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  • Иностранные языки

Районная конференция по английскому языку

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Районная учебно-исследовательская конференция «Юность. Наука. Культура»





Секция (направление): Английский язык



Миграция: факты и цифры

Migration: Facts and Figures











Автор работы:

Ершов Виктор Анатольевич,

обучающийся 9б класса

МОУ СОШ №6

Руководитель:

Мартьянова Тамара Михайловна







Кондопога

2013



Contents

  1. Introduction. The aims of the research……………………………………………………3

  2. Migration in Russia……………………………………………………………………….4

1.The history of migration……………………………………………………………………4

2. The portrait of an immigrant……………………………………………………………….5

3. The situation in Karelia……………………………………………………………………6

4. The reasons of emigration…………………………………………………………………7

5. Schoolchildren’s intentions………………………………………………………………..8

  1. Conclusion….……………………………………………………………………………10

  2. Resources used…………………………………………………………………………...11

  3. Supplements………………………………………………………………………….…..12



I. Introduction. The aims of the research

Population movements occurred and occur internationally. The mass media, that is TV and newspapers, pay steady attention to the migration question. Migration causes many problems which some countries are facing nowadays. One of them is illegal flows of migrants who are like unexpected guests for the host countries. Another major problem is that migrants create their own communities and prefer following their own laws and rules not taking into account the fact that “when in Rome, do as the Romans do”.

The aims of the research.

The work under consideration aims to look at the process of migration in our country through figures and facts and show different points of view, that is: historical, economical, political, physiological ones. The author also will try to show advantages and disadvantages of mass migration nowadays and express the author’s opinion on this process.

For achieving these objectives first of all the author of the work will study the history of migration in Russia, then we will describe the portrait of an immigrant. After that, it will be introduced the situation in Karelia. At the end of the work we will try to make the forecast of migration in Kondopoga, according to school leavers’ intentions.

So, the research under consideration aims to look at the process of migration in our country through figures and facts and try to see what there is more: advantages or disadvantages in population movements.



.





II. Migration in Russia

1. The history of migration

The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.

The word “migrate” comes from Latin word “migratus” which means “to move from one place to another”1. One should note a difference between the words “immigrate” and “emigrate”. If a person removes into a country of which one is not a native for the purpose of permanent residence, he or she is an emigrant for his mother country and an immigrant for a host country.

There were periods in human history when there was a mass migration or exodus for example when the Israelites were led by Moses from Egypt.

Russia is not an exception. Traditionally we can divide the Russian emigration into 5 waves. The first one (1918-1923) is called the white emigration, which military men and civilians ran away from Revolution of 1917, the Civil War and also from hunger. The second wave (1941-1945) – when people were made to leave the USSR during and after the Second World War. The third wave (1948-1990) is called the emigration of the Cold War. The number of people is approximately half a million. The fourth wave (1990 up to the downfall on the USSR). The fifth wave is taking place nowadays. The main factors are – searching for a better life, and seeking asylum, either for political reasons or law.

We can also add that over the past 2 decades there has been a movement of people from smaller settlements and rural districts to metropolitan areas. The most mobile age-group within Russia are young adults in their eighteens when many young people leave their parental home to study, work a set up their own home. The young are always and everywhere the most mobile, but in Russia the proportion of migrants under 30 is particularly large. The losses in European Russia are mainly absorbed by Moscow and St. Petersburg.

A lot of people are leaving the country in attempt to establish themselves in other parts of the world, where their peace and security, better living conditions are provided for. “Ubi bene, ibi patria”2 (where it goes well with me, there is my fatherland – from Latin.). In 2012 year the most attractive countries for emigrants from Russia are Canada (25%), Australia (14%), the USA (9%), Germany (7%), Czechia (5%) and New Zealand (4%). (See supplement I)

The Chairman of the Accountant Council Sergei Stepashin declared that since the beginning of 2012 year 10.250.000 Russians have emigrated. It can be called exodus. The last wave of emigration was fixed only after the revolution of 1917. Then, about 2mln. people left Russia

2. The portrait of an immigrant

According to the data of the Universal World Bank Russia holds the 2nd place in the world in number of immigrants. There are about 12 mln. of them now. The high level of immigrants is in Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg and Leningradsky region, also in the Urals and Siberia. Most of the immigrants are from the former Soviet Republics in Central Asia.

Every day dozens of planes and trains from Central Asia arrive in Russia, with new immigrants mi копия.jpg

3

As we can see from this table the majority of the immigrants – 85 percent come from Kirgizia, Tadzhikistan and Uzbekistan. 90 percent of them are men. Most of them – 74 percent are under 30. 71 percent have secondary and special education. 66 percent speak Russian badly or don’t know it at all. 67 percent of the immigrants work either in construction branch of economy or in trade. 85 percent of them belong to Muslim religion. The immigrants earn good salaries. Most of their incomes they send to their homelands; to their families.



3. The situation in Karelia

It is not better than in other parts of our country. 5, October 2012 the head of Karelia A.Khudilainen during the discussion of the “Concept of Karelia’s development up to 2017” mentioned that оne of the main indicator of standards of living is the migration process.(See supplement II) He said: «If people do not go away and, оn the contrary, come to this area, so that's all right with this government»

Тhе population of Karelia became 150 thousand people less than it was in 1990 year. Under the data of the Karelia government the cause of it not only the high death rate but also immigration from the republic. «Young people leave Karelia in connection with lack of the prospects for self-realization in the region». (government session 30.10.2012)

According to the data published in the newspaper Vezdekhod November 1, 2012 issue.


inflow

outflow

balance

January – September 2011

3962

4510

-548

January – September 2012

5205

5763

-558

We can see that since 2011year 1106 people left Karelia for other places.

And if we take into account that


Fertility

Mortality

Balance

January – September 2012

5936

7273

-1337


We get the number of 2443. For a year and a half the population in Karelia declined (both emigrated and death).This information is presented according to the research made by the sociologist E.S. Krasinets.

The government of Karelia intends to reduce the outflow of the population of working age from the one hand and to make the conditions to attract qualified personnel, especially young migrants, on the territory of the Republic in the most demanded areas (health, education, agriculture) from another hand.










4. The reasons of emigration are

4

Recently during the talks in the Legislative Assembly the government official Evgeni Shorokov mentioned that in the last 8 years the population of Karelia declined by 72.000 people. Though Karelia still remains a relatively young republic. There are 161.000 people aged from 15 to 29 years old. According to sociological researches 49 percent of the young people are not going to connect their lives with Karelia. Among the reasons of the outflow he stated the following a low accessibility of dwelling, unemployment and defiance of perspective labour places.

The reasons of migrations we can see in economy, policy, psychology. The author of the work can’t analyze objectively political and economic reasons, so that he will try to study psychological ones.

The method of the research is questionnaires. The subject of study is the schoolchildren` intentions, the objects are the pupils of school #6.

Six years ago the author of the work took part in the conference. The topic of the research was: «Kondopoga: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow». The aims of that research were to study actual interests of the pupils from Class 3 school #6, to know their future plans, to make the forecast of the Kondopoga’s development; using questionnaire of that class, according to the pupils ‘ wishes and propositions.



5. School children’s intentions

We all seek what is better.

It was found the geography of immigration in Kondopoga, on example of that class’ families. 83% of the pupils, 60% of their parents, 40% of their grandparents were born in Kondopoga. Other came from different regions. (See supplement III)

Now the author has a good opportunity to ask the same questions to the ninth-grade students and to the pupils of primary school for comparison the results and understanding changes in kid’s mind happened during last years.

It is obvious that if person has enough opportunities to realize himself, he won’t find another place for living. So, first of all, it was necessary to clear up children`s hobbies. Sport was on the first place (15) than computer (7), crafts (5) and music (2). They liked swimming, skating, skiing, hockey, basketball, football, chess and gymnastics. Now hobbies maybe aren’t changed: sport (21), computer (10), crafts (2), but sport interests differ. The ninth-graders go in for swimming, skiing, dancing, basketball, football and bodybuilding. Modern fourth graders like sport (10), dancing (3), singing (3), music (2), drawing (3), lessons (1), historical swordsmanship (1), modeling (1), beadwork (1). It can be concluded that young people in Kondopoga have a wide range of sport and out-of-school activities. (See supplement IV)

The next question to analyze migration process in Kondopoga is: What do you like/dislike in the town? Six years ago: schoolchildren wrote that their native town was beautiful (5), our streets were clean (6) and green (2). 4 pupils liked everything in it. 7 pupils admired the Ice Palace, 4 pupils – the Palace of Arts, 3 - the swimming pool, others liked fountains, ski lodge, children’s center, school and the Lenin’s square.

Now they say that the town is small (9), dirty (6), with bad roads (3). There are no entertainment centers (6). There is the high level of an employment (2), there are no enough opportunities (3). 9 students don’t like living in Kondopoga at all. But 4 students like everything. The Ice Palace is their favourite place (10), the Palace of Arts occupies the second place (3), stadium (3), children’s center (1), Youth Cultural Centre (1).(See supplement IV)

The pupils from primary school like everything in Kondopoga (5) and 2 pupils don’t like to live here. There were no such answers in 2007. Only two pupils were delighted with the Ice Palace, The Carillons (2), nature (1), school (1), the Uspenskaya church (1), skiing lodge (1), new children’s playground (1), the Lenin’s Square. They also note short-comings of Kondopoga: there is a lot of litter (5), ecological problems (5), burnt houses (2).

Six years ago schoolchildren didn’t see such minus of the town. In 2007 they missed only attractions (10), circus (2), zoo (2), beach (2), theater (1). And eight of them thought that they had everything they need in Kondopoga. (See supplement IV)

We have to state the fact that most students are not satisfied with their life in Kondopoga. We also need information about future students' profession to produce an objective forecast of migration. So in 2007 year 8 pupils wanted to be servicemen, 7 – sportsmen, 3 – teachers, 2 – engineers, 1 – newscaster, 1 – hairdresser, 1 – engine driver, 1 – businessmen, 2 – policemen, 2- doctors, 1 – programmer, 3 – didn’t know. In 2012 year 5 students – don’t know, 6 – doctors, 4 – lawyers, 4 – mechanics, 2 – sportsmen, 2 – programmers, a cosmonaut, a champion, a teacher, a journalist , a driver, a builder, a translator. In 2012 year the fourth grade pupils chose another professions: 2 – servicemen, 3 – teacher, 2- actress, a president, a cook, a boss, a scientist, a director, a cosmonaut, a vet, a businessmen, a champion, an engineer, a singer, a jeweler, only one pupil doesn’t know. (See supplement IV)

The schoolchildren choose demanded jobs. It is explained by economical reason. They think about their career and financial success. Analyzing these results we can make the conclusion that migration will go on, and people will leave Kondopoga not only for studying but for working too.

The main questionnaire’s item is: where would you like to live? In 2007 year the pupils of the 3rd form: 3 – didn’t know, 15 – Kondopoga, 4 – Moscow, 3 – Petrozavodsk, 3 – Saint-Petersburg, 1 – Sochi. Now only 3 students of Class 9 remember about Kondopoga, 11 students choose Saint-Petersburg, 2 – Moscow, 4 – Petrozavodsk, 9 – abroad, 1 – doesn’t know. In 2012 year the pupils of the 4th form: 8 - Kondopoga, 4 – Petrozavodsk, 3 – Moscow, 2 – Petersburg, 1 – Angarsk, 1 – village, 6 – abroad.(See supplement IV)

The author of the research gave a short questionnaire to the 10-11 grades of school number 6 concerning their intentions after graduating from school. The questions were the following: - If you are going to get further education in Karelia and choose the republic for permanent residence; - If you intend to get further education in St. Petersburg or Moscow and stay there for residence; - If your plans coincided with your possibilities what country you would choose for getting education and further permanent residence. Students’ answers were anonymous. The result was predictable; they reflect what one can read in a daily press.

So out of 31 entries 18 students want to get further education and settle in St. Petersburg and Moscow. 8 students are going to try to get education in other countries and stay there for living. Finland is mentioned 3 times. Among other countries they name Czechia, Germany, Austria and even Japan. (See supplement V)

Among of 86 entries: 36 pupils want to live in Petersburg and Moscow, 23 pupils want to live abroad and only 16 pupils want to live in Kondopoga.(See supplement VI)

In spite of the fact that children from Kondopoga had a wide choice of different activities they see the real situation. So they plan their future life according to their wishes and needs.

III. Conclusion

Without access to the original data, the author had to resort to an indirect method: the survey of a daily press. It is a well-known fact that it forms public opinion. The result of the author’s research is obvious. The figures speak for themselves. Between 2000 and 2012 net migration changed the number of the population both in Russia in general and in Karelia particularly.

Advantages of migration.

If a person cannot find a job in his local area, the best option may be to look for a job in another place, to move to an area with better living conditions, to get new educational opportunities.

Disadvantages of migration.

Sometimes migrants must leave behind family members and friends. Migration brings people to new geographies and new climates and many of them have trouble acclimating to major changes in climate. People contact with entirely new ways of life, culture, language.

Most of the immigrants in Russia as well as in Karelia belong to Muslim Central Asian or the Caucasian people. The troublesome circumstances of life drive many people from these regions away from their native land in search of a better livelihood and a brighter future. These people usually settle down in their own language communities. Sometimes they have a low level of education; they are often inexperience, most of them work in the field of construction and in trade behave as if they are hosts; they follow their own rules and laws and don’t respect the natives. Everybody in this town remembers the events of 2007, when there was a fight between the local young people and non-residents. The results were dramatic.

On the other hand, the best educated young people try to leave Russia and Karelia.

The scale of the migration process is increasing and our officials should make quicker decisions, otherwise the consequences may be deplorable.

The research showed that we have great potentialities to change the situation for the better. It is proved by the opinions of schoolchildren and people who migrated to this town from different regions and living here for many years.















IV. Resources used

  1. New Webster’s Dictionary of the English language, Surjeet Publications, 1989

  2. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia, Cambridge University Press, 1982

  3. Karelia. Facts and Figures, E. Zypkin, M. Gvozdeva, O. Hramtsova, Petrozavodsk, «KGPU», 2008

  4. Red Exodus, Mayme Sevander, Duluth, U.S.A., 1996

  5. Russian – English dictionary of winged words. I. A. Walshe, V. P. Berkov. Moscow – “Russky Yazyk”, 1984

  6. Толковый словарь русского языка под редакцией профессора Д.Н. Ушакова, Москва «Терра», 1996

  7. Кондопога: что это было? М.Григорьев, Москва, издательство «Европа», 2007

  8. Gubernia, №33, №34, №35, 2012

  9. Arguments and Facts, 43, 39, 52, 2012

  10. Vezdekhod (newspaper), 41, 2012

  11. http://www.gov.karelia.ru/

  12. http://www.gov.karelia.ru/Legislation/lawbase.html?lid=8835

  13. http://www.znatnado.ru/

  14. http://www.gumer.info







Supplements

Supplement I



C:\Documents and Settings\Admin\Рабочий стол\Рисунок1 копия.jpg





Supplement II. Emigration from Karelia



In the “Concept of Karelia’s development up to 2017” the head of Karelia A. Khudilainen mentioned the following facts.


St. Petersburg and

Leningrad Region

Karelia

Population

7 mln. people

600.000 people

Stand in a queue to Finland for permanent settlement

20

200



According to the data published in the newspaper Vezdekhod November 1, 2012 issue.







Supplement III. The map of migration of our class’ families







C:\Documents and Settings\Admin\Рабочий стол\Защита\4R копия.jpg









Supplement IV. The result of questionnaires

1. What’s your hobby?

Year

Class

sport

computer

crafts

music

others

2007

III

15

7

5

2

1

2012

IX

21

10

2

1

-

2012

IV

10

-

4

8

3











2. What do you like in our town?

Year

Class

Everything

Ice Palace

Palace of Art

Swimming pool

Carillons

Others

Beautiful

(green, clean)

2007

III

8

7

4

3

-

5

13

2012

IX

4

10

3

3

-

2

-

2012

IV

10

2

-

-

2

10

-



3. What do you dislike in our town?

Year

Class

Negative attitude

Small

Dirty

Bad roads

No entertainments

Unemployment

Ecological problems

2007

III

-

-

-

-

15

-

-

2012

IX

9

9

6

3

6

2

-

2012

IV

2

-

8

1

-

-

2



4. What is your future profession?



5. Where would you like to live?

Year

Class

Don’t know

Kondopoga

Moscow

Petrozavodsk

Petersburg

Abroad

Other cities

2007

III

3

15

4

3

3

-

2

2013

IX

1

3

2

4

11

9

5

2013

IV

-

8

3

4

2

6

2



Supplement V. School-leaver’s intentions





Supplement VI. Future permanent residence



1 New Webster’s Dictionary, p. 948

2 Russian – English dictionary of winged words. p.60

3 Arguments and Facts, №43, 2012

4 http://www.grumer.info

16



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