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по английскому языку
This is our classroom. It is light, clean and large. The room is nice. Its ceiling and walls are white, its floor is brown. There is one door and three windows in it. When it is warm, they are open. When it is cold, they are shut. The door is always shut when we have our lessons.
There is a blackboard on the wall. We write on it. On the blackboard there are some words. They are English words. We read them: "We want to know English."
We sit on chairs in front of desks. The desks are nice and green.
There are not many pupils in our class. There are only eleven in it. Today ten pupils are present, one is absent.
We learn many subjects at school. They are: Russian, English, history, literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography and physical training.
There are many big and small libraries everywhere in our country. They have millions of books in different languages. You can find there the oldest and the newest books.
Every school has a library. Pupils come to the library to take books on different subjects.
The school library where Oleg studies is good. It is a large clean room. There are four big windows in it. The walls are light blue. There are a lot of shelves full of books. You can find books on literature, physics, history, chemistry, geography, biology and other subjects. There are books in English, too.
On the walls you can see pictures of some great writers and poets.
On the table near the window you can always see beautiful spring and autumn flowers.
Oleg likes to go to the library. He can always find there something new, something he needs.
Summer is over and it is autumn again, beautiful as ever. Even if you are no artist at all you can see its beauty. It is a season when the trees are simply fantastic — yellow, red, green and brown, not just one brown, but browns of all possible shades: light brown, dark brown, yellowish brown and all of a richness that only an artist can see and describe.
Victor is back in Vorontsovo. He has just come but his thoughts are still in Kiev where the autumn is so beautiful.
This is not his first visit there. He has already been to Kiev and he has learnt its streets, roads, parks, theatres, cinemas and old and new beautiful buildings. He easily recognizes the streets, buildings, buses, parks and the noise. Noise is everywhere.
Now he is with his classmates and the usual talk begins.
"I am very glad to see you again. How is everything?"
"Thank you, fine."
"Now tell me, where have you been all the time? I haven't seen you for ages and you haven't written a word. Did you go anywhere?"
"Certainly, I did. I have just come back from Kiev."
"How did you like it? Is it a good place to go to?"
"Splendid! You must go there some day, too."
"I certainly shall. And I shall write letters to you as I know you like to get letters."
Cities. Towns. Villages.
Houses are buildings. Schools and clubs are buildings, too. A shop is a building or a part of a building.
When there are many houses and other buildings together, they make a town. A city is a very big town.
When there are few houses and other buildings together, they make a village.
Cities, towns and villages have names.
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, London, Cambridge, Oxford, etc. are the names of cities.
Cities, towns and villages have streets between their buildings, that is, the buildings are on each side of a street. On each side of the street, in front of the buildings there is a pavement. Between the pavements there is the road. People walk on the pavements, buses and cars drive on the roads.
We can get from one place to another by different means of communication. We can go by train, by airplane (or plane), by ship, by bus, by car, etc.
How can we get from Moscow to Vladivostok? We can get there either by train or by airplane. If we go by train it takes us about seven days. If we go by airplane it takes us about 12 hours only.
How can we get to the nearest town? We can get there either by bus or by train.
How can we get from one village to another? We usually use a bicycle, a motor-cycle or a bus to get from one village to another.
The British Isles lie in the north-west of Europe. They consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and many smaller ones. Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, includes England, Scotland, and Wales. It is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea, and from the Continent by the English Channel and the Straits of Dover. Great Britain and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom (UK).
The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but the surface of Scotland and Wales is mountainous. The mountains are almost all in the western part. The highest mountain in the United Kingdom is Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343 m). The longest river is the Severn. It is in the south-west of England. The Thames is not so long as the Severn, it is shorter. The sea enters deeply into the land and has a great influence on the climate, which is damp but rather mild: the winter is not very cold and the summer is not very hot.
Over 57 million people live in the United Kingdom. Most of the people of Great Britain live in big towns and cities.
The capital of the country is London. The main industrial centres are Sheffield and Birmingham where iron goods are made, Manchester, the cotton centre of England, and others.
The important ports of the country are London, Liverpool, Glasgow and others.
Despite fears that the so-called electronic media — especially radio, television, and videos — might damage book publishing, the opposite seems to be true. Book sales since the introduction of television have increased considerably, well beyond the increase in population. In fact, the U.S. leads in the number of books read per capita. These books range from the most recent best seller or biography to histories, gardening and cookbooks, or technical volumes and encyclopedias.
Several reasons have been offered to account for this fact. First, American schools have traditionally stressed and tried to develop a "love of reading," to make it a habit. This general educational emphasis has been successful. One notes how many people are reading hooks — not only newspapers or magazines — in city buses, airports, during: lunch breaks, or on the beach. Secondly, public libraries have always been very active in communities throughout the country. Here, too, the general policy has been to get books to people rather than to protect the books from people. A favorite way of raising money for libraries is to have thousands of used books donated by the community and then to have a book sale ("Any five for $11"). The money made in this fashion goes to buy new books for the library. Such popular community fund-raising activities also increase the feeling among people that the library is theirs.
The third and probably most important reason is that there are no laws which protect book sellers or fix prices. Anyone can sell new and used books at discount and sale prices, and just about everyone does. Very early, books were sold every where, in drug stores and supermarkets, department stores and 24-hour shops, through book clubs and by colleges, as well as in regular book stores. Many university book stores are student-owned and run. They operate on a nonprofit basis, that is, all profits go towards keeping the prices of books down, for paying the student employees, and often to support student scholarships and other financial aid. Then, there are the large "paperback supermarkets* located in most shopping centers, which sell mainly paperback books on a variety of subjects. These, too, have done a great deal to keep the book trade healthy and growing. Nationwide radio and television shows, new movies, and filmed versions of books have often helped to create spectacular book sales.
I am a student. I am a prospective teacher of biology. One of my hobbies is the English language. It is the most popular language on earth. Many people learn in order to build a successful career or find friends abroad. As for me, I find this language one of the most beautiful in the world. That's why I decided to learn it. I like to listen to English songs. I am glad that I can understand what some song is about without anybody's help.
I started to learn English at school and now I continue to learn it at the university. I often stay at the university after classes, because I am a member оf a research group. I like research work, that's why I often search for new information Most of the articles of foreign colleagues are in English. New ideas in science happen so quickly, that it is impossible to translate everything into different languages at once. But I think it is very important to learn about new ideas as quickly as possible.
My dream is to visit one of the English-speaking countries. I would like to communicate with its people and learn something new about its culture. But now I have some friends abroad. I can send letters to them via the Internet. Most of them are also students. We often discuss our plans for the future. I think young people are very much alike all over the world. And it is very interesting to learn a foreign language and be able to understand it.
There are four seasons in the year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Every season has its fine days and is pleasant in its own way. As for me, I try to enjoy each season of the year. I like warm and beautiful days of early autumn. People often call this period «Indian Summer». In winter the trees are covered with white snow and look beautiful. Besides, winter is a time of joy. Winter holidays are always connected with presents, good mood, parties and a lot of fun. When spring comes, the air is full of freshness and aroma of flowers. Summer brings warmth and new joys.
My favourite season is summer. As I am a student, I may enjoy my summer holidays. They are always full of fun. The weather is usually fine, it is warm and the days are the longest in the year. I may spend a lot of time with my friends. When it gets very hot, we usually go to the river, sunbathe swim and play different games. Sometimes, the weather gets cold. Dark clouds bring thunder and lighting and it starts raining. But I like summer thunderstorms, they make the air fresh and we can see a rainbow across the sky. Besides, in summer the first fruits and vegetables appear. My favourite fruit is a melon. But I also like peaches, plums and cherries. Summer is a really good time for me.
I am a student, so I do not have much free time. But when I have enough time I often watch TV. You may see and hear a lot of interesting information, while watching TV. I like nature, sport and fashion, so I usually watch TV programmes, which are connected with my hobbies. But most of all I like nature. That is why my favourite TV programme is "In the World of Animals". It is a weekly programme. As I watch it not often, I wait for it impatiently.
It usually starts with amazing facts from the world of nature. So I feel interested from the very beginning. Most of all I like to learn something new about the sea inhabitants — different kinds of fish, whales, dolphins, etc. I like dolphins. I may watch them for hours. I have learned a lot about them from the programme "In the World of Animals". They are very smart. That's why these creatures may help people in different spheres оf life. They may also bring a lot of fun with their tricks, especially to children.
I do not like game shows, where people play games or answer questions in order to win money or prizes. But I like to answer questions about animals in my favourite TV programme "In the World of Animals". I have already won several times! I am glad there is such a programme that brings me a lot of fun and interesting information.
I am a student, that's why I should read a lot of books. I like reading. Literature means a lot in my life. It helps me to understand other people better. I often analyze the characters of the books and it helps me to understand the world and myself. I read books by different authors: Russian, Ukrainian, German, and English.
My favourite Russian writer is Darya Dontsova. She is a popular Russian writer of modern prose. The works of this author are smart and really interesting. According to her own words, her novels are based on real facts. That arouses the reader's interest and provokes their own analysis of the events. When I got acquainted with her books, I was really impressed by her wit and humor. The main characters often find themselves in a difficult situation, but they do not give up and try to find the way out. Some of the characters of her books are mean and jealous. Some of them are deeply feeling, faithful and tender.
When I read books by my favourite author, Darya Dontsova, I have a feeling that I may meet her characters even in my native town. I always try to watch an interview on TV with Darya Dontsova. She has a happy family that supports her in her work and in difficult situations. She has a strong character, and she is optimistic. Her brain works as a good computer and she knows how to derive benefit from it. I always recommend my friends to read her books.
My best friends name is Mariya. We study at the same university. I've known her for 4 years. If you see her, you'll like her at once. She is a pretty girl of 21 with long dark hair and a slim figure. But I like her not for her beauty. Mariya is very smart. She is one of the best students in our group and almost always knows the answer to the teacher's questions. She is a very diligent student and is always ready with her homework. Mariya is a very good friend. She is eager to help, when her help is needed. When I have problems, she is the first to comfort me. I also try to help her and to support her in any situation. We share a lot of our secrets. I am sure, her advice is the best one, because she understands me.
It seems to me, we've known each other for ages. Mariya's family is also very nice. She lives with her parents. They seem to be a very friendly family. We have the same hobbies with Mariya — music, dancing and cooking. We enjoy parties, so we often organize them for our friends. Then we cook something tasty, watch TV, dance and have a lot of fun. I am sure we will remain best friends forever.
London is the capital of the United Kingdom. Together with Tokyo and New York is one of the three largest cities in the world. London is situated on the river Thames. It divides the city into north and south. The Londoners call the Thames simply "the river". There are fifteen bridges across the river. The most famous are Westminster, Waterloo, Tower, and London bridges.
The oldest part of London is the City. The City is the heart of London, its business part. Here a lot of banks, offices, and firms are concentrated. During the day the city is full of people. But at the end of the day the businessmen, clerks and secretaries go home and the City becomes silent and almost empty. The City is the oldest part of the capital. Among first historic buildings is the Tower of London, built in 1087. It was used as a royal palace, a fortress and a prison.
Close by the Tower of London is St. Paul's Cathedral. It is the greatest of English churches. Its architect was Christopher Wren. It was his greatest work. The building went on for 35 years. The inside of the cathedral is very beautiful. If you climb on the top of it, you will be able to look over London.
Westminster is another central and important part of London. Here Westminster Palace is located. It is famous for the Houses of Parliament. It is the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower with the bell "Big Ben" is famous all over the world. The Houses of Parliament can be visited by the public. The frescoes on its walls are valuable and very interesting. It is one of the oldest buildings in London. The city has many other attractions and provides an unforgettable image.
American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. Children are required in most states to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn eighteen (generally bringing them through 12th grade, the end of high school). Some states allow students to leave school at sixteen or seventeen.
About 12 % of children are enrolled in parochial or non-sectarian private schools. Just over 2 % of children are homeschooled. The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education, as well as local community colleges of varying quality with open admission policies. Americans of twenty-five and older, 84.6% graduated from high school. 52.6 % attended some college, 27.2 % earned a bachelor’s degree, and 9.6 % earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99 %. The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for twelfth-best in the world.
The most notable characteristic of the American education system is the large number of people it serves. In 1995, 87 percent of Americans between age 25 and 29 graduated from high school. Among those who completed high school, 62 percent completed at least some college, and 28 percent earned at least a bachelor's degree.
Expanding access to college education is an important priority for the U.S. government. In his 1997 State of the Union address U.S. president Bill Clinton called for the creation of new public policy to enable virtually every night school graduate to receive some form of college education.
Americans love to participate in and watch all different kinds of sports. Most Americans are introduced to sports at an early age, because all schools offer some physical education program. These programmes teach rules organization, history and popularity of many American sports and games inside and outside the country.
Since the late nineteenth century, baseball has been regarded as the national sport the USA. Football, basketball, and ice hockey are the country's three other leading professional team sports. Football is now by several measures the most popular spectator sport in the United States. College football and basketball also attract large audiences.
Boxing and horse racing were once the most watched individual sports, but they have been eclipsed by golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR. Soccer is played widely at the youth and amateur levels. Tennis and many outdoor sports are also popular. While most major U.S. sports have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities.
Universities offer the same kinds of sports as high schools. But they are more competitive. A person should be very talented to play on a university team. Often playing for a university team leads to a career in professional sports. Professional high school athletes may be given a special scholarship to a particular university (or Olympic training. In fact, eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States The United States has won 2,191 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 216 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most. Nearly all people of America get glued to their TV screens to watch the final competitions each year.
Since ancient times Nature has served man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase.
Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other things. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever. Many cities suffer from smog.
Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow vegetables.
The pollution of air and the world’s ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man’s careless interaction with nature. Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.
Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries - members of the UNO - have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organization Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.
But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the present but also for the future generations.
Can you think of a day without music? We can hear music everywhere: in the streets and at home, over the radio and on TV, in the shops and in the parks. People all over the world are fond of music. They listen to music, they dance to music, they learn to play musical instruments.
But what is music? Specialists explain that music isn't only a combination of pleasant sounds.
There are a lot of different kinds of music. Some of them appeared long ago, and some are modern. For example, folk music appeared long ago, but it is still alive. There are many local performers, choirs and folk groups in Russia; but perhaps the most famous singer is Nadezhda Babkina. Folk songs are very tuneful and pleasant to listen to. Classical music is often associated with the music of the past. However, this style also includes music being written now, and we may speak of modern classical music. Rap is a modern musical style where the singer speaks or shouts the words in time to music with a steady beat. Such artist as Eminem or group House of Pain are leaders in this style.
Tastes differ. So people's musical interests range from pop and rock music, which are extremely popular nowadays, especially among young people, to classical music and opera.
When I have free time I listen different records. I also like having background music while I am working.
It's a pity that many young people like to listen only to modern music. As for me, I also enjoy listening to classical music. Classical music is always a complex of emotions. It gives me delight, pleasure and a sense of happiness. Not long ago I listened to the Polonez - Goodbye to the nature land, composed by Oginsky. This music is sad, but I like sad music too.
The music I hate is heavy metal. I find it noisy and dreadful. Though some young people are fond of this style of music, it is not to everyone's taste. To my mind, music too loud can destroy our ears. I am indifferent to other styles of music. For example, I don't mind listening to jazz.Each generation has its own tastes.
Choosing a career
Choosing a career is like any other activity; it is best to work to a plan. Too many people start looking for a specific job before thinking out their occupational aims. It is a good idea to begin by attempting to define in clear terms what your requirements are from a career. This involves taking a realistic view of your strengths and weaknesses. You may think for example, that you would like a job which involves organizing people, but liking such a job is not a sufficient justification if experience you already may have suggests that this is not your strong point. On the other hand, you should remember that training will equip you to do new things. A further point to consider is how far you will be willing to do for a time things which you do not like knowing that they are necessary to achieve your longer term objectives. Having thought carefully about the sort of person you are, try to work out a realistic set of occupational requirements. In particular, you can answer to important questions. First: what sort of life do you want to lead? For example, do you want to live in the country or in the town? Is leisure time of great importance to you? Is the size of your salary important? Do you want to put down roots or travel widely? Second: what sort of work do you want to do? For example, do you like working alone or with others? Does teaching people appeal to you? Do you want to be an organizer of other people's activities? Do you want to develop new ideas and initiate changes.
As for me, I have made up my mind to be an engineer. As my parents are an engineers they have made a great influence on my choice and I can say that this profession runs the family. My choice of this occupation didn't come as a sudden flash. I think that nowadays this profession is of great need and importance to our country. It is my aim to be a qualified specialist and to serve the interests of my country. To be a well prepared engineer I should have some important qualities: great capability persistence, knowledge of science and, of course, knowledge of foreign languages. In spite of these arguments we mustn't forget about everybody's vacation. I think that my facilities combined with the knowledge would be quiet enough to succeed in my work.
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