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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Реферат на тему "Муром.История.События.Люди."

Реферат на тему "Муром.История.События.Люди."


  • Иностранные языки

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The work has been done by the pupil

of the 8 th school № 3

The teacher Fomicheva L.A.







Murom

2012



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Цели и задачи:


Родину любят не за то, что она великая, а за то, что она своя!


Introduction

I was born in Murom and I'm proud of it. I can say that I truly love my native town. A lot of people move to big cities and even abroad. I don't think that they are right. To my mind, where you were born - there you are useful. Besides, every citizen of Murom must remember about the glorious history, wonderful culture and traditions of out town. I have been always interested in the quizes devoted to Murom which had been organized by Moscow Psychology - Social Institute in Murom. I took prize places.


This work is devoted to some interesting facts from the history of Murom. I am sure that the theme of Motherland is always urgent, because there is no future without past, and to love your motherland means to know its glorious history.





Purposes and problems


Working on my report I had three main aims:

  1. to research some interesting facts from the history of Murom using different sources of information;

  1. to broaden my outlook and the outlook of my classmates;

  2. to improve my knowledge of English.












The History of Murom


The first people, who lived on the territory of Murom, were “Muroma”. “Muroma” is an Ugro-Finnic tribe, who lived on the territory of Murom. It settled in the V-th century on the left bank of the river “Oka”. “Muroma” means “the people, who live on the hill near the river”.

Slavic – Krivichi influenced the tribe of “Muroma”. This Slavic tribe had taken roots by the end of the X-th century and disappeared in the tribe of “Muroma”. The cultures of these two tribes had amalgamated peacefully.


Murom is one of the most ancient towns in Russia. Murom was first mentioned in Lavrentevsky list in “The story about old times” in 862.


The Murom Kremlin was located on the territory, where Oksky Park is now.

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The Murom Kremlin, XVI century.


Murom was included in Vladimir province in 1917 year.

Murom became a uyezd town of Vladimir province on the first of September, 1778. Vladimir province, where Murom entered, consisted of fourteen districts. They are:

Vladimir, Alexandrov, Vyazniki, Kirzhatch, Kovrov, Melenki, Murom, Pereslavl – Zalessk, Pokrov, Gorokhovets, Sudogda,

Suzdal, Shuysk, Yuriev– Polsky.


Murom had been coinciding for fifteen years as a part of Nizhni Novgorod edge. Since mediums 1929 Murom had been the centre of Murom’s district of Nizhni Novgorod edge, in which eight districts:

Ardatov, Voznesensk, Vyksa, Kulebaki, Lyakhi, Murom,

Pavlov, Fominki were included.

Since August 1944 Murom and Murom edge had lost all the territories along the right bank of the Oka.




Famous people who visited Murom

On the 3-rd of July, 1552 the Russian army headed by Ivan IY moved through Vladimir and Murom to Kazan. In Murom the tsar spent several days. The tsar examined his army.

In Murom the army had to cross to the right bank of the Oka. Ivan the Terrible was watching his army out of the tent from the 10-th till the 20-th of July, 1552. He prayed to the local shrines, such as Peter and Fevroniya, Konstantin, Mikhail and Fyodor, and asked for help.

Ivan IV promised to build the stone cathedral. On the place, where his tent stood, after taking Kazan he organized the construction of the church. Its name is “Kosmodemianka”. On the 20-th of July the army crossed the river.


Murom was liberated from authorities of Lzedmitry and Lithuanians in 1609. The reign of falsehood was destroyed and the reign of the law was restored.

In 1609 two military commanders were changed in our town. V.Tolbuzin was changed by A.S.Olyabiev. A.Olyabiev had been a military commander since 1609 till 1614.

The detachment headed by A.Krupka seized Murom in 1609.

The citizens of Murom experienced hunger because of bad harvest.


Peter I went to Persia and visited Murom in May, 1722. He worshipped to the local shrines, asked for help miracle workers in the victory over the Persians. Peter I was interested in the history of the ancient town, which was on his way, and took V.N.Tatischev’s Topography, but soon it was lost.


Catherine II visited Murom on the 12-th of June, 1767, on her way from Simbirsk and Kazan. The empress stayed in the house of

Here she received the representatives of gentry, clergy and merchants. Catherine II was in favour of some women with her attention, praised their clothes.


Pylaev was the author of the general town plan in the 17-th century. Murom became to build over Pylaev’s general town plan, the civil engineer and land surveyor after a lot of fires, which was adopted by Catherine II.


In 1825 Emperor Nicholas I crossed through the Oka. In 1837 Murom was included to the route of the trip of Russia of the legal heir of the throne, the crown prince Alexander. This trip had cultural aims. In this trip V.A.Zhukovsky, the famous poet – romantic, accompanied Alexander II. The heir with his retinue stayed in the house of A.I.Myazdrikov. Here Alexander II received citizens of Murom. A.A.Titov was represented to Alexander II. Titov presented him with his manuscript “Historical description of Murom”.


The famous tenor (a singer) L.V.Sobinov visited Murom in March, 1896 and in January, 1898. During both visits he stated in the house of V.V.Suzdalicev in 27, Nizhegorodskaya Street (now it is Vorovskaya)

How the town was built

The first telephone was installed in Murom in 1890 in the building of the fire station for the quick transmission of the information about fire. In 1911 two hundred and three telephones abonents numbered in our town.

A building of the hospital had already worked in 1870. New building of the hospital was built in 1880 and one of the old buildings was remote for the infirmary of sick military people. The local committee of the socially of care about the sick and wounded military men was opened on the 4-th of April, 1877.


Couple Ermakov were the patron of the construction of the orphan – asylum, the theatre, the telegraph and the soldiers’ barracks in Murom in the middle of the 19-th century. The orphan – asylum was founded in 1863. Sue to Ermakov’s efforts Murom was connected a telegraph with other towns. In 1867 he built the building of the town theatre on his facilities. It was located Troitskaya square near the monastery. All his projects cost for him 200 000 silver rubles. On the 22-nd of January Ermakov got the order of Saint Vladimir of the 4-th grade for his social services. The motto of his order was “Profit, honor and glory”. The buildings of the soldiers’ barracks were after the fire in 1805. It was located near the street of Kozhevniki.


The first town theatre was built with the help of merchant-patron A.V.Ermakov in 1867. This building was demolished after Ermakov’s death in 1889. The first town theatre had been working for 12 years.

P.A.Strepetova acted in its troupe during the first theatre season.

The first theatre season took place in the summer, 1867.

M.P.Vasiliev-Gladkov, A.P.Lensky acted on the stage of our first theatre. They were very famous actors in Murom.

M.V.Dyakonov was born in 1807. He was a local artist in Murom, then the headmaster of the school in St.Petersburg. Dyakonov died in 1886.


Revolution’s motions in Murom

G.Kozin arrived in Murom in 1903. He was a propagandist – organizer. Since that year the first Social – Democratic group had begun their work in Murom. He settled in Murom with his family. His party job was to spread the antigovernment proclamations. His mother – in – law, A.K.Zalomova helped him. She brought illegal literature to the town.

Kozin organized the Social – Democratic group in Murom.


N.P.Saharov, N.Grigoriev and A.F.Zhadin revolt on the 9-th of July in 1918. N.P.Saharov, the colonel headed the department «Soyuz» in Murom. This organization was created at the beginning of 1918 in Moscow. He was directed in Murom, because here he could bring more profits, than in any other place. N.Grigoriev arrived in Murom several days before the revolt. He was Savinkov’s right hand. A.F.Zhadin was a treasurer of the headquarters. He was a merchant of Murom. The revolt began in the evening of the 8-th of June. This revolt was very significant against the Soviet authorities in Murom.


The train “October revolution” headed by M.I.Kalinin arrived with Krylenko to our town on the 30-th of April, 1919. Kalinin took the report on the crowded mass – meeting. N.V.Krylenko, the well – known statesman and a party figure, made a report about those days on the 8-th congress of the Soviet of workers’, soldiers’ and peasants’ Deputies.


Republic tensed all power upon fight with A.V.Kolchak. Communists first respond to their call. One third of the members of Komsomol organization, all the members of the committee headed by Lepikhina went to the front on the second of May, 1919.

That is to say G.A.Lepihina headed the first Komsomol voluntary detachment against A.V.Kolchak.


Famous artists and composers


The famous Russian painter A.E.Arkhipov created the painting “On the Oka River” and the big canvas “Murom”, when he was staying in Murom during 1913-1914.


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A.I.Kazantsev was an artist. Perhaps, his son helped to create him some paintings. A.I.Kazantsev created some icons. There are: “The vsederzhitel”, “Konstantin, Mikhail and Fyodor”, “The terrible court (tribunal)”, “The Virgin Mary Star Radiant (Presvyataya)” and some others. He created the famous icon “The terrible court” for Blagoveschensky cathedral in Murom. The icon “The Virgin Mary Star Radiant (Presvyataya)” was represented at the exhibition at the Art among the masterpieces of ancient Russian painting, dedicated to the Thousandth Anniversary of Christianity in Russia. Kazantsev created the images of twelve Sevills for iconostas for Nikolo-Naberezhnaya church at the end of the XVIII century.

I.S.Kulikov was the first artist of Murom who had the academician education. He graduated from the Art Academy in 1902.

I.S.Kulikov became Academician of Painting in Autumn, 1896.

I.S.Kulikov took part in the creation of the famous painting “The meeting of the State Council”. B.N.Kustodiev helped him to create this masterpiece. Ilya Repin was the main author of this picture.

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Andrey Fyodorovich Palitsin initiated the icon “Peter and Phevronia’s lives in 1618. He was a military man, the famous historical figure in Murom. He placed an order for this icon for cathedral of the Virgin Mary.


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P.K.Valenkov was born in the family of a merchant in Melenki in 1873. He was a blind pianist, composer and teacher. He studied in St.Petersburg. There he met K.A.Rimskiy-Korsakov, A.Kyui, S.V.Rahmaninov, and S.S.Prokofiev. He often accompanied to F.I.Shalyapin in St.Petersburg and in Murom in 1896. Valenkov accompanied to Sobinov. Valenkov’s sister lived in Murom. He often came to see her. Valenkov removed in Murom in 1917. He worked in the cinema “Union”, cooperated with Murom’s radio. He was teaching in Murom’s theatrical school from 1920 till 1930. He was a concertmaster in V.P.Zvorykin’s chorus in Murom. He died in Murom in 1943.


The sights of Murom

Ya.A.Neroda is the sculptor of the monument to V.I.Lenin built in 1962. N.A.Bespalov is the architect of it.


A.O.Bembel is the sculptor of the monument to N.F.Gastello erected in 1964. N.A.Bespalov is the architect of this monument.

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The Epic stone” was placed in 1967 at the passage in to Murom on the way from Vladimir to Murom.

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S.A.Nikolaev was its artist and the Stone’s architect was N.A.Bespalov. From 1950 till 1970 S.A.Nikolaev was the chief skilled workman in the town of the art studio.


In 1970 the architects A.S.Belyakov, K.K.Golubev and A.K.Kozlov created the obelisk in honor to the warriors killed during the Great Patriotic War in 1941 - 1945.


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N.A.Bespalov is the author of the monument “Armor-train “Ilya Murometz”. He is its architect. K.A.Dolgov is its engineer. S.A.Nikolaev is its artist.



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Conclusion


Maxim Gorgy said "To remember means to understand ; the more you understand, the more good things you see." We must know our glorious past and we can find many good events in it. The history of Murom teaches us to be strong, brave, ambitious, tolerant. It gives us many examples of endurance, courage, intelligence.

Not so many towns can boast of such ancient monasteries, beautiful historical places, wonderful nature and talented people. Everybody knows Ilya Muromets, Peter and Theuronia, Yulianiya Lazarevskaya.

Nowadays Murom flourishes and develops very quickly. I'd like to take part in this process. I am proud of Murom and I want Murom to be proud of me. And I'll do my best to realize it. In conclusion I should say that there is no place like your motherland.































List of the used literature:


  1. Беспалов Н.А. Муром. Памятники архитектуры и искусства.- М.: «Советская Россия»,1990.

  2. Девятьсот лет крещения града Мурома. Газета «Духовная нива».№3(10) 1997г.

  3. Древний Муром – 1140 лет. Автор текста – Ю.Смирнов. МИХМ, 2002.

  4. Епанчин А.А. «Топонимика Мурома и его окрестностей.» 2001.

  5. Чернышёв В.Я. «Прогулки по Мурому купеческому».

  6. История Мурома и Муромского края с древнейших времён до конца двадцатого века: Учебное пособие.- Муром,2001.

  7. Открытки серии «По городам РФ. Муром» и личные фотографии.


































Рецензия.


Данная работа носит исследовательский характер, содержит интересную и полезную информацию об истории Мурома. Автор показывает хорошие знания в сфере краеведения, заинтересованность историей, культурой и традициями родного края. Были поставлены грамотные цели, которые полностью были достигнуты. Работа написана с использованием лексики, выходящей за рамки школьной программы, что является показателем высокого уровня владения языком. Реферат имеет ценность не только для саморазвития автора, но и как учебное пособие для уроков английского языка, поскольку содержит дополнительную информацию по теме «Родина». Электронная презентация служит прекрасным дополнением для визуального восприятия данной темы.















Руководитель / Фомичёва Л.А./



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