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* ADVERBIAL CLAUSE D İ L F E M E N G L İ S H C E N T R E
Clause of Time Clause of Reason Clause of Result Clause of Purpose Clause of Concession Clause of Manner D İ L F E M E N G L I S H C E N T E R
CLAUSE of TIME after as as long as as soon as just as once before whenever every time immediately by the time when no sooner ..... than ...... hardly ....... when ....... while until the moment (that) till since
He bought a villa as soon as he got the money. He will have finished repairing the car by the time you arrive there. No sooner had she fallen asleep than the phone rang. The castaway had to wait five years until he was rescued.
Time clauses follow the rule of the sequence of tenses; that is, when the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form, the verb of the time clause is in a present form, and when the verb of the main clause is in a past form, the verb of the time clause is in a past form too. Note that will and would are never used in clauses of time. I’ll give it to you when you tell me why you want it. (not: when you will tell me) I'll cook dinner as soon as I've finished washing up. She had finished reading before they came home. (not: before they come home)
Clauses of Reason • Clauses of reason are introduced by: as, since, because, for, inasmuch as, the reason (why,for), on the grounds that, now that, seeing that, in view of the fact that etc. As he was late for work, he got a taxi. For always comes after a comma in written speech or a pause in oral speech. / didn't tell him anything, for I don't trust him. Other ways of expressing reason: Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + noun/-ing She was late because of / due to / owing to / on account of heavy traffic. Because of / Due to / Owing to / On account of + the fact that.. Because of the fact that / Due to the fact that it had been snowing for four days, all roads were closed.
Clauses of Result • Clauses of result are introduced by: that (after such/so...), (and) as a result, (and) as a consequence, consequently, so,therefore, thus, hence etc... such a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable It was such a nice dress that she bought it. such + (adjective) + uncountable /plural noun It was such bad weather that we stayed indoors. such + a lot of + noun There were such a lot of people on the bus that there were no seats left. .
so + adjective/adverb He speaks so quickly that hardly anyone can understand him. so + much / many / little / few + noun She won so much money in the lottery that she bought a villa. so + adjective + a(n) + noun It was so delicious a cake that we ate it all. (not usual) It is so hot a day that everyone is going to the beach as a result / therefore / consequently / so / thus + clause He didn't have a visa and as a result he couldn't enter the country. therefore consequently so thus
Expressing Purpose - Clauses of Purpose • to / in order to / so as to + inf I'll leave home early to get to work on time. (informal) She's studying so as to qualify as a lawyer, (formal) • so that + can / will (present/future reference) She works hard so that she will have better career prospects. • so that + could / would (past reference) He gave me directions so that I could find his house easily. • with a view to / with the aim of + -ing form He did a Master's degree with the aim of applying for a managerial post. • for + noun / -ing form This is a knife for cutting bread. Affirmative Purpose is expressed with;
• in case + Present (present/future reference) I'll write it down in case I forget it. It is always a good idea to have a phone card on you in case you have to make a phone call. • in case + Past (past reference) He took an umbrella in case it rained. He took a torch in case there was no light in the attic. • for + noun / -ing form This is a knife for cutting bread.
• so as not / in order not + to -inf She studied hard so as not / in order not to fail her test. • so that + can't / won't ( present/future reference ) Tie up the dog so that it won't get out of the garden so that + couldn't / wouldn't ( past reference ) She locked the door so that burglars couldn't get in. • for fear / lest + might / should He didn't say where he was going for fear he might be followed. Mary went to bed early lest she should be tired during the exam for fear of sth / doing sth He gave them all his money for fear of being shot.
NOTE: Clauses of Purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses. She's going to buy a dictionary so that her spelling will improve. They tied him up so that he wouldn't escape.
Expressing Concession - Clauses of Concession Concession is expressed with: although / even though / though + clause Although(even though,though) it was expensive, she bought it. NOTE : Though can be at the end of the sentence. Despite / in spite of + noun/-ing form Despite his wealth / being rich, he never lends money. Despite / in spite of the fact + that-clause In spite of the fact that he's rich, he never lends money. while / whereas / but / on the other hand / yet / still + clause He worked hard,yet he failed to meet the deadline.
nevertheless / however / nonetheless / all the same / even so + clause He’s a nice guy.Even so,I don’t trust him. however/no matter how + adj/adv + subject + verb However clever you are, you won't solve this puzzle. However fast he runs, he won't catch the robbers. whatever/no matter what + clause Whatever you do, you won't succeed. adj/adv + though + subject + verb Loudly though he knocked on the door, nobody heard. • adj/adv + as + subject + verb Exhausted as she was, she went to the party.
NOTE A comma is used when the clause of concession either precedes or follows the main clause. Whatever she says, he won't believe her. He won't believe her, whatever she says.
Clauses of Manner Clauses of manner are; as if / as though (after act, appear, be, behave, feel, look,seem,smell,sound,taste), as, how, in the way that,in the same way, in the same way as. Try to do in the same way I showed you. Note how the tense forms are used after as if / as though: as if / as though + any tense form (showing similarity / probability) She feels as if she has got a temperature. She sounded as though she had a cold. as if / as though + Past Simple / Past Cont. (unreal in the present) She acts as if she knew everything. (but she doesn’t.) as if / as though + Past Perfect (unreal in the past) He felt as if they had misjudged him. ( but they hadn’t.) She was trembling as though she had seen a ghost.