для студентов 1-го курса экономических специальностей
Методическое пособие для студентов первого курса экономических специальностей, Белоярский 2014 – 53 с.
Цель данного методического пособия – научить студентов экономических специальностей чтению и анализу литературы по специальности, дать им базисную экономическую лексику для последующего использования в практике делового общения.
Пособие предназначено для студентов колледжа или студентов университета на начальной стадии обучения и рассчитано на 30 часов аудиторных занятий.
Методическое пособие основано на текстах экономического содержания, в том числе на оригинальных.
Пособие состоит из 11 занятий. После основного текста следуют упражнения и практические задания, направленные на анализ текстов и работу со словарем. Эти тексты помогут Вам лучше запомнить основные экономические термины, научиться читать, обсуждать некоторые профессиональные вопросы на английском языке.
Некоторые сведения будут для Вас новыми и даже полезными.
- Theme - Text - Grammar – Page
Dialogue: “Greeting people”
The Article; “to be”
I am looking for a job.
Plural form of nouns.
The first four minutes.
Forms of address.
Hints for the office manager
Polite handling of your telephone calls.
The office party.
Applications for employment.
Applications for employment.
The science of economics.
The science of economics.
The Present Progressive.
The Present Simple Tense.
Part 1. The role of markets.
The Past Simple Tense.
Part 2. The seller’s viewpoint.
The Present Simple Tense;
The Past Simple Tense;
The degrees of comparison;
Goods and advertising.
There is (are).
Goods and advertising.
Presentation of a new product.
1. Learn the dialogues:
- Hello! 2. - Hello, David!
Hello! - Hello Peter! How are you?
I’m Nick. - I’m very well. Thanks. And
I’m Helen. You?
Are you an economist? - Not so bad. Glad to meet you.
No, I’m not. - So am I.
Are you a student?
Yes, I am a student of the technical college.
Are you from Kropotkin?
Yes, I am.
All right, see you later.
2. Make up your own dialogue.
3. Make up sentences from the given words.
not, he, school-boy, is, a.
this, nice, is, house, a.
John, always, in time, is, for the lessons.
sister, her, a girl, is, clever.
tall, is, your, boyfriend.
the, an, one, attractive, is, job.
is, only, a, thing, it, useful, not.
4. Put in the forms of the verb “to be”.
… your parents English?
Where … you from?
Excuse me, where … the shop?
What colour … your hair?
How … you? I … more or less all right, thank you.
John … a doctor. No, he … a dentist.
5. Fill in the application for foreign employment and make up 10 questions.
APPLICATION FOR FOREIGN EMPLOYMENT
(фамилия) (имя) (отчество)
Full address: __________________________________________________________
(полный адрес)Special subjects and scientific work:_______________________________________
Предметы специального обучения или научно-исследовательская работа ______
What language do You :
(на каком языке умеете)
The place of Your work (beginning from the last one)
(Место Вашей работы /начиная с последнего/)
Have You had any traumas? (yes, no) ___________________________________
/Были ли у Вас травмы? (да, нет)/
If-yes, what kind of traumas You had: ___________________________________
/Если да, то какие/
Acoustic defects (yes, no) _______________________________________________
/слуховые дефекты (да, нет)/
What kind of defects: _______________________________________________
Visual defects (yes, no) _______________________________________________
/Зрительные дефекты (да, нет)/
What kind of defects:____________________________________________________
Speech defects (yes, no) _______________________________________________
/Речевые дефекты (да, нет)/
What kind of defects: _______________________________________________
The date You can begin to work _________________________________________
/ Дата, с которой Вы можете начать работу /
Desirable salary ____________________________________________________
/ Желаемая заработная плата /
/ Работаете ли Вы в настоящее время ? (да, нет) /
If-yes, can You indicate Your employer ? ___________________________________
/ Если – да, можете ли указать Вашего нанимателя ? /
/ Военная служба /
Kind of troops and the rank_____ A year of coming_____ A year of leaving________
/ Род войск и звание / /Год мобилизации/ /Год демобилизации /
Indicate Your hobby, interests, participation in _______________________________
clubs and professional organizations _________________________________
/ Укажите Ваше хобби, интересы, членство в клубах
и профессиональных организациях /
Date of birth _____________ Height______________ Weight __________________
/ Дата рождения / / Рост / / Вес /
Colour of hair______________________Colour of eyes _______________________
/ Цвет волос/ / Цвет глаз /
Marital occupation (Married, single, widower, divorced) __________________
/ Женат, одинокий, вдовец, разведенный /
Number of children ____ Number of people who live at your expense ____________
/ Число детей / / Число людей, находящихся у Вас на иждивении /
Of Applicant _________________ Date:_____________________
This information will help to put you at ease in whatever strange situation you come up. We are sure it will work-But if you really want to be a success as a businessman, promise yourself:
- to be so strong that nothing can disturb your peace of mind
- to talk health, happiness and prosperity to every person you meet
- to make all your colleagues feel that there is something in them
- to look at the sunny side of everything and make your optimism come true
- to think only of the best, to work only for the best and expect only the best
- to forget the mistakes of the past and press on the greater achievements of the future
- to give so much time to the improvement of yourself that you have no time to criticize others
- to be too large for worry, too noble for anger, too strong for fear and too happy to permit the presence of trouble.
employee - служащий
employer - работодатель
to employ - нанимать
in a fortnight - через 2 недели
We’ll see and we’ll see. - Поживем-увидим.
I’m afraid - я боюсь
to cope with- справляться с чем-либо
may be - может быть
just now - прямо сейчас
As sure as eggs is eggs. - Ясно как день.
First of all - вначале
essence - сущность
to fill in - заполнять
to look for - искать
to earn one’s living - зарабатывать на свою жизнь
I am very much obliged to you. - Я очень вам обязан.
I appreciate it very much. - Я высоко ценю это.
Thanks a lot - большое спасибо
Don’t mention it - не стоит благодарности
to live from hand to mouth - жить впроголодь
inhabitant - житель
salary - зарплата
wage - зарплата
1. Learn the dialogue.
Good afternoon. What can I do for you?
In yesterday newspaper I have read that you need in an employee.
Yes, that’s right. I would like to know what’s your name?
Jane Blackmore Robin Cresweel
Have you worked as an employee before?
Yes. But the trouble is I’ve lost my job. And now I live from hand to mouth.
Your education Mrs. Blackmore ? Robin Cresweel
O key. I can employ you as an employee. Do you agree?
Yes. Thanks a lot.
See you in a fortnight with a filled form.
2. You need to send your Curriculum Vitae* to a firm you are going to work with. Fill in the blank, mentioning some autobiographical facts.
a summary of somebody’s career and qualifications, especially relevant to a job application.
success – успех
to disturb – нарушать, разрушать
prosperity – процветание
colleague – коллега, сослуживец
to expect – ожидать, надеяться, рассчитывать
achievements – достижение, успех
improvement – улучшение, усовершенствование
to worry – беспокоиться
worry – беспокойство
noble – благородный, великодушный
anger – гнев, раздражение
fear – страх, боязнь
trick – хитрость, обман
trade – торговля
to count – значить
to be businesslike – быть деловитым
to encourage – поддержать (разговор)
sacrifice – жертва
duty – обязанность
obligation – обязанность
habitually – привычно, обыкновенно
to win – выигрывать, побеждать
to preserve – сохранять, оберегать, поддерживать
heart – сердце
to secure – обеспечивать
transition – переход
equal – равный
to drop – отбрасывать
rank – положение, ранг
pal – приятель
bud – дружище
darling – дорогая
to prove – доказывать
suggestion – рекомендация
to order – приказывать
to amount to – составлять сумму associate(s) – компаньон, коллега, приятель, товарищ
slave – раб
promises – обещания
to make a note – делать заметки, записывать
in private – с глазу на глаз
in public – в присутствии других
in anger – раздраженным тоном
as well as – как … так и
mail clerk – курьер
assistant – заместитель
He is available now. – Он не может сейчас подойти.
I expert – надеюсь
conservatively – строго (одеваться)
to stay off the telephone – не вести телефонных разговоров
matter - вопрос
on matter of – по вопросам …
to refer to – обращаться к (боссу)
3. Make up your own dialogue
Note: First impressions count so much.
Give personal attention to a man you’re talking to.
Be friendly, polite and businesslike.
Use questions to encourage the conversation.
Look interested while you listen to.
When you’re smiling the whole world smiles with you.
Life is made up not of great sacrifices or duties, but of little things, in which smiles and kindness, and small obligations, given habitually, are what win and preserve the heart and secure comfort.
You should not use first names, even if everyone else does. In an informal first name kind of office, the transition is a natural one. Those of equal rank first drop the “Mr.” and thus invite you to do the same. But until you are well established use the formal address.
Please note: it is never correct to call anyone in business “pal”, “bud”, “baby”, “honey” or “darling”.
Pet names are considered cheap.
You need not go around proving you’re the boss if you are. So here are some suggestions:
- Don’t order, ask and be polite! It amounts to the same thing, but it sounds - and works - better.
- Remember that people work with you, not for you. They know better, but they like to be spoken of as associates, not as slaves.
- Keep your promises. It’s important to make a note of every promise - whether it is something important or something you think less important.
- Criticize, if you must, only in private - and do it objectively. Never criticize anyone in public or in anger. And that goes for the mail clerk as well as for your assistant.
There are three classes of men - lovers of wisdom, lovers of honor, lovers of gain. (Plato)
The measure of man is what he does with power. (Pittacus)
The great leader is one who never permits his followers to discover that he is as dumb as they are.
The most successful businessman is the man who holds onto the old just as long as it is good and grabs the new just as soon as it is better.
Secretary: “Mr. Wright’s office. Miss Brown Speaking.”
Caller: “Is Mr. Wright there, please?”
Secretary: “Sorry, but he’s not available just now. May I help you?” ... or...” Is there anyone else you’d care to speak to?”
Caller: “No - when could I reach him?”
Secretary: “I expert to hear from him in about an hour” ... or ... “He’s at the meeting which will probably last until lunch time” ... or ... “He has someone with him just now, I’m not sure how soon he’ll be free” ... or ... “May I tell him who called?”
Caller: “Well, I’ll call again this afternoon.”
Don’t say: “He’s busy” ... or ... “He’s tied up”. It is impolite.
The receptionist should dress conservatively, sit quietly and attentively, speak softly, address and refer to employees and visitors formally, and stay off the telephone except on matters of business. When the receptionist calls you to say that someone is there to see you, she should always speak in the third person: “Mr. Ross would like to see Mr. Wright” never ” Mr. Wright, there’s a Mr. Ross out here to see you.”
Here are some “Don’ts” and “Do’s “ for the receptionist:
Don’t say: Do say:
Wait a minute May I help you?
Whodya wanna see? Let me ring his office to see if he is in.
Who are you? Is he expecting you?
What do you want to see him about? Mr. Wright’s secretary will be right out.
He’s busy. Won’t you sit down for a minute, please?
There is a problem of making an office “get-together” more like a party and less like a punishment.
The boss should consider the following “Don’ts”:
Don’t offer your own house as the scene of the party. This is usually a well-meant gesture but it is no good to expose your standard of living.
Don’t make a speech.
Don’t stay too long. The happiest move is to slip out.
For the guests, we can offer there pieces of advice which will almost certainly have no effect:
Don’t go if you can muster a reasonable, sorrowful excuse.
If you go, don’t stay too long.
Don’t drink too much!
Give the right answer.
When do people take the decision to become friends?
When they are acquainted.
When they want to receive benefit.
During first four minutes.
When you turned out in a new collective. What form of address should you use?
If you decide to start your own business. What kind of person should you be?
If something has gone wrong in your business you should …
think about mistakes
make all your colleagues to work harder
think only of the best
II. Imagine you are a boss. What should you do and what shouldn’t you do?
You should or you can … You shouldn’t or you cannot…
prove you are the boss
be polite with the employees
speak to your colleagues as you like
keep your promises
criticise in private
criticise in public
criticise in anger
make a speech at the office party
offer your own house for the party
1. Write down the invitation for your boss.
The ceremony began at eight o’clock. As soon as the women are seated, the other men and I sat. I tried wine. It was enough tasty. There was only one dish on the table. Then a man in special uniform brought dishes one by one. Firstly he served the woman on my right then preferred me, then proceed counterclockwise around the table.
3. Put the verb “to have” into the correct form.
She never … milk in her tea.
We usually … dinner.
I … a lot of photos.
He … a lovely day on his birthday.
They … a nice cosy house in the country.
She … no idea what to do.
4. Put the verb “to be” or “to have” into the correct form.
How … your daughter? She … not well today.
… they a telephone in their flat?
… they busy on Monday?
… Helen a new tape-recorder?
Some applicants, realizing that their letter will be one among a great many, try to ensure that it will stand out from the rest by phrasing it in an unusual way, or by making extravagant claims. We do not recommend such a course, which we feel is more likely to create an unfavourable impression than a favourable one.
Applicants often fail to realise how important it is, when applying for a job in Britain, or one with a British firm, to give the reasons why they are applying for that particular post. It is not only a useful thing for the convincing reason often provides a more interesting clue to the applicant's character and personality than does any other part of the application.
It should not be necessary to insist that the application should be as truthful and as modest as possible. No letter, however well written, is likely to prove successful if, at the subsequent interview, the candidate's claims are seen to be overstated.
employment – прием на работу
advertisement – объявление
vacant post – вакантное место
competition – претендент
the writing of the letter – задача
applicant – заявитель
to stand out – выделять
unusual way – необычный образ
extravagant claims – непомерные притязания
a course – способ
to give the reasons – указывать причину
particular post – должность
application – письмо
subsequent – собеседование
to be overstated– заявлять(о чем-то)
to expand – развернуть
responsibility – ответственность
to negotiate – вести переговоры
1. Translate from Russian into English:
Sales Manager wanted by manufacturer of nationally-advertised light machinery. Must have successful record in handing similar product. Write giving details of previous experience, salary, etc., to Box No 351.
Мне бы очень хотелось получить должность торгового агента.
В настоящее время я являюсь помощником торгового агента в фирме “Уиндфлоу лимитед”. Я отвечаю за всю торговлю в Шотландии и Северной Ирландии. Мои обязанности – обучать весь торговый персонал. Я закончил Лондонский университет и получил звание бакалавра. Моя заработная плата сейчас 1500 фунтов стерлингов. Я бы хотел получить более высокооплачиваемую и ответственную должность.
2. Learn the dialogue.
Good morning, sir. Tell me, how long were you in your last job?
Have you got any questions to me?
I’d like to know from you what will be the efforts next year?
We plan to expand our activity to buy equipment and technologies.
What responsibilities do you suggest during the first year?
You’ll be responsible for our contacts, to negotiate.
Are you a leader?
All right. Let’s begin our work next day.
Okay. See you tomorrow. Thanks a lot. Bye.
3. Find the English equivalents for the following (see the text).
Задача еще более усложняется; один из многих; фразы необычным образом; неблагоприятное впечатление; указать причину; характер и личность самого заявителя; как можно правдивее и скромнее.
4. Answer the following questions. Make use of the new words in your answers.
How to compose applications for employment?
What kind of course don’t we recommend?
What reasons is it important to give?
What should we give the reasons for?
What should the application be?
Put the verb into correct from.
Where …… (Jane/come) from? She's English.
What …… (you/do)? I an economist.
…… What …… (you/plan) for future? I …… (to plan) to expand my activity Widely.
…… (my brother/write) letters every day? He …… (to write) letters every month.
…… (she/give) an advertisement on TV? Yes, ……
What course …… (you/recommend)? I …… (to recommend) a simple course.
Where …… (he, give) the reasons in his report.
Insert the correct from of the verb:
Our firm …… many goods and services (to produce).
This advertisement …… the buying of consumer goods (to advertise).
We …… to occupy you a vacant post (to invite).
We … such a course (not, to recommend).
Some applications …… extravagant claims (to make).
He …… that particular post (not, to apply for).
My present salary …… 1,500 pounds (to contain)
I …… economy (to deal in).
This science is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. They study the system, which effects our lives. The economist tries to describe the facts of the economy we live in.
He tries to explain how the system works. His methods should be objective and scientific. We need food, clothes and shelter. If we could get food, clothes and shelter without working, we probably would not work. But even when we have these essential things, we may want other things if we had them, these other things (like radios, books and toys for children) might make life more enjoyable. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants. It is not just concerned with basic needs like food clothes and shelter.
1. Read these words paying attention to the stress
E´conomy eco´nomics eco´nomic eco´nomical eco´nomically to e´conomise e´conomist
2. Answer the following questions choosing the correct form of answer.
1. What do most people work for? - to rest;
to earn their living;
to buy a car.
2. What do some people provide? - goods;
goods and services.
What is the science of economics based upon?
the facts of economy;
the facts of our everyday lives;
- the scientific methods.
3. Complete the following sentences:
People … goods and services.
Services are provided by such things as …
… make up economic system.
The economist tries to describe the …
… is concerned with all our material needs and wants.
4. Put the verbs into the correct form:
The economic situation is already very bad and it … (to get) worse.
We … (to speak) to the manager of the factory.
Economics … (to attempt) to find laws at this time.
At present economics as a science … (to consider) two disciplines.
The price … (not to rise).
An Englishman … (to visit) a shoe factory in London.
What … you … (to do) now?
… we … (to work) this week?
Who … (to accompany) him around the factory?
… goods … (to produce) on farms or in factories now?
What … he … (to buy) at present?
5. Find the English equivalents for the following (see the text):
Производить на фермах, или на заводах; предоставлять как товары, так и бытовые услуги; поддерживать техническую исправность автомобиля; экономическая деятельность; отражать; объективный и научный методы; приятный.
6. Answer the following questions:
Why do most of the people work?
What do the people provide ?
What makes up the economic system ?
What does economy study ?
What are our basic needs ?
Is economics concerned only with our basic needs ?
Now we …the rules of economic system (to disturb).
At present they … the science of economics (to examine).
He … good wage now (to get).
At this time I … at the technical college (to study).
She … to explain this methods now (to try).
They …cars and goods at present (to produce).
What … (you/ read) now?
Where … (I / find) him at this moment?
What …(the manager/ do) at this time?
… (she/ work) at a bank now?
… (they / recommend ) such a course at present?
There are a number of ways in which a government can organise its economy.
An economic system is quite simply the way in which a country uses its available resources (land, workers, natural resources, machinery etc.) to satisfy the demands of its inhabitants for goods and services. The more goods and services that can be produced from these limited resources, the higher the standard of living enjoyed by the country's citizens.
There are three main economic systems: planned economics, market economics, mixed economics.
Planned economies are sometimes called "command economies" because the state commands the use of resources (such as labour and factories) that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions, the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all.
Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet.
A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate. It does, however, have a number of advantages'.
* Everyone in society receives enough goods and services to enjoy a basic standard of living.
* Nations do not waste resources duplicating production.
* The state can use its control of the economy to divert resources to wherever it wants. As a result, it can ensure that everyone receives a good education, proper health care or that transport is available.
Several disadvantages also exist.
* There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies.
* Any profits that are made are paid to the government.
* Citizens cannot start their own businesses and so new ideas rarely come forward.
* As a result, industries in planned economies can be very inefficient. A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce.
inhabitants - жители, население
to own - владеть
natural resources - природные ресурсы
a large amount - большой объем
central planning and direction - центральное планирование и руководство
consumption - потребление
obviously - очевидно
complicated - сложный
to have a number of common features - иметь ряд общих черт
intention - намерение
to comply with - подчиняться
a production target to meet - производственная задача (задание), которую надо выполнить
to enjoy a basic standard of living - иметь основной уровень жизни
to duplicate production - дублировать производство
to divert - отвлекать (напр., ресурсы на другие цели)
a major problem faced by command or planned economies - основная проблема, стоящая перед командной или плановой экономикой
1. Choose the suitable answer.
An economic system uses its resources…
to give it to other countries;
to enjoy a basic standard of living;
to satisfy the demands of inhabitants.
Planned economics are sometimes called:
a) “market economics”;
c)” mixed economies”.
Planned economics are economies…
with a large amount of central planning and direction;
for the management of money;
with the predictions of the models.
Complete these sentences:
Everyone in society receives enough … to a basic standard of living.
The State decides precisely what…
Everyone receives …
Planned economies are economies with a large amount…
2. Find the English equivalents for the following (see the text):
имеющиеся в распоряжении ресурсы; управлять использованием ресурсов; управление экономикой; иметь высокий жизненный уровень; иметь общие черты; подчиняться 5-летнему плану; значительное количество; ставить производственные задачи; полученная прибыль; стимул к эффективной работе; основная проблема, стоящая перед...
3. Answer the questions
1. What's an economic system?
2. What does a standard of living depend on?
3. What's a planned economy? What are its main features?
4. Give the advantages of a planned economy.
5. Give the disadvantages of a planned economy.
4. Translate using the active possible
1. Если хозяйство плановое, то работа промышленности подчиняется плану, в котором государство определяет производственные задачи и планирует развитие на 5 лет вперед.
2. В плановой экономике покупатели лишены возможности влиять на производство товаров.
5. Государство в условиях плановой экономики может гарантировать своим гражданам образование и медицинское обслуживание.
6. Все крупные решения, касающиеся объема используемых ресурсов, структуры и распределения продукции, производства и потребления, принимаются центральным плановым органом.
Ford / to export car Ford’s policy of exporting cars.
General / Motors / to export cars
Proctor and Gamble / to export cosmetics
Microsoft / to sell computer software
Bosch / to sell household goods
Tefal / to sell electrical appliances
6. Insert the correct prepositions in the sentences:
The are a number … ways … which a government can organise its economy.
Economics tries to find laws or principles … building models.
We are speaking … economy.
I always go … the technical college … the morning.
In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which arc favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
Thus, we can see that in a market economy it is consumers who decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire
Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. In a free market individual people are free to pursue their cw/г interests. They can become millionaires, for example. Suppose you invent a new kind of car. You want to make money out of it in your own interests. But when you have that car produced, you are in fact moving the production possibility frontier outwards. You actually make the society better-off by creating new jobs and opportunities, even though you become a millionaire in the process, and you do it without any government help or intervention.
Not surprisingly there are also problems. Some goods would be underpurchased if the government did not provide free or subsidised supplies. Examples of this type of good and service are health and education. There are other goods and services, such as defence and policing, that are impossible to supply individually in response to consumer spending. A cornerstone of the market system is that production alters swiftly to meet changing demands. In a market economy there might be minimal control on working conditions and safety standards concerning products and services. It is necessary to have large-scale government intervention to pass laws to protect consumers and workers.
to intervene - вмешиваться
private enterprise (syn. entrepreneurship) - частное предпринимательство
private ownership (syn. property) of the means of production - частная собственность на средства производства
public property, common ownership - общественная собственность
personal property - личная собственность
state-owned property, state ownership - государственная собственность
private supplies of capital - частный капитал
surplus income available for investment in new business activities - дополнительный доход (излишек дохода), который можно вложить (инвестировать) в новое дело (бизнес)
to employ - использовать; предоставлять работу, нанимать
employer - работодатель
employee - служащий
employment - занятость
unemployment - безработица
to persuade - убеждать
at first view (syn. at first sight) - на первый взгляд
to adjust automatically - автоматически приспосабливаться; приводиться в соответствие
to pursue one's own interests - преследовать свои интересы
to make money out of it - заработать деньги на этом
to move the production possibility frontier outwards - продвинуть вперед предел производственных возможностей
to make the society better-off - сделать общество более состоятельным
to create new jobs and opportunities - создать новые рабочие места, новые возможности
to underpurchase (ant. to overpurchase) - недостаточно раскупать
to provide free or subsidized supplies - обеспечить бесплатное или субсидированное (дотированное) предоставление (товаров, услуг)
in response to (syn. in answer to) - в ответ на
a cornerstone - краеугольный камень
to alter swiftly - быстро меняться
working conditions - условия работы
safety standards - нормы техники безопасности
large- scale intervention - широкомасштабное вмешательство
to pass laws - принимать законы
Command and market economies both have significant faults. Partly because of this, an intermediate system has developed, known as mixed economies.
A mixed economy means very much what it says as it contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers.
The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
significant faults - значительные недостатки
at one extreme... at the other extreme - на одном полюсе... на другом
to exercise considerable economic freedom of choice - иметь значительную экономическую свободу выбора restriction - ограничение
whilst [wailst] (syn. while) - в то время как, пока
to avoid disadvantages - избегать недостатков
to enjoy the benefits - иметь преимущества, пользоваться преимущества! to interact - взаимодействовать
to solve economic problems - решать экономические проблемы
a share of the output - доля в объеме производства
essential items - товары и услуги первой необходимости
1. Choose the suitable answer:
The market economy is based on …
In a market economy it is … who decide what is to be produced.
the owners of firms.
The aim of mixed economies is …
to avoid the disadvantages of both system;
to supply essential items;
to develop some industries.
2. Fill in the gaps with the words:
Consumers will be willing to … for products they desire.
Workers are paid wages by …
A mixed economy contains elements of …
We spend our wages on …
1. Put in the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
Now economists … (to make) predictions.
I … (to study) at the technical college at present.
Economy … (to be) a science.
He … (to be) an economist.
He … (to try) to explain his methods at this moment.
My sister … (not to have got) an economical book.
2. Choose the suitable answer:
1. Services are provided by such things as…
cars and paper;
schools, hospitals and shops;
maize and milk.
The other things might make life more …
It is the intention of the planners that there should be … for all.
enough goods and services;
food and wants.
needs and wants.
3. Insert the correct forms of adjectives.
He is … (clever) manager in our company.
These goods are … (good) than those.
This task is … (complicated) for us.
This building is … (nice) than that one.
4. Insert the correct article:
Economics as (a< the) science consists of two disciplines.
(A, The) state can use its control of (a< the) economy.
I am (a, the) teacher of economics.
(An, The) economic system quite simply (a, the) way in which (a, the) country uses its resources.
5. Match the words which are very close in their meaning:
1. needs big
2. complicated economics
3. large task
4. economy wants
5. target difficult
6. Learn the dialogue and say it from memory:
Fred is remarkable!
Yes, he is. He wants to know every thing. He really gets to the bottom of things.
Do you know what he explained to me today? The ins and outs of the stock market. He knows all about Wall street-all these stocks, shares, stock exchange quotations and what not.
Is he a stockbroker?
If I’m not mistaken, he is.
7. Find the English equivalents for the following (see the text) .
управление экономикой; широкомасштабное вмешательство правительства; принимать законы; быстро меняться; автоматически изменяться (приспосабливаться); быть конкурентоспособным; частные фирмы; краеугольный камень; избегать недостатков; частный сектор; налогообложение; централизованно принимать экономические решения; на одном полюсе - на другом...; без ограничений; взаимодействовать в решении проблем;
8. Answer the questions
What's a market economy?
What's the main difference between a market economy and a planned economy?
Do changing demands affect production? In what way?
What's the mechanism of producing goods and services in a market economy?
What’s a mixed economy? What’s its aim?
9. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text
1. Command and market economies both have __.
2. __ contains elements of both market and planned economies.
3. __ we have a command economy, which does not __, __ we have a free market, where individuals __ without __.
6. The aim of mixed economies is __ the disadvantages of both systems while __ the benefits that they both offer.
7. In a mixed economy the government and the private sector __ in ___.
8. The state controls __ through __, and __, and intervenes to supply
Marketing is a new science. What has been around previously is the art of salesmanship. Salesmanship is the art of manufacturing something and making another person want it. Marketing is the art of finding out what the other person wants, then manufacturing it for him.
In a market of multiple choice, it is no longer sufficient to produce a product and show your customers that it satisfies one of their basic needs. You must show them it provides benefits other products fail to provide that it can be supplied reliably. But in this fast-changing world, competitors catch up more quickly than ever.
Preferences that consumers have for this or that product work for shorter and shorter periods. Choice makes marketing work.
Companies need to be constantly engaged in product development, if they wish to grow and make profits. Coca Cola was successful for many years with one product in one size until Pepsi Cola challenged them with a bottle double the size at the same cost to the consumer. Since the Coca Cola has many different soft drinks, cheeses, wines, movie companies, television production companies, to name only a few of its holdings.
Multiple choices for the consumer is the motor that drives the marketing vehicle.
salesmanship - навязывание, проталкивание товара
basic needs - основные потребности
consumer - потребитель
product development - разработка изделия
challenge - бросать вызов
previously - раньше
sufficient - достаточно
to fail - не удаваться, терпеть неудачу, проваливаться
to provide - обеспечивать
reliably - надежно
competitor - конкурент
to catch up - догонять
marketing - маркетинг, создание рынков сбыта и спроса
1. Answer the following questions:
What is marketing?
Two companies produce the same product … What must they constantly think about?
What is the motor that drives the marketing vehicle. Give the example.
Imagine you are a manager of LTD. You decided to develop a new product … Your steps… ?
2. Continue the following sentences:
Every managers must know …
It is necessary for companies constantly think about …
Any client chooses a product which …
Any product must satisfy …
3. Find the English equivalents to make up the truth word combinations:
1. to make a) benefit;
2. to find out b) the company;
3. to produce c) profits;
4. to satisfy d) a product;
5. to provide e) another person want it;
6. to make f) one of the basic needs;
7. to challenge g) what the other person wants;
4. Сводка случаев употребления Present Simple
to leave, to start, to sail, to return, to arrive, to go, to come
The purchasing agent arrives on Monday.
Закупочный агент приезжает в понедельник.
The employer often rejects job application.
He wants we develop a new product.
We arrive in Madrid in two days.
This complex issue requires further consideration.
I don’t recognize you.
Smith leaves his house at midday.
The lecturer mentions many statistical data in his report.
They possess certain data.
I hear you well.
I don’t know about this project, tell me some words.
We (to change) a traveller’s cheque into local currency.
This bank (to invest) money in our project.
Our shop (to receive) a new lot of suits every week.
The market (to determine) what goods are in demand.
He (to want) to know about direct marketing.
From time to time he (to lay) off a number of workmen.
Companies (to complete) in the market-place.
a traveller’s cheque – дорожный чек
lot of – партия (товара)
direct market – прямой маркетинг (продажа товаров по почте, телефону или по месту жительства)
to lay off – временно увольнять
to be in demand – иметь спрос
to complete – конкурировать
7. Fill in the gaps with the words.
The Republican presidential candidate … tax cuts.
a) advocate b) is advocating c) advocates
The young diplomat … a deft approach to delicate issues.
a) display b) is displaying c) displays
These companies … many recent immigrants.
a) employ b) employs c) are employing
Many enterprises … off a lot of employees because of the recession.
a) lays b) lay c) are laying
A saving bank … safety to the investors’ money.
a) assures b) assure c) is assuring
The company … the secretaries’ salary regularly.
a) increase b) is increasing c) increases
carelessness – небрежность
to cause – причинять, вызывать причину
detriment – ущерб
to advocate – выступать (за)
tax cuts – снижение налогов
to display – проявлять
a deft approach to … - искусный подход к …
issue – спорный вопрос
to employ – нанимать
recent – недавний
a saving bank – сберегательный банк
to assure – гарантировать
to increase – повышать, увеличивать
Reports in the press tend to say "the market did this" or "the market expected good news on the economic front", as if the market were a single living entity with a single, conscious mind. This is not, of course, the case. To understand reports of market behaviour you have to bear in mind the way the market works.
A market is simply a mechanism, which allows individuals or organisations to trade with each other. Markets bring together buyers and sellers of goods and services. In some cases, such as a local fruit stall, buyers and sellers meet physically. In other cases, such as the stock market, business can be transacted over the telephone, almost by remote control. There's no need to go into these details. Instead, we use a general definition of markets.
A market is a shorthand expression for the process by which households' decisions about consumption of alternative goods, firms' decisions about what and how to produce, and workers' decisions about how much and for whom to work are all reconciled by adjustment of prices.
Prices of goods and of resources, such as labour, machinery and land, adjust to ensure that scarce resources are used to produce those goods and services that society demands.
Much of economics is devoted to the study of how markets and prices enable society to solve the problems of what, how and for whom to produce. Suppose you buy a hamburger for your lunch. What does this have to do with markets and prices? You chose the cafe because it was fast, convenient and cheap. Given your desire to eat, and your limited resources, the low hamburger price told you that this was a good way to satisfy your appetite. You probably prefer steak but that is more expensive. The price of steak is high enough to ensure that society answers the "for whom" question about lunchtime steaks in favour of someone else.
to bear in mind (syn. to keep in mind) - иметь в виду
a local fruit stall - фруктовый ларек
stock market - фондовая биржа, рынок акций
to transact business (s)'n. to make a deal) - совершать сделку
by remote control - при помощи дистанционного управления
to go into details - вдаваться в подробности
a general definition - общее определение
a shorthand expression - краткое, рабочее выражение (определение) households' decisions - решения домохозяйств
to reconcile - приводить в соответствие, согласовывать
by adjustment of prices - посредством корректировки цен
to demand - требовать
given (syn. taking into account, consideration) - при условии, что..., учитывая limited resources - ограниченные ресурсы
to satisfy one's appetite - удовлетворять аппетит
to answer the question in favour of smb else - решать вопрос в пользу кого-либо другого
Answer the questions
1. What example is given of a market where sellers and buyers actually meet?
2. How are households' decisions on what to buy reconciled?
3. Why do prices adjust?
4. What problems do markets and prices solve for society?
2. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text
1. To understand reports of market behaviour you have to __ the way the market works.
2. On the stock market, business can be transacted over the telephone, almost by __.
3. A market is a __ expression for the process by which households' decisions about consumption of alternative goods, firms' decisions about what and how to produce, and workers' decisions about how much and for whom to work are all __ by __.
4. Much of economics is devoted to the study of how markets and prices __ society to solve the problems.
5. __ your desire to eat, and your limited resources, the low hamburger price told you that this was a good way to __ your appetite.
6. Society answers the "for whom" question about lunchtime steaks __ someone else.
3. Match the words on the left with the definition on the right.
to bring to market a) выбросить ценные бумаги на рынок
to unload securities on public b) влиять на рынок
to introduce goods to market c) господствовать на рынке
to effect the market d) осваивать рынок
to oust from the market e) поддерживать рынок
to command at the market f) реализовывать (сбывать) на рынке
to keep competitors out of the market g) переполнять рынок
to get into the market h) не допускать конкурентов на рынок
to congest the market i) вытеснять на рынке
to hold the market j) выводить на рынок товар
to market k) выбросить на рынок (товар)
4. Open the brackets
The company often (to launch) its new product in the market place.
We (to sell) our product exclusively trough the market.
We would like (to increase) our share of market in your country.
Many Russian immigrants often (to succeed) very well in business.
Many people (to insure) their property.
Every week they (to purchase) 30 lots of our product.
Fill in the gaps with the given words:
Prices are guiding your decision to buy a hamburger, the owner's decision to sell hamburgers, and the student's decision to take the job. Society is allocating resources - meat, buildings, and labour - into hamburger production through the price system. If nobody liked hamburgers, the owner could not sell enough at a price that covered the cost of running the cafe and society would devote no resources to hamburger production. People's desire to eat hamburgers guides resources into hamburger production. However, if cattle contracted a disease, thereby reducing the economy's ability to produce meat products, competition to purchase more scarce supplies of beef would bid up the price of beef, hamburger producers would be forced to raise prices, and consumers would buy more cheese sandwiches for lunch. Adjustments hi prices would encourage society to reallocate resources to reflect the increased scarcity of cattle.
There were several markets involved in your purchase of a hamburger. You and the cafe owner were part of the market for lunches. The student behind the counter was part of the local labour market. The cafe owner was part of the local wholesale meat market and the local market/or rented buildings. These descriptions of markets arc not very precise. Were you part of the market for lunches, the market for prepared food or the market for sandwiches to which you would have turned if hamburgers had been more expensive? That is why we have adopted a very general definition of markets, which emphasises that they are arrangements through; which prices influence the allocation of scarce resources.
the seller's viewpoint - точка зрения продавца
the cafe- owner - владелец кафе
the rent - арендная плата
to switch to luxury lunches - переключиться на дорогие обеды
rich executives - состоятельные служащие
behind the counter - за прилавком
suitable - подходящий
to suit - подходить
part-time job (ant. full-time job) - работа с неполной занятостью
a bit of money (ant. scads of money) - немного денег
it would hardly be worth working at all - вряд ли вообще имеет смысл работать
conversely (syn. on the opposite, on the contrary) - наоборот, напротив
unskilled job - неквалифицированная работа
to guide one's decision - влиять на чье-либо решение
through the price system - через систему цен
to cover the cost - покрывать расходы
to run the cafe - содержать кафе
to devote resources - выделять ресурсы
to guide resources into hamburger production - направить ресурсы на производство гамбургеров
cattle - крупный рогатый скот
to contract a disease - подхватить болезнь
thereby - следовательно, таким образом
to reduce the economy's ability - снижать возможности экономики
competition - состязание, конкуренция
to purchase scarce supplies - скупать дефицитные ресурсы
to reallocate resources - перераспределять ресурсы
to reflect the scarcity - отражать дефицит
to be involved in - быть задействованным в
the local labour market - локальный рынок труда
the local wholesale market - локальный оптовый рынок
the local market for rented buildings - локальный рынок аренды помещений
precise descriptions of markets - точные описания рынков
to adopt a definition - принять определение
to adopt a child in a family - принять ребенка в семью, усыновить
to emphasize - подчеркнуть, выделить
arrangements through, which prices influence smth - структуры (механизмы), посредством которых цены влияют на что-либо
1. Answer the questions
1. Why is the cafe owner in business?
2. Why don't cafe owners have to pay high wages?
3. What makes society put resources into hamburger production?
4. What would consumers do if hamburger prices rose?
5. How many markets are you involved in if you buy a hamburger? What are those markets?
6. Enumerate all the components comprising the concept of "Market".
7. What does the term "resources" comprise?
8. In what way can prices guide your decision to buy some goods?
9. In what way can prices guide a person's decision to take a job?
Fill in the gaps with the words and expression from the text.
1. The cafe owner is in business because it is still possible to sell hamburgers __.
2. If rents were higher, it might be more profitable to sell hamburgers in a cheaper area or __ to __ lunches.
3. T-he student is working there because it is a suitable __, which pays a bit of money.
4. Society is allocating resources into hamburger production __ the price system.
5. If nobody liked hamburgers, the owner could not sell enough at a price that __ of running the cafe and society would __ no resources to hamburger production.
6. If cattle __, competition to purchase more scarce supplies of beef would __ the price of beef.
7. Adjustments in prices would encourage society __ resources to reflect the increased scarcity of cattle.
8. There were several markets __ your purchase of a hamburger.
9. The student behind the counter was part of the local __ market.
10. The cafe owner was part of the local __ meat market and the local market for __ buildings.
11. We __ a very general definition of markets, which emphasizes that they are __ through, which prices influence the allocation of scarce resources.
3. Dialogue. Learn. Make up your own dialogue.
How do you do. My name’s John Stanley.
(Здравствуйте! Меня зовут Джон Стенли.)
How do you do, I’m Vladimir Ivanov. I’m visiting your country to look into the opportunities for our product in the country and to establish contacts with your company.
(Здравствуйте! Я Владимир Иванов. Я прибыл в вашу страну чтобы оценить возможности сбыта нашей продукции и установить контакты с вашей компанией.)
I think top priority should be give to analyze the market and consider the financial implications.
(Я думаю, первоочередное значение нужно уделить анализу рынка и изучению финансовых вопросов.)
We sell our product in many countries.
(Мы продаем наш продукт во многих странах.)
It’s worth remembering that you may face fierce tough competition from local manufacturers in the area.. What are the advantages of your product over your competitor’s product?
(Не стоит забывать, что вы можете столкнуться с серьезной конкуренцией со стороны местных производителей. Каковы преимущества вашего продукта над продукцией конкурентов?)
Our product is very quality. I think our proposals will be of interest for you and it will prove to be money well spent.
(Наш продукт очень качественный. Я думаю, что вас заинтересуют наши предложения и деньги будут потрачены не зря.)
Have you a good idea of the exact size of the market?
(Вы хорошо знаете истинные размеры рынка?)
I think, yes.
(Я думаю, да.)
Have you considered the cost of reaching it?
(Вы посчитали, во что обойдется вам проникновение на рынок?)
Yes, I have.
We are to evaluate the pros and cons of each proposal. And we can set up a joint venture straight away.
(Нам нужно взвесить все “за” и “против” каждого предложения. И мы можем создать совместное предприятие немедленно.)
We are sure our business will be sufficiently profitable.
(Мы уверены, что наш бизнес будет достаточно прибыльным.)
1. Translate words from English into Russian:
price 1) take part
change 2) export
machinery 3) import
products 4) ship
volume 5) cost low cost
transaction 6) international
profit by 7) goods
quote 8) way of doing
increase 9) broker
produce 10) purchase
2. Translate from Russian into English:
Мы решаем увеличить объем наших сделок.
Мы можем получить от этого выгоду.
Цены на пшеницу падают, цены на нефть растут.
Американские колонии продают много оборудования для промышленности.
Сегодня я цитирую мало цен.
3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian:
The prices for oil go up.
Some prices for machinery go down.
We can profit by the change in the market.
I quote the price.
Country export some product and import other.
Countries profit by these import – export transaction.
Is there anything new in the market today.
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the degrees of comparison:
My car is expensive. Mike’s car is … that my car. Ann’s car is … car in our city.
John’s computer is good. My computer is … that his computer. Peter’s computer is … of all.
My English is … than your English (bad).
Prices for oil is … than prices for wheat (high).
G00DS AND ADVERTISING
Learn the text.
Modern advertisements contain hidden messages showing the pretty girl in the new car or the smiling children round the packet of washing powder is the message that if we buy the product, we also achieve success and happiness. It’s a subtle approach since it seeks to exploit our secret dreams and it is inescapable since advertising is ubiquitous. Giant television bombards us from all sides. They brain wash us into believing that we can realise our ambitions quickly and easily. On the other hand defenders of advertising say that it is beneficial. Advertisements tell us about useful new products. They brighten our lives with colour and music. They increase demand stimulate industry and so keep prices down. On the other hand people would agree that kind of watchdog body appointed by the government or by advertising industry itself is necessary to maintain standards of honesty and to discourage the types of misleading advertisement.
subtle – тонкий
inescapable – неизбежный
ubiquitous – повсеместный
to brainwash – промывать мозги
defender – защитник
beneficial – выгодный
to brighten – улучшать
to increase – увеличивать спрос
to stimulate – стимулировать
watchdog – наблюдатель
to maintain – поддерживать
to discourage – озадачивать
misleading – вводимый в заблуждение
equipment – оборудование
to be interested in sth – быть заинтересованным ч.-л.
to intend – намереваться
to consider – рассматривать
1. Read these words paying attention to the stress:
2. Chose the suitable answer:
1. Advertisements tell us about - parents;
- new products;
- school programmes.
2. They brighten our lives with - joy and laugh;
- colour and music.
3. Advertising increases - demand;
3. Answer the questions:
Do you achieve success if you buy the product?
How do you think advertisements need us or not?
Imagine you are the advertiser. What goods would you advertise? And explain why?
4. Use the verb in brackets in the Present Simple or the Present Progressive Tense and explain why you have chosen this or that particular tense:
I (to sit) outside a pub at Pier now.
I (to have) a drink.
I (to enjoy) the sight.
The city (to be) surprisingly clean.
Some of the old mines still (to operate).
It (to have) a lot of modern industry.
5. Fill in … few, little, much, many.
There are … few figures on my display.
We buy … food and sell … machinery.
There are … changes in the market.
I quote … prices today.
There is … oil in the tank.
6. Translate from Russian into English:
На рынке есть небольшие изменения.
В магазине находится много людей.
В телевизионных программах много рекламы.
В городе много заводов.
На прилавке (counter) мало товаров.
У нас осталось немного продуктов.
7. Say the following dialogue from memory:
Thank you, Mr. Ray for showing us round your pavilion. We’ve liked your textile equipment.
I’m glad to hear such words.
We are also interested in buying your equipment and intend to send you our inquiry.
We are ready to consider your inquiry and welcome cooperation with you.
I hope to sign a mutually advantageous contract with you.
8. Find the English equivalents of the following (see the text):
улыбающиеся дети; стиральный порошок; тонкий подход; использовать секретные мечты; выгодная реклама; реализовывать амбиции; улучшать жизнь; не допускать повышения цен; с одной стороны; с другой стороны; поддерживать честный уровень.
9. Answer the questions:
What do modern advertisements contain?
Whose bombards us from all sides?
What do they brainwash us for?
What do advertisements tell us about?
10. Translate from Russian into English:
В нашей группе мало студентов.
На телевидении много рекламы.
На столе много книг?
На прилавках мало цен на товарах.
У нас много свободного времени?
У меня к Вам сегодня очень мало вопросов.
11. Put in much, many (a) few or (a) little:
He isn’t very popular. He has … friends.
We must be quick. We have … time.
Listen carefully. I’m going to give you … advice.
Did you take … photos?
I’m not very busy today. I haven’t got … to do.
Do you mind if I ask you … questions?
12. Say what is the text “Advertising” about?
Learn the text.
Here is Mr. Lopes's presentation of a new product to his colleagues in Citrus Inc., a multi-national soft-drink manufacturer:
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I'm going to be talking this morning about a new product which we are planning to launch in two months time. It's called KOOL-OUT. It's a lemon-flavoured drink.
As you remember we stopped producing lemonade two years ago. Now we are offering a similar drink with an improved flavour, packaging and design. We have completely changed the label and the slogan. Besides the drink will come both in bottle and can
Now let me say a few words about the selling price.
It will be slightly higher then the price of the lemonade in the past.
In spite of the higher selling price it will compete well with existing brands; the design is more modem, the flavour is more natural and it's low calorie, too.
Well, that's all I have to say for the moment.
product – продукт, товар
colleague – коллега
to launch – начинать выпускать
to call – называть
flavor – вкус, аромат
similar – подобный
to improve – улучшать
packaging – упаковка
label – этикетка
slogan – девиз
can – жестяная банка
in spite of something – несмотря на что-либо
to complete – конкурировать
to exist – существовать
brand – сорт, качество
natural – естественный
calorie – калория
to listen – слушать
to offer – предлагать
to charge – изменять
1. Translate these words combinations starting with the basic nouns:
Lemon flavored drink.
Greek soft drink manufacturer.
UK – built car production.
A new product presentation.
Unemployment and burglaries graph.
2. Complete the sentences paying attention to “in spite of”:
In spite of the high price …
In sprite of the high rate of inflation …
In spite of the rising prices …
In spite of the supply of similar drinks we hope …
In spite of high rate of unemployment …
3. Choose the suitable answer:
If you buy a new product you pay attention to
2. In spite of the higher selling price a new product will complete with
- another product;
- existing brands;
- the other firms.
The drink will come in
4. Translate from Russian into English:
Тебе нет необходимости покупать этот продукт.
Он не может реализовать эти товары.
Можно увеличить цену на товары?
Моя сестра должна ходить в колледж каждый день.
Могу я помочь ему?
Они не должны производить такие продукты.
5. Fill in the modal verbs: can, may, must, needn’t.
You … ring him up.
You … think what you like, but I … be present at the meeting.
He … come here every day.
… I stay in the same hotel? – No, you … You … meet them next day.
My sister … produce goods.
6. Say the following dialogue from memory:
Are you interested in a Peugeot?
Oh, yes. My husband says I could buy a car for my own use. May I see one?
Please … Here it is.
Oh, I like it.
When you buy a Peugeot 205 from us, not only will you get a great price for your old car but – we guarantee to exchange it within 12 months.
I hope I’ll take it. Could I telephone you if I have some questions?
Of course, you may.
Thanks a lot.
7. Find the English equivalents for the following (see the text):
производитель безалкогольных напитков; подобный напиток; улучшенный вкус; продажная цена; в прошлом; не смотря на; более натуральный; более современный.
8. Answer these questions:
Who is Mr. Lopes to your mind?
TO whom did he speak?
What product did he speak on?
Did he make a good presentation?
What advantages of the new product did he stress?
9. Sum up what Mr. Lopes said about the product.
10. Translate from Russian into English:
Эта фирма должна производить безалкогольные напитки.
Ты можешь выбрать подобный напиток.
Эта реклама не должна идти после того фильма.
Можно я возьму твою книгу?
Тебе нет необходимости идти туда.
Могу ли я сесть здесь?
11. Put in the modal verbs: must, may, needn’t or can.
… you come to the meeting next Saturday?
You … be late.
… I phone you on Wednesday?
… I go and see them off? – Yes, I’m afraid you … I don’t feel very well, and I … go .
… I ask you a question?
Номер материала: ДБ-199271
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