening to what is said in a foreign language, correlation of what they hear with a specific situation [G.V. Rogova, I.N. Vereshchagin: 2000].

 

3. 3 Psychological features of listening.

The term "listening" was coined by the American psychologist Brown. Listening is the understanding of listening to speech. It represents a perceptual mental mnemonic activity. Listening should occupy an important place already at the initial stage. Mastering listening provides an opportunity to realize educational, educational and developmental goals. It allows you to teach students to carefully listen to the sound of speech, to form the ability to anticipate the semantic content of the statement and thus, to cultivate a listening culture not only in a foreign language, but also in their native language. The educational value of the formation of the ability to understand speech by ear, lies in the fact that it positively affects the development of the child’s memory, especially auditory memory. Listening also contributes to the achievement of the educational goal, providing children with the opportunity to understand statements in the language of another people, in this case, in English. Listening also serves as a powerful tool for teaching a foreign language. It makes it possible to master the sound side of the language being studied, its phonemic composition and intonation: rhythm, stress, melody. For example, at the initial stage, the teacher teaches children to distinguish sounds in isolation and in combinations, for example, [e] and [?], [S] and [?], To hear longitude and brevity, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sounds. Through listening is the assimilation of the lexical composition of the language and its grammatical structure. So, for example, in grade 5, students through listening learn the words big, small, short, long, round, square and so on in the structure of This is a big (small ...) box. A check of understanding occurs when the child shows the corresponding subject or when gives a short answer. Thus, training is also provided for understanding structures of various types: affirmative, interrogative, negative. At the same time, listening makes it easier to master speaking, reading and writing.

Thus, listening plays a big role at the initial stage in achieving practical, developmental, educational and educational goals and serves as an effective means of teaching English in school. From a psychological point of view, the semantic perception of speech by ear is a perceptual, mental and mnemonic activity, which is carried out as a result of a number of complex logical operations, such as analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, comparison, specification, etc. Formation and recognition of images are phase the nature and, although, individual authors have discrepancies in the name and in determining the sequence of these phases, all the works emphasize the close relationship between the processes of formation and recognition Ania, ie perception and recognition [N.I. Geese: 1981]. Analyzing the features of recognition, psychologists point out that in most cases it does not have the nature of a developed conscious action; if such an action is possible, then it is observed only at the stage of image formation. As you familiarize yourself with the material, the recognition process changes, it is carried out instantly with the help of the necessary informative features. If these signs are not enough and recognition did not take place or turned out to be erroneous, then perception turns into a conscious perceptual action or into a series of sequential actions. Perceiving speech, the listener converts sound images into articulatory ones using a motor analyzer. A strong functional connection is established between the auditory and speech-motor analyzers. As for the visual analyzer, the optical signals are superior to all others in obtaining information about the outside world. When listening, the visual analyzer greatly facilitates the perception and understanding of speech by ear. Such visual supports as speech organs, gestures, facial expressions, kinema and others reinforce auditory sensations, facilitate internal speaking and understanding of the meaning of speech. At the initial stage of training, internal speech is particularly intense, and it can be considered as the main and necessary component of auditory perception. At an advanced stage, a reduction in motor activity is observed, which is explained by the strong combination of speech, auditory and visual analyzers in a single system. However, even at an advanced level of training, latent pronunciation is easily fixed in case of difficulties in understanding speech by ear and, if necessary, accurate memorization of the content. When listening to a phrase as one of the units of perception is understood not by analysis and subsequent synthesis of words, but as a result of recognition of informative features. The most informative sign is considered to be intonation, since it has "perceived qualities", thanks to which the auditor can segment speech into syntactic blocks, understand the relationship of the parts of the phrase, and, therefore, reveal the content. Intonation is assigned to such speech functions as communicative, syntactic, logical, modal. Performing them, the intonation hearing simultaneously produces indicator signs (standards) that are necessary for the successful activity of short-term memory [V.A. Artyomov: 1969].

Listening is associated with a complex process of searching and selecting informative features from a number of possible ones, which depends on the listener having associative relationships established as a result of language experience. At the same time, there is a “deceleration of the emergence of non-essential signs,” that is, side-links that are not relevant to the context. When perceiving speech in the native language, the selectivity of connections is easy, as for foreign language speech, the listener must operate not only with an active dictionary (the volume of which is not very small among high school students), but also passive, acquired during reading. The visual image of a word imprinted in memory is not always easily associated with auditory. In addition, there is a potential vocabulary that was not at all in the students ’language experience (words of foreign origin, compound or derivative words formed from affixes known to students). Passive and potential dictionaries are updated subjectively by the listener, depending on the topic, perception conditions, on the relationship between known and unknown tokens, on the ability to use the instant decision choice from a number of probabilistic hypotheses. Probabilistic forecasting is manifested at all levels of the language - from the syllable to the text, and the wider the context and the more complex the structure of the whole message, the more perception depends on the probabilistic assessment of the entire message. At the phonetic level, the success of anticipation is determined by knowledge of the probabilistic sound sequence and comes down to choosing the optimal sound decision. In short words, all sounds carry a greater informative load than in long ones. This explains, obviously, the special complexity of their recognition. The linguistic basis of forecasting at the level of phrases is also the types of syntactic connections, the ability to save traces of a series of words in memory slow down the premature conclusion about the meaning of the statement based on part of the sentence. Of particular difficulty are complex syntax constructs. To understand them, as A.R. Luria believes, an intermediate transformation is required that provides mental segmentation of complex phrases with simultaneous, rather than sequential, visibility of the whole structure. Prediction at the text level is associated with additional difficulties. Even an experienced auditor is not always able to hold all the information, combine disparate facts into a common context, understand the motives and hidden meaning of the message. This requires focus, interest in the subject of communication, a certain speed of mental processing of information. Based on the experimental data, two reasons can be distinguished that impede auditory perception and understanding: 1) the focus of students' attention only on the general content and inability to understand secondary, but extremely important for deeper understanding information; 2) too fast switching of attention from the linguistic form to the content. The second case is most typical for listening to complex or emotionally presented texts.

It seems that the difficulties of audio texts should always be slightly higher than the language capabilities of students at each particular moment of training. Only under such conditions will the listener try to use the operations of probabilistic choice and combination, rely on the context. In order for such listening to be successful, he should precondition a more thorough development of new material at the stage of explanation, as well as exercises in listening to microtexts (semantic pieces) with sound up to half a minute, which is about 50-70 words. Each listening should be accompanied by specific and feasible tasks. In order for the speech message to be correctly understood, the listener must hold words and phrases, associate at a particular moment with what he heard before, translate a sequential series of incoming signals at the same time. These functions are performed by random access memory, which is characterized by low accuracy and low noise immunity. Short-term and random access memory carry out a service role. They help the receipt of a part of information in long-term memory, and the success of this function depends on the qualitative and quantitative selection, on the method of introducing the material and securing it.

A game is a type of activity in conditions of situations aimed at reconstructing and assimilating public experience in which self-management by behavior develops and improves [20, C.49].

The structure of the game as an individual’s activity includes the following stages:

• goal setting;

• planning;

• implementation of the goal;

• analysis of the results in which the person fully realizes himself as a subject.

The motivation of gaming activity is provided by its voluntariness, choice possibilities and elements of competition, satisfaction of needs, self-affirmation, self-realization [25, C.96].

The structure of the game as a process includes:

• roles assumed by the players;

• game actions as a means of realizing these roles;

• game use of objects, that is, the replacement of real things with game, conditional;

• real relationships between the players;

• plot (content) - area of ​​reality, conditionally reproduced in the game.

The game is a type of activity in the conditions of situations aimed at the reconstruction and assimilation of social experience, in which self-management by behavior develops and improves.

Most games feature the following features:

• free developmental activity, undertaken only at the request of the child, for the sake of pleasure from the process of activity, and not just from the result (procedural pleasure);

• creative, largely improvised active nature of this activity (“field of creativity”);

• emotional elation, rivalry, competition, competition (“emotional stress”);

• the presence of direct or indirect rules that reflect the content of the game, the logical and temporal sequence of its development.

Determining the main function of the game is quite difficult. According to most researchers, games perform a training function in ontogenesis (in the same way as a safe way of mastering an action through a game among animals).

Childhood researchers - M. Mead, de Moz note that the games of children of primitive cultures, as a rule, are an imitation of professional actions of adults.

A. N. Leont'ev also adheres to this opinion. He notes that in the course of the child’s activities, a contradiction arises between the rapid development of his need for action with objects, on the one hand, and the development of operations that carry out this action, on the other. The child wants to drive a car himself, row on a boat, but cannot carry out this action because he does not own and cannot master the operations that are required by the real subject conditions of this action, and this contradiction can be resolved in the child in only one type activities - in the game [13, C.23].

However, there are other points of view on the function of the game in people's lives. So, V.N.Druzhinin believes that the main function of intelligence is the creation of prognostic models, the construction of possible options for the future. Then the game (the creation of probable worlds and actions with them) is one of the manifestations of intelligence, its inherent property. This property does not depend on age, it is just that “generation of world models” by adults is called differently - art, philosophy. And the more intelligent a person, the more he should be inclined to play.

L.S. Vygotsky back in the twenties of the last century drew attention to a change in the content and dynamics of children's play. He emphasized that the game is a reasonable and expedient, systematic, socially coordinated, system of behavior or expenditure of energy subject to well-known rules. In this way, she finds her complete analogy with the labor expenditure of energy by an adult, the signs of which completely coincide with the signs of the game, with the exception of only the results. Thus, with all the objective difference that exists between the game and the work, which even made it possible to consider them polar opposite to each other, their psychological nature completely coincides. This indicates that the game is a natural form of work of the child, his inherent form of activity, preparation for a future life. A child always plays, he is a creature playing, but his play makes a lot of sense. It exactly corresponds to his age and interests and includes such elements that lead to the development of the necessary skills and abilities [4, C.38].

Polish researcher Stefan Schumann notes that play is a characteristic and peculiar form of a child’s activity, thanks to which he learns and gains experience. Schumann pointed out the fact that the game induces the highest emotional experiences in the child and activates him in the most profound way. According to Schumann, the game can be perceived as a development process aimed in a peculiar way at the formation of observation, imagination, concepts and skills.

The game is so multifunctional, original, unique, its borders are so vast and transparent, that to give it any clear, concise definition is probably simply impossible. Many of the explanations of the game that science has are inaccurate, incomplete, and sometimes simply incorrect.

The game as a function of culture, along with work and learning, is one of the main activities of man. G. K. Selevko defines the game as “a type of activity in the conditions of situations aimed at reconstructing and assimilating public experience in which self-management by behavior develops and improves” [20, C.50].

Here are just some of the opinions of scientists on this issue. All points of view are diverse and contradictory. However, most researchers agree that in people's lives the game performs the following most important functions, the classification of which was given by A. S. Shmakov:

• function of socialization;

• function of interethnic communication;

• the child’s self-fulfillment function in the game as a “training ground for human practice”;

• the communicative function of the game clearly illustrates the fact that the game is a communicative activity that allows the child to enter the real context of the most complex human communications;

• diagnostic;

• therapeutic;

• correction function;

• entertaining [25, C.97].

The game is by nature very close to real life situations, and sometimes inseparable from them. Thanks to the dichotomy - a fictitious problem and real efforts to resolve it - the game allows you to simulate a sociocultural context, play various behaviors, adjust and then lose again. That in life it is difficult or impossible to correct (intercultural conflict or intercultural shock), you can play in the game again and again, developing strategies necessary to avoid this conflict [20, C.61].

The game is focused on group activity, which fully meets the needs of modern techniques. It is also easily transformed into various forms of individual activity, giving each student the opportunity to try themselves in one role or another and show individual abilities.

Due to its iconic nature, the game provides an almost unlimited opportunity for creating fictitious situations, problems, incidents, conflicts - all that requires verbal and non-verbal activity and which is absolutely necessary for the development of intercultural communication skills.

The communicative nature of the game also provides opportunities for developing communication skills. The need to comment on one’s and other people's actions, interact within a group, object, agree, express one’s opinion serves as the basis for the development of speech skills and communication strategies, which is necessary to initiate and maintain intercultural dialogue [13, C.47].

The use of the game contributes to the communicative and active nature of training, the psychological orientation of lessons on the development of students ’speech and cognitive activity by means of the language being studied, the optimization of students' intellectual activity in the educational process, the complexity of instruction, its intensification and the development of group work forms. It is obvious that the formation of speech skills and abilities should go under conditions as close as possible to those that can occur in natural communication, and the learning process itself should be based on solving a system of communicative tasks through language material. The means of pedagogical management of educational activities are communicative tasks, with the help of which the teacher invites and involves students in creative activities [11, C.56].

The superiority of the game over other teaching aids is found in the fact that it is able to provide not only an individual, but also a pair, group and collective form of work in the lesson, which allows each student to use the training time as efficiently as possible.

The game gives you the ability to navigate in real life situations, losing them repeatedly in your fictional world. It gives psychological stability. Relieves anxiety. It develops an active attitude towards life and determination in fulfilling the set goal.

Based on this, we can say that the technology of game teaching methods is aimed at teaching students to be aware of the motives of their teachings, their behavior in the world and in life, that is, to formulate goals and programs of their own independent activities and anticipate its immediate results [21, C .63].

A communicative approach to teaching foreign languages ​​requires the necessary differentiation of knowledge of various language rules and the ability to effectively apply these rules in the communication process [14, C.68]. The main concepts of this approach are presented by the following paradigm:

• main focus is on communicative competence;

• the curriculum takes into account the interests of students;

• The responsibility for the learning process lies with both the teacher and the students;

• authenticity of materials and real world problems to be solved;

• eye contact during communication;

• independence and cooperation in training;

• installation for success [14, C.83].

As a result of the introduction of this approach, the motivation of students and their self-confidence is growing.

Activity tasks for communicatively-oriented teaching of foreign languages ​​are built on the basis of game, imitation and free communication.

The following types of tasks are distinguished:

• communication games (communication games);

• communicative simulations (role-plays and problem-solving);

• free communication (socialization) [23, C.123].

A game is a communicative activity, although by purely game rules it is concrete. She introduces the child into the real context of complex human relationships. Children absolutely need a common dream, a common desire to be together, the experience of collective experiences. Any gaming society is a team acting in relation to each player as an organizing and communicative principle, having a huge number of communicative connections. Children in the game converge quickly, and any participant integrates the experience gained from other players. Entering the team’s game, the child assumes a number of moral obligations to partners [14, C.85]. Communication should be considered as the main energy source of the game. In joint communicative games, an active increase in vital energy is observed as a result of game interaction, empathy, and competition. Many games of children are distinguished primarily by their collective nature; carry a charge of communicative activity, communication, which transmit from generation to generation collective social experience, traditions, values ​​and ideals. In the play activities of children, there are absolutely real social relations that develop between the players [9, C.32].

There are 2 main types of games:

• competitive - games in which players or teams compete, compete to be the first to achieve the goal;

• cooperative - games in which players and teams go together towards a common goal [15, C.41].

Communicative games are a type of cooperative games, since adversarial elements or games in which emphasis is placed on speed of execution violate the correct use of the language.

 

Communicative games should be distinguished from linguistic games:

Communicative games Linguistic games

Organization of unprepared communication. Solving linguistic problems.

Performing a specific task (drawing a route on a map, filling out a diagram, diagram) Correct construction of a sentence structure (using a language)

Successful Communication Correct Speech

 

From this table it follows that the main goal of communicative games is not to solve linguistic problems, but to organize unprepared communication. Successful completion of a communicative game consists in completing a specific task (plotting a route on a map, filling out a diagram, diagram, or finding two matching pictures) rather than correctly building a sentence structure (using a language).

The communicative game should be used on previously developed and brought to automatism language material. At the early stage of teaching a foreign language, this condition is mandatory, otherwise the communicative game will be unbearable, and as a result, meaningless. Based on this, at present, the three-part form of communicatively-oriented tasks (three-phase frame-work) is becoming more widespread [16, C.45]. Almost any task can be performed in three stages:

• preparatory (pre-activity);

• executive (while-activity);

• final (post-activity) [11, C.72].

Games should be attributed to a substantial part of the language program, and not to the entertainment activities used in the last week of classes or at the end of the quarter.

The game is a diagnostic tool for the teacher, allowing you to determine the most difficult moments, the degree of assimilation of the material, and, therefore, take all measures to eliminate them.

Communication games are based on various technologies, such as filling in gaps, guessing, searching, matching the same pair, exchanging, accumulating or collecting, combinations and card games, problems and puzzles, role-playing games and reproduction.

Communicative games include work in pairs, groups large and small, and a whole class, while participants should be able to move freely around the room.

The role of the teacher in the game: monitoring, the resource center, the teacher must move from group to group, listen, provide the necessary information (that is, provide language assistance) to notice errors, but not interrupt or correct. Make notes on paper.

The communicative game promotes intensive language practice, creates contact, on the basis of which the language is acquired more meaningfully [1, C.31].

At a young age, the formation of the ability to communicate in a foreign language is associated not only with the development of grammatical, lexical and phonetic structures, but with the implementation of practical, substantive actions and expression of emotions, which are accompanied by adequate statements in English [22, C.73].

The main characteristics of the age stages of the formation of language ability are as follows:

• Awareness at a level accessible to children that there are people who speak another language. And this means that their life is arranged somehow differently than the life that children see around them; they say different words and do not understand what we say, they read other books, they live in other cities, in other houses, watch other films, children play other games. This is different because it is interesting that it turns out that one can live differently;

• this stage is characterized in the assimilation of the language by the fact that the primary ability to distinguish the language is formed, to distinguish it from the native and other foreign, if it is surrounded by the child;

• It is important to realize that other people are somewhat similar to us. Although they live and communicate differently, the laws of their life and communication somewhat coincide with the usual ones: they also greet each other when they meet, take care of each other, and ask how they are doing;

• the formation of the ability to “see” the situation of communication (this also happens in the native language), to distinguish the actors and what they said, they understood each other or not, how their interlocutors reacted;

• the formation of the ability to understand, “read” the situation not only by words, but also by gestures, by facial expressions, by pose, if it is a book or a film, then by illustrations. In this and the previous stages, what is usually called the linguistic conjecture, which is considered to be originally existing in children, is formed;

• formation of the ability to distinguish in a language, the ability to highlight individual phrases, then words in them, to use them appropriately to the situation;

• the formation of the ability not only to single out individual words, to understand their place and meaning in a whole phrase, but also to independently construct phrases in accordance with the meaning that needs to be conveyed [8, C.72].

Work on language acquisition by a child should affect work with unconscious, associative perception of language by children and be related to the overall development of the child. At a young age, it is important that children enjoy speaking a foreign language. Since they still have difficulty building their own statements, children in a foreign language can

reproduce (songs, poems, tongue twisters, games), which determines the degree of mastery of a foreign language [5, C.67].

The modern teaching methodology, in particular, the English language is characterized by an approach in which songs and rhymes are specially created by the authors of training courses as a means of consolidating lexical and grammatical units and structures.

With this approach, younger children rather quickly begin to accompany their actions and emotions with statements in English [7, C.69].

Students' interest in classes is one of the conditions for good performance. Therefore, it is very important that the foreign language lesson is interesting. An interesting lesson - of course, this is the selection of interesting material with entertaining content; and the mastery of the teacher, manifested primarily in the methods of conducting classes; this is the problem of the correlation of theory and practice; and pace of conducting classes. Undoubtedly, there are many other factors that increase students' interest in learning a foreign language, among which gaming technologies play an important role in the process of teaching foreign languages, especially at the younger stage of training.

At the initial stage of language learning, students work with great interest. This is because, starting to learn the language, students imagine that they will immediately speak it. But the oral forms of work and the intense pace for 45 minutes tire the students, their attention weakens, and by the end of the lesson (especially if this is the last lesson) they stop working, which leads to poor memorization of the language material studied in the lesson. In this case, games and various rhymes come to the rescue [2, C.54].

Games have wide learning opportunities. Many outstanding teachers rightly drew attention to the effectiveness of the use of games in the learning process, since the ability of a person, and a child in particular, is manifested especially fully and sometimes unexpectedly.

Playing in the process of teaching foreign languages ​​ceases to be just a fun action and becomes a serious matter. Indeed, it is used only as a means of amusement, entertainment, relaxation, relaxation, then its use is minimal. The game is just a shell, a form; its content and purpose should be teaching, in our case, mastery of the types of speech activity as a learning tool [21, C.73].

The specificity of the game, according to M. N. Skatkin, is that "the educational tasks appear before the child not in an explicit form, but are masked." While playing, the child does not pose a learning task, but as a result of the game he “learns” something. Therefore, to set a goal - to relax, switch - there is no need; the nature of the game as such will do its job.

A very interesting definition of a “game” is given by M. F. Stronin in his teacher’s manual: “A game is a specially organized lesson that requires tension of emotional and mental strength”. The game always involves a decision: what to do, what to say, how to win - the desire to solve these issues aggravates the mental activity of the players. Especially at a young age, the game is the leading activity of the child [7, C.69]. Features of the child in the game:

• statement about yourself (I);

• a statement about another child (you);

• statement about objects, phenomena (world);

• description of the main actions (here I am now, what are you doing);

• dramatization of the action (right, good, bad);

• the desire to help express a request (give, help) [17, C.53].

And if the child at the same time will speak English, then rich educational opportunities are hidden here. Children, however, do not think about this. For them, the game is, above all, an exciting experience. This is what attracts teachers and teachers of a foreign language. In the game everyone is equal. She is feasible even to weak students. Moreover, a poorly trained student may be the first in the game: resourcefulness and quick wit here sometimes turn out to be more important than knowledge of the subject. A sense of equality, an atmosphere of confidence and joy, a sense of feasibility of tasks - all this allows the children to overcome the shyness that prevents them from freely using the words of a foreign language in their speech and has a beneficial effect on the learning outcomes. The linguistic material is imperceptibly assimilated, and at the same time a feeling of satisfaction arises - “it turns out, I can already speak on a par with everyone” [10, C.47].

Thus, the main methods of teaching students (especially young children) to speak foreign languages ​​are playing and learning songs and poems (which also happens in a playful way). All this contributes to the implementation of such methodological tasks as:

• creating children's psychological readiness for verbal communication;

• ensuring the natural need for repeated repetition of language material;

• training students in choosing the right speech option, which is a preparation for situational spontaneity in general [19, C.49].

At the initial stage of language learning, students work with great interest. This is because, starting to learn the language, students imagine that they will immediately speak it. But the oral forms of work and the intense pace for 45 minutes tire the students, their attention weakens, and by the end of the lesson (especially if this is the last lesson) they stop working, which leads to poor memorization of the language material studied in the lesson. In this case, games and various rhymes come to the rescue [2, C.54].

Games have wide learning opportunities. Many outstanding teachers rightly drew attention to the effectiveness of the use of games in the learning process, since the ability of a person, and a child in particular, is manifested especially fully and sometimes unexpectedly.

Playing in the process of teaching foreign languages ​​ceases to be just a fun action and becomes a serious matter. Indeed, it is used only as a means of amusement, entertainment, relaxation, relaxation, then its use is minimal. The game is just a shell, a form; its content and purpose should be teaching, in our case, mastery of the types of speech activity as a learning tool [21, C.73].

The specificity of the game, according to M. N. Skatkin, is that "the educational tasks appear before the child not in an explicit form, but are masked." While playing, the child does not pose a learning task, but as a result of the game he “learns” something. Therefore, to set a goal - to relax, switch - there is no need; the nature of the game as such will do its job.

A very interesting definition of a “game” is given by M. F. Stronin in his teacher’s manual: “A game is a specially organized lesson that requires tension of emotional and mental strength”. The game always involves a decision: what to do, what to say, how to win - the desire to solve these issues aggravates the mental activity of the players. Especially at a young age, the game is the leading activity of the child [7, C.69]. Features of the child in the game:

• statement about yourself (I);

• a statement about another child (you);

• statement about objects, phenomena (world);

• description of the main actions (here I am now, what are you doing);

• dramatization of the action (right, good, bad);

• the desire to help express a request (give, help) [17, C.53].

And if the child at the same time will speak English, then rich educational opportunities are hidden here. Children, however, do not think about this. For them, the game is, above all, an exciting experience. This is what attracts teachers and teachers of a foreign language. In the game everyone is equal. She is feasible even to weak students. Moreover, a poorly trained student may be the first in the game: resourcefulness and quick wit here sometimes turn out to be more important than knowledge of the subject. A sense of equality, an atmosphere of confidence and joy, a sense of feasibility of tasks - all this allows the children to overcome the shyness that prevents them from freely using the words of a foreign language in their speech and has a beneficial effect on the learning outcomes. The linguistic material is imperceptibly assimilated, and at the same time a feeling of satisfaction arises - “it turns out, I can already speak on a par with everyone” [10, C.47].

Thus, the main methods of teaching students (especially young children) to speak foreign languages ​​are playing and learning songs and poems (which also happens in a playful way). All this contributes to the implementation of such methodological tasks as:

• creating children's psychological readiness for verbal communication;

• ensuring the natural need for repeated repetition of language material;

• training students in choosing the right speech option, which is a preparation for situational spontaneity in general [19, C.49].

Conclusion: we define the basic requirements for the organization of gaming activities:

• confidential and relaxed atmosphere;

• joint activities of the teacher and student;

• the game should be based on material known and practiced by students;

• adherence to the method from simple to complex, such as: building independent statements based on a sample with the transition to independent unprepared statements;

• awareness of what is happening on the part of the students;

• the presence of a novelty element in each game;

• focus on achieving a game result;

• collective work of students on a problem;

• compliance of the game with moral education;

• encouragement and praise for each participant in the game;

• Mandatory debriefing of the game.

 

3.4 Communicative games as one of the methods of interactive learning English

 

3.4.1 Types of communicative games

 

Communicative techniques are used in communicative games, in which students solve communicative-cognitive tasks using the studied foreign language. Therefore, the main goal of communicative games is the organization of foreign language communication in the course of solving the communicative task or problem.

Communicative games have a high degree of visibility and allow you to activate the studied language material in speech situations, simulating and imitating the real process of communication.

A communicative game is an educational task that includes linguistic, communicative and activity tasks.

The solution of a language problem involves the formation or improvement of speech skills in the process of purposeful use of a given language material in speech activity. The communicative task is to exchange information between the participants in the game in the process of joint activity [23, C.125].

6) Communicative games, which are based on the ranking technique.

This technique involves the distribution of certain objects in order of importance, the importance of their preference. During the game, discussion usually arises, since there are differences in points of view when ranking information, and students justify their choice in pairs or groups.

The following game options are possible:

• the student works independently, writes down his solution to the problem, then these solutions are discussed in pairs or groups;

• students in small groups are trying to find a common solution that they will have to justify in the final general discussion;

• All students whose answers are the same are gathered in groups to give as many arguments as possible in defense of their option.

For instance:

Students are offered 5-6 thematically related nouns and 4-5 adjectives that convey their possible qualities. For example, adjectives “sweet”, “bitter” and so on can be selected for nouns on the topic “Food”. The lexical material is presented in the form of a table:

 

Food

bitter tasty healthy sour sweet

Apple

water

carrot

potatoes

meat

porridge

 

In accordance with these criteria, students rank objects or phenomena, and then discuss their options in groups. For example, if they think meat is the healthiest food, they put the number 1 in the “meat” column. Then choose the product that is the least useful, and put the number 2 in the table opposite it, and so on, until all the columns of the table are filled [17, C.55].

2) Communicative games based on the deliberate creation of differences in the amount of information among students, that is, are based on the principle of an information gap (information gap).

This technique involves the uneven distribution of certain information between communication partners, which stimulates their speech activity and a desire to find out unknown facts. The exchange of information may be one-way or two-way. In the first case, one of the partners has access to certain information that the second does not possess. The task of the second participant is to obtain the missing information in order to successfully complete the task. In the second case, the students ’speech interaction consists in the fact that both participants in the game have partial information that they must combine to solve a common problem [12, C.32].

For example: The Day Orders of Ann and Jane

In this game, students ask and answer questions about the two girls' daily routines using the following cards:

 

A card for Student A

Jane

Ann

 

A card for Student B

Jane

Ann

…gets up at … o’clock

7

 

 

…gets up at … o’clock

 

7:30

Afterwards she…

 

cleans her teeth

 

Afterwards she…

takes shower

 

At 8 o’clock she…

 

has her breakfast

 

At 8 o’clock she…

drinks coffee

 

At 8:30

…goes to school

 

 

At 8:30

 

…goes for a walk with her dog

She has lessons at school from…to…

from 8:55 to 13:10

 

 

She has lessons at school from…to…

 

from 10:20 to 14:35

She comes home at…

14:00

 

 

She comes home at…

 

15:15

Then she…

 

watches TV

 

Then she…

plays with her friends

 

When her parents come…

They have their dinner together

 

 

When her parents come…

 

They go to the café

goes to bed at…

 

9 p.m.

 

goes to bed at…

10:30 p.m.

 

3) Games involving grouping or selection of suitable options.

In this case, each student receives one piece of information and must find the missing from the communication partner. This technique can be used in the preparation of sentences, stories, dialogues from disparate remarks based on given parts.

For instance:

Jokers in the pack. (Comic cards)

To conduct this game, you need to print initiative and response lines on separate cards and distribute them to students.

For instance:

 

1. Mum, will the pancakes be long?

A. It is swimming.

2. Which is faster, heat or cold?

В. No, dear, round.

3. What is fly doing in my soup?

С. Heat, because you can catch cold.

 

The task of the participants in the game is to find the second replica of the joke and play it. You can give an additional task: to determine the most witty joke or the best couple who staged their joke [24, C.46].

4) Games to find a pair and coordinate actions.

Each student in the group has his own pair, which he does not know about and which he must find by asking questions to other participants in the game.

For example: Meet your partner. (Meet a friend)

The teacher offers the participants to make a trip at a certain time, observing the given conditions. For instance:You can go

 

to France

for a fortnight

to England

for a month

2) by air

4) in spring

by car

in summer

by train

in autumn

1) to Italy

3) for a week

 

The task of the participants in the game is to find a companion. To this end, first everyone chooses the conditions suitable for him, and then he approaches the participants in the game one by one, asking about their interests and plans, and tries to convince them to go with him. The game can continue until most find a mate.

5) Interview.

The purpose of this technique is to interview as many participants as possible in order to find out their opinions, opinions, answers to the questions posed.

The interview is preceded by the compilation of a questionnaire in the form of a table in which the answers are recorded.

For instance:

Name

Favorite books?

Favorite activities?

Kate

books about animals

swimming

Olga

fairy tales

playing the piano

 

The task is to find out what your classmates love to read and study in their free time.

To interview your classmates as much as possible, you should organize the game in a circle. Participants form the outer and inner circles, find a mate and interview each other. Then the students in the outer circle go to the next participant in a clockwise direction. And this happens until all participants in the game are interviewed.

6) Role-playing games.

The situation of role-based communication is an incentive for the development of spontaneous speech associated with the solution of certain problems and communicative tasks. The participants in the game must be placed in such conditions under which it is necessary to find out the social, emotional and cognitive aspects of interpersonal relationships.

For a role-playing game, a single plot is necessary, corresponding to the communicative situation and role relations between the participants in communication. When a student takes on a role, he plays himself or a hero in a specific situation.

For example: Famous people. (Prominent people.)

Each student chooses a celebrity, which he can talk about in the first person, without giving his name. The rest ask him questions:

• Are you a man or a woman?

• What do you do?

• What is the color of your hair?

The task of the "celebrity" is to answer questions somewhat vaguely, so that his role is not so quickly guessed. If the students know who they are talking about, they write the name on a piece of paper and give it to the teacher. When several correct answers are given, the teacher stops the game and gives the name of the student who first gave the correct answer [23, C.126]. Summing up can be carried out in the form of a discussion of the following issues:

• Was it difficult for to guess?

• How did you guess the name so quickly?

 

·    3.4.2 Developing a series of communicative games

 

·    At the English lesson I visited in grade 3 “B”, the teacher used the communicative game “the Treasure Island” (“Treasure Island”) to repeat and consolidate the lexical material (color names and words relating to nature) and update knowledge on such topics, as “simple present tense”, “general and special questions” and “prepositions”. In a previous lesson, these topics were repeated in a traditional way.

·    The group was divided into two teams of five people. Both teams had contour maps depicting a desert island. Information on the map of one team was not on the map of the other. The participants, asking each other questions, tried to find all the dangers awaiting them and put the corresponding signs on the empty squares of their cards.

·    Not all students immediately joined the game. But when the children realized that the teacher was not making any comments, even if the mistake, phonetic, lexical, or grammatical, was obvious, those who remained confidently entered into the discussion. There was a complete understanding, despite the mistakes. Sometimes the students themselves corrected each other.

·    All this time, the teacher only watched the game and made notes in a notebook.

·    Both teams did a good job.

·    The rest of the lesson (and the game took about twenty minutes), the teacher devoted to an oral frontal survey of these words and topics. If the student was mistaken, another student helped him.

·    As a result, the lexical material was acquired almost completely. Minor bugs related to grammar.

·    From the analysis of this communicative game, we can conclude that when learning a foreign language, it is necessary to create positive conditions for active and free participation of the person in activities. These conditions are as follows:

·    • students are given the opportunity to freely express their thoughts and feelings in the process of communication;

·    • each participant in group communication remains in the focus of attention of the others;

·    • self-expression of a person becomes more important than a demonstration of linguistic knowledge;

·    • encouraged albeit contradictory, paradoxical, even “wrong” judgments, but testifying to the independence of students, their active position;

·    • communication participants feel safe from criticism, prosecution for mistakes and punishments;

·    • the use of language material is subordinate to the task of individual speech design;

·    • linguistic material corresponds to the speech-cognitive abilities of the speaker;

·    • Relationships are built on valuelessness, uncriticality (empathy and understanding of the experiences of others).

·    Moreover, speech errors should be considered not only possible, but also normal. Spoken grammar allows certain deviations from the grammar of written language.

·    Based on this, a good recommendation for any teacher will be a reminder that when creating and forming communicative tasks, great ingenuity is needed. It is important to build them on the fascinating material of reality, mobilizing students' imagination as well. The teacher should accumulate a “bank of facts”, a kind of collection of amazing cases that can be turned into tasks that increase the tone of communication, stimulating speech-writing.

·    In the course of teaching English to third-grade students in teaching materials, I. N. Vereshchagina, T. A. Pritykina, the following games can be used as a repetition, consolidation, or control at the end of each quarter:

·    1) By the end of the first quarter, students should know the names of the days of the week, seasons, and months; repeat lexical material on the topics: "Food" and "Animals"; learn the grammatical construction of "There is / there are."

·    In this case, you can suggest the Talking volleyball game ("Talk and Volleyball").

·    For the game you need: a jump rope, a whistle and a balloon.

·    General rule: each time touching the ball, the student must say either a word or a sentence.

·    How to play: you need to divide the students into two teams, choose captains. To prepare a place for the game, you need to arrange desks and pull the rope.

·    When the teams occupy their part of the site, the teacher (referee) announces the following rules:

·    • Each time, beating the ball, you need to pronounce either a word on the theme of the first quarter, or a sentence using the construction “there is / there are”. It is impossible to repeat; when replaying, the point is awarded to the opposing team. For example, a teacher might say, “Beating a ball, name the words that refer to animals.” Suddenly, the teacher may change the subject and ask them to make sentences using words from the subject “Food”. To complicate the task, the teacher asks you to name sentences using the construction “There is / there are” and words on the topic “Seasons”.

The ball must be beaten off immediately - preferably, do not hold it in your hands. This rule exists so that students respond quickly without hesitation.

• The team loses points if the ball falls to the floor; the student beats the ball without saying anything.

So that the game does not focus only on a few students, there is a rule that the batter must step back - so all children are involved in the game. If a child practically does not participate in the process, the teacher has the right to intervene by pointing the ball towards this student.

2) At the end of the second quarter, it is necessary to check the ability to count, name the time on the clock and knowledge of vocabulary on the topic "My day order". Also in this quarter, children are introduced to the simple past tense.

You can offer the Detective Story game ("game in detectives"). Two “detectives” are chosen, the rest are “suspects”. “Suspects” are dealt cards; one of them says: “I broke a cup yesterday at 7:45”, the rest of the cards are blank. "Detectives" must find out, "who broke the cup yesterday." They may ask questions such as “What did you do at ... o’clock?”, “Who played the football at ... o’clock?”, “What time did you come back home?” - that is, any questions indicating the exact time. Each suspect is responsible in accordance with his daily routine. The game ends when the "detective" asks a question, calling (in this case) the time is 7:45. The "culprit" (the one who came across a card with the words "I broke a cup yesterday at 7:45") must confess.

3) Since in the third quarter, students learn vocabulary on the topic “Appearance and clothes” and learn to ask questions such as “What color ...?”, “What kind of ...?”, It would be advisable to play A right-hand sitting friend of mine ("My friend sitting on the right" The name of the game can not be called.).

The meaning of the game is that several people from the class are selected and asked to leave - they become guessing. The rest should sit around. Everyone, answering the guessing questions, must describe the appearance and clothes of the person sitting to his right. The guesser enters the class and becomes the center of the circle. He is told that he can ask any questions in order to name the one who has been guessed. The game ends if he understands what is the point, or, having interviewed everyone in a circle, cannot name the conceived person. In this case, he becomes an observer, and the next guesser is invited to the classroom.

This game is feasible for younger students, since in the third year of learning English, students, in accordance with the requirements of the state educational standard, must be able to conduct a dialogue-inquiry (ask the interlocutor, asking simple questions, and answer the interlocutor's questions) in typical situations of everyday communication ( the amount of dialogical utterance is three or four remarks on each side). And the volume of the monologue of third-graders should reach five phrases.

4) As an elaboration and consolidation of the times of Past Simple, Future Simple and vocabulary on the topic “My plans for the summer” at the end of the last quarter, you can play the Dice Game (Dice Game).

The teacher brings a large soft toy in the form of a dice. Pupils sit in a circle and take turns tossing this toy (in other words, throwing dice). The number on the cube indicates the number of facts about the past summer and future plans that the student must tell. Or he can ask his classmates a given number of questions. At the end of the game, everyone should tell as many facts about the plans of their classmates as they recall.

Thus, in addition to educational opportunities, this game brings together a children's team, develops attention and memory.

Communicative games enable the student to speak more and more freely. The child learns the very meaning of communication - to be understood and understand for himself. Mistakes are perceived not as a threat of a poor assessment, but as a normal phenomenon that can be worked out and corrected.

Conclusions: In the course of the study, it was possible to solve the tasks and draw the following conclusions:

1) The game creates an emotional background, important for the emergence of a positive attitude to the pedagogical process itself, the teacher and his tasks. In addition, in the game the difficulties of fulfilling the requirements and rules are overcome by the child willingly and with pleasure; the schoolboy is motivated for educational activities.

2) For primary school age, brightness and immediacy of perception, ease of entry into images are characteristic. Children are easily involved in any activity, especially a game, organize themselves in a group game, continue to play with objects, toys, non-simulation games appear. In the game model of the educational process, the creation of the problem situation occurs through the introduction of the game situation: the problem situation is lived by the participants in its game embodiment, the basis of the activity is game modeling, part of the students' activity takes place in the conditional game plan.

The guys act according to the game rules. The game environment also transforms the position of the teacher, which balances between the role of the organizer, assistant and accomplice in the general action.

The results of the game come in a double plan - as a game and as an educational and cognitive result. The didactic function of the game is realized through a discussion of the game action, an analysis of the relationship of the game situation as a modeling one, its relationship with reality. The most important role in this model belongs to the final retrospective discussion, in which students jointly analyze the course and results of the game, the ratio of the game (imitation) model and reality, as well as the course of the educational-game interaction. The effectiveness of games depends, firstly, on their systematic use, and secondly, on the focus of the game program in combination with ordinary exercises.

3) The game helps communication. It can contribute to the transfer of accumulated experience, the acquisition of new knowledge, the correct assessment of actions, the development of a person’s skills, perception, memory, thinking, imagination, emotions, such traits as collectivism, activity, discipline, observation, attentiveness. If you find the right approaches, learning from a complex and tedious need can turn into a fascinating world of an unfamiliar language. One of these approaches is the game, the strongest factor in the child’s psychological adaptation in the new language space, which can solve the problem of the child’s natural non-violent introduction into the language world. Games help to realize the child’s desire to learn further, develop the ability to independently solve the task, organize their work, give their own assessment and self-esteem, the ability to compare, classify, choose the main and filter out secondary information, use additional material. From this we can conclude that all five competencies of a modern person (social, tolerance, communicative, informational and competence that implements the desire to learn all my life) can be developed in the process of using games.

4) Communicative games are necessary exercises for teaching a foreign language, as they bring the process of activating lexical and grammatical material closer to the conditions of real communication. In addition, these exercises help increase student motivation and activity in the classroom. This means that students will be able to master a new means of communication, that is, acquire communication skills using the language they are learning.

5) A communicative game, in contrast to ordinary training exercises that allow you to focus on game forms, concentrates students on the content, but at the same time ensures frequent repeatability of language forms, training all skills.

6) Communicative games have a high degree of visibility, as they give the game participant the opportunity to feel the language as a means of communication. The desire of students to communicate is achieved by creating a teacher specific situations in which language is needed. Communicative games provide a variety of linguistic themes due to the situation of communication, everyday life. The communicative game in the methodological plan is an educational task containing a task that is divided into three smaller ones: linguistic, communicative and active. It is important to observe the principle of the gradual complication of assignments and to direct students first to actions according to the model, then to actions by analogy with the model and, finally, to independent actions of a creative nature.

From an analysis of the psychological, pedagogical and methodological literature on the topic of research and the included observation of the activities of students of grade 3 “B” of the gymnasium No. 139 of Kazan, it can be concluded that in game situations, children memorize twice as many words as with a standard setting . The game, putting forward meaningful tasks for the child, contributes to the activation of voluntary memorization. At the same time, it can serve as the basis for involuntary memorization of a given speech material and its further involuntary reproduction.

The sensible use of gaming techniques in the lessons and their combination with other methodological techniques contributes to the effective and high-quality assimilation of the material and makes the learning process itself, which becomes a necessity, joyful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

Thus, the idea of ​​active learning requires “thinking over” and theoretical refinement. Today, active learning is reproached for the lack of a clear theoretical concept, for mixing under one name different approaches and methods (in particular, there is no generally accepted classification of methods).

It is important to note one more important circumstance. Practicing teachers, using active learning methods, note the presence of certain barriers to their use. The article by C. K. Bonwell and T. E. Sutherland, Continuity of Active Learning: Choosing Activities to Enhance Student Learning in the Audience, identifies the following barriers when using active learning methods:

• difficulty in presenting a large amount of material to

classes;

• active learning takes too much time to prepare a lesson;

• it seems impossible to use active methods

training in a large audience;

• the possibility of negative consequences: the attitude of colleagues to new

approaches; the impact of student grades on teacher work;

influence on promotion

There is one more barrier - this is students' resistance to new approaches and methods. Moreover, the more experience the students learn, the more resistance can be found in the classroom.

In my opinion, these barriers must be taken into account when planning your lesson and be prepared to make certain efforts to overcome them.

Yes, we can completely agree that interactive methods do not allow us to present a large amount of material in the classroom, possibly, with the exception of some options for an active lecture. But is it necessary? If we adhere to the values ​​of traditional education, then, of course, the amount of information in the lesson is important, and from the perspective of interactive learning, something else is more valuable - how the students gained knowledge of how they use it. After all, information can always be found in books and on the Internet yourself. Here, it is important for the teacher to decide for what purpose he uses the methods of active learning: so that students better remember the teaching material, but then this is an ordinary process of optimizing the traditional educational process, or is he ready for a serious and consistent change in his thinking and his activity, which in turn will lead to a change in the learning activities of students.

We can also agree that there are not always enough materials and sources, but this is not only a problem of interactive learning, because sources and materials are often not enough for traditional classes. Many methods of active learning do not require much material support, and, for example, the availability of textbooks in high school and arrangements with students partially remove the problem of the lack of opportunities for copying materials.

It is rather controversial that the opinion that to prepare for classes using active learning methods requires much more effort than with the traditional method of teaching. After all, the preparation of a high-quality traditional lecture or traditional lesson also requires time and intellectual effort. Although in the strategy of interactive teaching a teacher, in addition to organizing his activities, it is important to keep other planes in the field of attention (organization of students' activities, establishing communication between them, etc.), the new methods also have certain advantages. They help to solve two problems: to transfer part of the load during the training session from the teacher to the student and to share the responsibility for the final result between the students and the teacher equally.

To summarize, I would like to emphasize once again that the idea of ​​interactive learning in English classes is relatively not new. However, there is a danger of drowning in words and illusions, repeating the path of numerous fashionable pedagogical innovations that slightly “embellished”, modernized traditional teaching, and then they forgot, without seriously changing anything.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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39 Bar R., Tag J. From learning to learning - a new paradigm of higher education // University Education: from effective teaching to effective learning. Sat abstract articles on didactics of higher education / Belarusian State University. Center for Educational Development. - Mn., 2001 .-- S. 13-39.

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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2

 

Тест № 1

Вариант 1

1.  Выберите правильный вариант глагола to be к следующим местоимениям:

He       a)is         b)are

She     a)is         b)are

We      a)is         b)are

I          a) is        b) am

You     a) am     b) are

They   a) am      b) are

2.  Составьте предложения из следующих слов

  The \ of \Paris \ capital \ is \ France

  Canada \ big \ is \ country \ a

  I'm \ dogs \ afraid \ of

Restaurant \ very \ is\ expensive

Not \ difficult \ examination \ the \ not \ is

3.  Найдите ошибки в следующих предложениях (present continuos and present indefinite tense) и исправьте их, там где необходимо.

We are works in the garden

They were playing football

I am working now

You works in a shop

4.  Напишите 4-5 предложений о своём любимом уроке на английском языке в настоящем времени.

 

Тест № 1

Вариант 2

1    Выберите правильный вариант глагола to be к следующим местоимениям:

They    a)is         b)are

He      a)is         b)are

you     a)is         b)are

I          a) is        b) am

We     a) am     b) are

She     a) is      b) are

2    Составьте предложения из следующих слов

  The \ of \Minsk \ capital \ is \ Belarus

  I'm \ happy \ today \ not

  Flowers \ very \ are \ those \ beautifuhl

My \ hands \ are \ cold

The \ street \ at \ the \ house \ very \ old

3    Найдите ошибки в следующих предложениях (present continuos and present indefinite tense) и исправьте их, там где необходимо.

I is not washing my hair

It is snows

You am at the shop

Pat is not playing piano

4    Напишите 4-5 предложений о своём любимом уроке на английском языке в настоящем времени.

 

Тест № 2

Вариант 1

1 Выпишите из следующих слов неопределённые местоимения:

Radio, cut, something, buy, eat, everybody, nothing, allusion

2    вставьте some or any

I'm going to buy ____ eggs

There are _____ beautiful flowers in the garden

I'm thirsty. Can I have _____ water, please

Do you know ____ hotel in London?

3    Образуйте нужную форму слова от данного слова

It's dark. I can't see (any)

Tom lives (some) near London

What's wrong? I' ve got (some) in my eye

4    Переведите с русского на английский

Что-то было во дворе.

Посмотри, у нас нет ничего.

Лондон находиться где-то на британских островах

 

Тест №3

Вариант 1

1 выпишите имена прилагательные

hat, Hot, sad, cat, weather, nice, beautiful, radio, television, fat

2    Напишите 3 степени сравнения следующих имен-прилагательных

Nice

Pretty

Big

Good

3    Напишите антонимы к следующим словам:

Yonger

Colder

Better

Longer

4    Напишите ответы на следующие вопросы:

What is the longest river in the World?

Who is your best friend?

What do you like play more football or basketball?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 3

 

«Что на стенах класса и почему?»

Есть ли это на стенах вашего класса

Почему «да» или почему «нет»?

1.

Имена и фотографии учащихся класса

 

2.

Изображения детей и взрослых: • той же расы, культуры, что и учащиеся в классе; • другой расы,

культуры

 

3.

Дидактические плакаты: • геометрические фигуры; • календарь; • информация о здоровье и безопасности

 

4.

Плакат с правилами поведения в школе

 

5.

Произведения искусства, созданные взрослыми, имеющие отношение к программе или помещенные по эстетическим соображениям

 

6.

Творческие работы, выполненные педагогом либо другими взрослыми, как фон для работ учащихся

 

7.

Творческие работы учащихся: • сделанные под руководством педагога; • сделанные спонтанно

 

8.

Материалы к предстоящему празднику: • сделанные учащимися; • приобретенные в магазинах

 

9.

Лист с программой занятий по предмету

 

10.

Материалы, работы, выполненные: • на занятии; • в процессе групповых занятий вне урока

 

11.

Листы, фиксирующие содержание обратной связи от учащихся

 

12.

Сообщения: • о некоторых событиях и деятельности в классе для учащихся; • о событиях в классе для родителей; • педагога о занятиях в классе; • от учащихся педагогу; • учащихся друг другу

 

13.

Место, которое предназначено исключительно для неформальных надписей, выражения мыслей учащихся

 


 

 Преимущества и недостатки групповой и индивидуальной работы

Групповая работа

Индивидуальная работа

ПРЕИМУЩЕСТВА

• общий результат • взаимная помощь • разнообразные перспективы в постановке вопросов • темп: отдельные ученики подтягиваются • возможность    сравнения    собственных оценок • хорошо для перепроверки, прослушива­ния, переспрашивания

• свободная организация работы • индивидуальный темп учебы • нет потери времени на дискуссии • возможность гибкого движения • лучше    запоминаются     понятия, факты

НЕДОСТАТКИ

• тяжело договориться, планировать • возможность отвлечения, запаздывания с выполнением задания • отдельные учащиеся перегружены • бесконечная дискуссия, уход от темы

• опасность   растрачивать   себя    по пустякам • завышенные требования • много индивидуального контроля • можно легко зайти в тупик • тяжело перепроверить знания • нет обмена мнениями об изученном, прочитанном

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Отзыв

на  дипломную работу Абдиллаевой Д.Х.., студентки выпускного курса специальности 5В011900 «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка»

филологического факультета

Международного университета Silkway

на тему: «Teaching of interactive communication on English lessons at school»

 

     В дипломной работе выпускница говорит о том, что используя интерактивный подход в обучении английскому языку, можно оптимизировать процесс овладения навыками базового школьного иноязычного общения и сделать его более эффективным в условиях общеобразовательной школы.

   Объект исследования: процесс обучения иностранному языку в средней общеобразовательной школе.

Предмет исследования: Современные методы обучения интерактивному общению на уроках английского языка.

Цель  работы: раскрыть сущность обучения интерактивному общению на уроках английского языка,  также  раскрыть и обосновать возможности применения коммуникативных игр в процессе обучения иностранному языку на начальном этапе.

Достижение цели обусловлено рядом задач: раскрыть роль игры как вида обучающей деятельности;  выявить особенности обучения иностранному языку в школьном возрасте;  определить значимость применения игровых технологий в обучении  школьников иностранному языку;  обосновать влияние коммуникативных игр на обучение детей школьного возраста.

Таким образом, работа достигла поставленной цели и задач исследования. Тема полностью раскрыта и соответствует направлению подготовки. Работа может быть допущена к защита.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Научный руководитель: Агабекова Б.Н.

«______» ____2020г.           Подпись_____________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Рецензия

на  дипломную работу Абдиллаевой Д.Х..,

студентки выпускного курса специальности 5В011900 «Иностранный язык: два иностранных языка»

Международного университета Silkway

на тему: «Teaching of interactive communication on English lessons at school»

 

   В рецензируемой работе  сделана попытка раскрытия особенностей развития навыков говорения через современные педагогические технологии в обучении английскому языку.

Автор раскрывает обучение интерактивному общению на уроках английского языка.

   Новизна  выполненного исследования заключается в раскрытии особенностей коммуникативных игр как нового формата игровых технологий при обучении английскому языку школьников: коммуникативно-деятельный характер обучения, психологическая направленность уроков на развитие речемыслительной деятельности учащихся средствами изучаемого языка, оптимизация интеллектуальной активности учащихся в учебном процессе, комплексность обучения, развитие групповых форм работы, снижение уровня тревожности у школьников и легкое преодоление языкового барьера.

Практическая значимость работы заключается в том, что  результаты исследования могут быть использованы в практике обучения английскому языку  школьников, обогатив «педагогическую мастерскую» учителя английского языка в ходе подготовки и разработки серии учебных занятий по английскому языку.

   Таким образом, дипломная работа отличается научной новизной и глубиной исследования. Работа соответствует направлению подготовки и заслуживает высокой оценки.

 

Рецензент: Калдаяков К.К..,

К.ф.н., старший преподаватель кафедры «Филология» Академического социально-инновационного университета.

 

 

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Общая информация

Учебник: «Английский язык», Вербицкая М.В., Маккинли С., Хастингс Б., Миндрул О. С., Твердохлебова И. П. / Под ред. Вербицкой М.В.
Тема: Unit 2. Health matters
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