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The United States, officially the United States of America (commonly abbreviated to the U.S., the USA, America, and the States), is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west, across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean.
At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with over 312 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and the third largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The U.S. economy is the world's largest national economy (and second largest overall, behind the European Union's collective economy), with an estimated 2011 GDP of $15.1 trillion (22% of nominal global GDP and over 19% of global GDP at purchasing-power parity). Per capita income is the world's seventh-highest
History Indigenous people descended from forebears who migrated from Asia have inhabited what is now the mainland United States for many thousands of years. This Native American population was greatly reduced by disease and warfare after European contact. The United States was founded by thirteen British colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard. On July 4, 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed their right to self-determination and their establishment of a cooperative union. The rebellious states defeated the British Empire in the American Revolution, the first successful colonial war of independence. The current United States Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787; its ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic with a stronger central government. The Bill of Rights, comprising ten constitutional amendments guaranteeing many fundamental civil rights and freedoms, was ratified in 1791
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the United States remained neutral. Most Americans sympathized with the British and French, although many opposed intervention. In 1917, the United States joined the Allies, and the American Expeditionary Forces helped to turn the tide against the Central Powers. After the war, the Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles, which established the League of Nations. The country pursued a policy of unilateralism, verging on isolationism
Cold War and protest politics The United States and Soviet Union jockeyed for power after World War II during the Cold War, dominating the military affairs of Europe through NATO and the Warsaw Pact, respectively. While they engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict. Resisting leftist land and income redistribution projects around the world, the United States often supported authoritarian governments. American troops fought Communist Chinese forces in the Korean War of 1950–53. The House Un-American Activities Committee pursued a series of investigations into suspected leftist subversion, while Senator Joseph McCarthy became the figurehead of anticommunist sentiment. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivering his "I Have a Dream" speech, 1963
Political system Under the constitution of the USA accepted in 1787 certain powers for government realisation are passed the federal government of the USA. The state powers which have been not defined for transfer to conducting of the federal government by the constitution, are carried out by states of the USA.
Leadingpopulationcenters Rank Corecity Metroareapop. Metropolitan Statistical Area Region 1 New York City 18,897,109 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA MSA Northeast 2 Los Angeles 12,828,837 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA West 3 Chicago 9,461,105 Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL-IN-WI MSA Midwest 4 Dallas 6,371,773 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA South 5 Philadelphia 5,965,343 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA Northeast 6 Houston 5,946,800 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA South 7 Washington, D.C. 5,582,170 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA South 8 Miami 5,564,635 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA South 9 Atlanta 5,390,463 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA South 10 Boston 4,552,403 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH MSA Northeast based on the 2010 U.S. Census
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