Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Тесты / Test for 11th grade
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Test for 11th grade

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Test (90minutes)



Name, Surname___________________________ Date_______



1. Read the text and accomplish the task below. 30 points

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Throughout history and in every civilization, people have felt the need to communicate in secret. In wartime, military secrets need to be transferred securely to commanders without being understood by the enemy. During revolutions, those plotting to overthrow the establishment need to ensure their communications remain undisclosed. The history of secret communication is long and fascinating. World events have changed on many occasions because of secret messages -secrets that were kept and secrets that were not!
There are two ways to communicate in secret - either you conceal the fact that you are sending a message at all, ('steganography') or you obscure the meaning of your message rather than its actual existence ('cryptology'). Steganography is very old. In 440
ВС, the Greek ruler, Histiaeus, sent a message to a fellow plotter in a revolt by shaving off the hair of his most loyal slave, tattooing a message on his head, allowing the slave's hair to grow back, then sending him to deliver the message. The slave passed through enemy lines easily since he seemed to be carrying no communication. Another very old form of steganography is invisible ink. Inks made of simple organic materials such as milk or lemon juice, which turn dark when held over a flame, were used as early as the first century AD for very serious communications. During the Second World War, both sides raced to create new secret inks and to find developers for the enemy's inks, although in the end this form of steganography became impractical due to the large amount of communications involved.
Although steganography is a very clever way to communicate in secret, it does have an Achilles heel. If the messenger does not do a particularly good job concealing their message and someone finds it, all its secrets will be immediately revealed. This weakness soon led to the idea of hiding the actual meaning of messages, so that they could not be read, even if they were discovered. The result was the development of cryptology.
Cryptology hides the meaning of messages by using codes. Codes are essentially secret languages. Julius Caesar invented one. He replaced every letter in a word by the letter three places away from it in the alphabet. A was D,
В was E, and so on. Later on, any code that used a system of letter replacement such as this was referred to as a 'Caesar code'. Of course, it doesn't take much brain power to figure out most of these codes! Today, code makers devise practically unbreakable codes using highly sophisticated mathematics and computer power.
Are cryptology and steganography used now? Well, you may be surprised to learn that secret communication is a part of everyday life! For example, every time you use your credit card to buy something from a company over the Internet, cryptology is employed. Very complicated codes turn your credit card number into a pile of gibberish that only the retailer can decipher, not anyone else. Steganography is also thriving in the digital world. Secret messages can easily be hidden in email, audio and image files. This is because most digital documents contain useless areas of data, so some of their information can be altered without obvious effect. This is of concern to governments as they fear that criminals may be concealing messages in files sent over the Internet.
One thing is certain - secret communication is still just as much a part of life today as it was millennia ago!

1. Answer the questions

a) What are the two ways to communicate in secret? 4 points



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b) Why is the way to communicate in secret considered a clever one? 4 points



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c) What is the “Caeser Code”? 4 points

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2. Complete the sentences in your own words 6 points

a) In 440 BC, the Greeks ruler Histiaeus______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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b) Steganography does not_______________________________________________________________

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c) Internet credit card transactions____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Give your own title of the text___________________________________________________2 points

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4 Find in the text 4 points

Synonyms for the following words

Formation-

Reason-

Antonyms for the following words

Obvious-

Remain-

5 Why is Steganography still used a lot today? Explain your opinion 6 points



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2. Grammar. Fill in the gaps, open the brackets and choose the right words.

The first computers (to appear)______________ right_________World War II, and since that time they (to change)__________________ not only the lives of Americans. They have been changing the lives of people all over __________world. ______present wherever the man (to turn) ___________, he finds a computer working. Computers in banks can transfer money _________ one account to another. Computers (to use)______________ to launch, guide and track spacecrafts and satellites; they help predict weather and earthquakes. They help people make long distance and local telephone calls. Computers are also used when one reserves space on __________airplane. In medical laboratories, computers have reduced the errors in testing, and they have saved doctors' countless hours of work. Many stores use computers (to keep)____________ track ________sales and orders. Also, many stores use optical scanners to record purchases and total prices. A tiny computer chip (to control)_____________ your washing machine. Computers linked to TV, telephone and satellite networks spread information throughout the world. Without special training it is impossible to understand exactly how a computer does its work. (Nevertheless/ Moreover), many people use computers in their daily lives. Computers (to be)________ everywhere. They are so much a part of our lives that we usually don't even know they are there. Computers (to become)________________ the foundation of the modern working world. Today, virtually all types of jobs use them ________ some degree and all the countries are affected _________ the "computer revolution". In the future computers will be a million times (fast) _________than they are today. They will become (easy)__________ to use, but anyone who has not learnt how to use the new technology will be seriously disadvantaged, particularly in the field _______employment.





3. Outline in writing your opinion on the subject

What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice (18-20 lines)



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Barem

0 – «1»

1-9 – «2»

10 – 18 – «3»

19-35 – «4»

36-50 – «5»

51-58– «6»

59-64 – «7»

65-71 –«8»

72-76 – «9»

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