Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Презентация к уроку "День Святого Валентина"
Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
In spite of the fact that in the name of a holiday there is a word "sacred", to religion it has no attitude. It is a secular holiday. Nevertheless on February, 14th we recollect sacred Valentine, occurrence of this Day is connected with whose name by tradition. There is a set of the legends connected with history of occurrence of a holiday. The most widespread says, that certain priest Valentine lived in Roman empire in days of board of emperor Claudia. It was in the third century of our era.
To Valentine the severe destiny has dropped out. The matter is that militant emperor has forbidden to the soldiers to marry, that pleasures of the family center did not distract them from military service. Valentine has neglected an interdiction of the tyrant and crowned enamoured secretly. By it it have seized and have grinded in prison. Jailer Valentine, having learned, that the prisoner to all other is engaged in doctoring, has led to it the blind daughter. Valentine has cured the girl, young men have grown fond each other, but their happiness could not come to pass - Valentine executed. However day of its destruction - on February, 14th - has for ever remained in memory of grateful people as a symbol of all-conquering force of love. For this reason it refers to as the Valentine day.
Celebrating of the Valentine's day, as well as any other holiday, especially such popular, has the traditions and customs. So, this day it is accepted to exchange declarations of love, to give each other the gifts, since olden days considered symbols of love, to arrange romantic meetings and walks, a word in every possible way, all accessible ways to show the feelings. The Valentine's day - an excellent occasion for those who is secretly enamoured, at last to open the heart, and for those who is measured to offer the beloved a hand and heart - an opportunity to hear treasured "yes". By the way, begins good tradition this day to arrange engagements, weddings or weddings.
As to customs and signs all of them also are connected with a theme of love mutual relations, search of the половинки, устраивания the destiny. So, it is considered, that this day the woman can approach to nice to it to the man and ask it to marry it. If it is not ready to such decisive step should thank for done the honour and to present the woman a silk dress. Or the man, doing the woman the offer, gives favourite something from clothes and if it accepts a gift, means, agrees to marry. Other sign says, that if in the Valentine's day the girl sees a robin will marry the seaman if sees a sparrow will marry the poor man and with it will be happy, if goldfinch - for the millionaire.
The Valentine's day has come to America in the end of 18 centuries. Then there was a custom to give the beloveds marzipan figures. Marzipan - an elastic mix of powdered sugar with grated, nuts, usually almonds. This mix where sugar makes from one third up to two fifth, gives present, classical the weight so well formed without any sticking together additives, that from it it is possible to stamp sweets. Such marzipan sweets can be glazed (sugar, citric, chocolate glaze) or to remain without glazing that is better as does not deform gentle taste of true marzipan. Marzipan sweets are considered harmless to the health, even useful as in them it is a lot of nuts. But because of an abundance of sugar which was at that time extremely dear, this gift was considered inaccessible. The caramels, devoted to the Valentine's day, did bicoloured, red-white. Red color meant passion, and white - cleanliness. Since 1850th years of a sweet began to sell in cardboard boxes in the form of heart.
The Englishmen, famous the love to brothers our smaller, in the Valentine's day address the congratulations not only each other, but also to four-footed house pupils. By the way, up to now send in addition data and on some ancient English traditions and customs. During age-old times English young men, gathering, wrote names of girls on parchment. Then, each of them pulled a note. That, it pulled out whose name, for the whole year till a following holiday became it Валентиной, and the young man, accordingly, its Valentine. The young man has been obliged to present in every possible way the princess, to sing to it songs under a window, to compose verses, to carry out its any desire. In medieval England children who have been dressed up as adults, went from the house to the house, sang songs about sacred Valentine and congratulated all enamoured. Enamoured inhabitants of the Wales cut out wooden " spoons of love " and gave their beloveds. Spoons were decorated сердечками, keys and keyholes that you meant " has found a way to my heart ".
Mass celebrating of the Valentine's day in the Europe has begun with 13 centuries. So, at Poles it is accepted to visit mother country Poznanskuju where ostensibly are based sacred Valentine's power, and also sacred Valentine's icon which is considered wonder-working hangs. Poles trust, that this icon helps with the decision of love problems. In Denmark beloveds prefer to send each other bouquets of the dried colors. To Italy, the Valentine's day name " in the sweet afternoon " because the most widespread gift by this holiday are sweets. The Frenchmen this day exchange valentines, written in the form of quatrians. And still they have erected a monumental symbol of the Valentine's day. It represents a wall on which declarations of love in the most different languages of the world are put. This wall became the present place of pilgrimage of tourists. That is interesting: in all countries sacred Valentine is the patron enamoured, and only inhabitants of Germany name its patron mentally sick. This day they decorate psychiatric clinics with scarlet tapes, and in chapels spend special divine service.
It appears, the tradition of celebrating of the Valentine's day existed and in pre-revolutionary Russia though it was not approved by orthodox church. This holiday in nobiliary circles was especially popular. Very young girls secretly from parents prepared valentines - silk, lacy, smelling spirits, with dried or real flowers - that then imperceptibly to enclose such valentines favourite in a pocket of a coat, to transfer it with the messenger the boy or to hand over personally. In many solvent families this day receptions with dances were arranged. Draws in which participated not only girls on выданье, but also parents, grandfathers and juvenile nephews were spent also. In the beginning of evening two hats, man's and female prepared. In female шляпку all the invited ladies, including tiny girls and elderly matrons, put a note with the names, scraps of a paper were stored in the man's cylinder with names of all present gentlemen. For long time the tradition of celebrating of the Valentine's day has been interrupted, but about 15 years ago has renewed. Cамыми its hot admirers became teenagers and young men. The holiday has pleased them, probably because in an early age so it would be desirable romantic love. At many schools by this day decorate cabinets with colors and сердечками, in halls establish special post ящички where children throw the valentines. In many cities of Russia there was a tradition to meet near the certain monuments. Sometimes authorities of city go towards to enamoured and establish in parks special " benches for kisses ".
Those subjects which associate at us with concept of love are considered as symbols of the Valentine's day all. These are figures and images of the Cupid or the Cupid - antique gods of love, these are every possible сердечки, including chocolate; these are flowers and голубки, ringlets. And, certainly, special card- valentines. During a holiday symbols are used as soon as it is possible: with them decorate an interior, their images place on cards, a packing paper, boxes for confectionery products, clothes and other. Certainly, them use as gifts.
Each symbol has the traditional sense. The figure of the god of love symbolizes suddenly appeared suddenly love, the image of heart - passionate, ardent love, the glove (or gloves) symbolizes marriage and means the offer of a hand and heart; laces associate with love affair, and rings, certainly, with formation of the new union of two loving hearts. The pair pigeons symbolizes fidelity and tenderness, and also joint care of parents of children. But, perhaps, the most recognized symbol of the Valentine's day is a card-valentine. It designates for the sake of what, actually, and there is this day: there is on the Earth a person who loves you, and wants, that you knew about it.
One of the most widespread gifts at date of sacred Valentine is chocolate. Probably, this choice not случаен as in chocolate the same substance contains, that is developed in an organism of the enamoured person. Not vainly chocolate is considered one of aphrodisiacs, that is the substances strengthening a love inclination. The history of chocolate totals more than three millenia. Initially chocolate was used only as a drink. From language of the Mexican Indians the word "chocolate", water and foam " is translated as " bitter water " or ". The drink was viscous enough, bitter, prepared with spices and odorous grasses. Really the drink has estimated Fernando Cortes, the deputy of king in New Spain. Besides fruits of cocoa were used by local population as money. Having learned about it, Cortes became the richest owner of plantations of cocoa. However through two hundred years chocolate houses have opened almost in each European city and were grew fond level with coffee houses. Chocolate moved with hot rolls and other sweets. Drank it easy and slowly, enjoying tart aroma and unusual taste. XIX century became revolutionary in manufacture of chocolate. In 1828 engineer Konrad van Chouten has invented and has patented hydraulic пресс by means of which of cocoa-beans oil was taken. With development of a civilization process of manufacture of chocolate became cheaper, and chocolate is more accessible. And today we cannot present ourselves our life, and furthermore Day sacred Valentine, without the wonderful inheritance, got to us from ancient Indians - without chocolate.
Speaking about rings as a symbol of the Valentine's day, we, as a rule, mean wedding rings which the man and the woman as a token of a fastening of the union exchange. Though in general any ring initially has deep sense and symbolism of wedding rings is only a special case. The ring is a sign on a continuity, divinity of a life. Means power, advantage, the higher authority, force, the protection, the delegated authority, completeness, cyclicity of time. The ring is identified with the person. To grant a ring means to allocate with authority, to connect itself a word, to attach to qualities of the given person. In religion the ring symbolizes eternity, the union, in Christian religion - spiritual marriage with Church. A ring specify a dignity of its owner. Sapphire in a ring of the cardinal or bishop is a sign on the groom of Church. The newly elected Daddy carries Ring Рыбаря - an emblem of apostle Peter. Коронационное a ring in the Great Britain - a sign on royal advantage and protection of Catholic belief.
Indisputable symbol of love are roses. The bouquet of scarlet roses is considered a dumb declaration of love. In an antiquity considered a rose as a divine flower. The Greek myth says: the goddess Flora once has seen the beautiful girl and has transformed it into a flower; the Aphrodite has added to a flower beauty; three Graces - shine and charm. Dionis fragrant nectar has offered, the Zephyr has inflated clouds that Apollo could water a rose. When the flower has grown, it has been transferred to the god of love to the Cupid and named by queen of colors Still there is a Greek version of that, how a scarlet rose became a symbol of love. The goddess of love the Aphrodite, hurrying up to the beloved, has attacked a bush of white roses, has wounded a leg and has empurpled roses своею blood. Since then red roses is a symbol of love and passion. However in language of colors it is used not only red color though, certainly, in the Valentine's day it reigns and corrects. So, the combination in one bouquet of red and white roses means the union, unity and friendship. Pink - grace and elegance, yellow - pleasure, orange or coral - the desire, a bouquet of claret roses does a compliment to beauty of a beloved, white roses mean " you is divine ", but buds of white roses mean " you is too young for love ". For those who wishes to express any feelings by means of colors, there is a private alphabet of colors.
For those who wishes to express any feelings by means of colors, there is a private alphabet of colors. Pansies - " My ideas are borrowed by you " Aster - " I you love more, than you me " Begonia - " I Offer you intimate friendship " The immortele - " This pain will not cease never " Cornflower - " I do not dare to express you the feelings " Carnation - " Hotly you I love " The dahlia - " Is glad you to see " The hyacinth white - " I is happy, because I love you " Hyacinth violet - " Be with me tender " Peas - " I do not trust in your feelings " Gladiolus - " Give we shall meet " Jasmine - whether " you Will grow fond of me sometime? " Guelder-rose - " If you will leave me, my heart will be broken off "
Violet - " You regret a crocus, what have grown fond of me? " The lavender - " My love is obedient " The lily of the valley - " you so does not paint Anything, as your beauty " Gillyflower - " My feelings to you are constant " Lily white - " My feelings to you are pure " Poppy field - " I Dream of you " Daisy - " You the most beautiful " Mimosa - " I hide the feelings " Narcissus - " You are heartless " Forget-me-not - " Remember me " Lilac white - " Give we shall love each other " The lilac violet - " My heart belongs only to you " Hop - " Give we shall wait favorable circumstances " The chrysanthemum white - " Old love does not rust " Chrysanthemum yellow - «I trusted in you " Chrysanthemums red - " You my secret love "
Heart - one more constant attribute of the Valentine's day. Of what only them do not do! Chocolate hearts put in special boxes in the form of heart. In the same boxes, only small and velvet, place hearts-suspension brackets, heart -ringlets, heart -ear rings. On hearts-pillows write declarations of love. And still they are held in paws by teddy bears, what at many girls the great variety has accumulated already. The imagination of manufacturers of gifts is really boundless! Since olden days heart is considered center of feelings and emotions. Not without reason speak « heart from melancholy » or « heart not a stone ». Heart starts to knock more often from unknown before feeling of love. If the well-known symbolical image of heart to halve and add to everyone половинке horizontal feature two figures " 2 " will turn out, one of them will mirror reflect another. Mirror reflection of two figures by a symbol of love became not casual. It speaks that the love serves as a connecting element in the world. Therefore, having created mirror reflection of the two, receive that is considered a symbol of love. Heart - the perfect image of love as forces which connects the world. Accordingly, two disconnected половинки speak that the love is not present more. But us the whole heart interests, certainly, only!
Laces are considered, more likely, as a symbol of romantic attitudes, instead of love. But In the Valentine's day without romanticism, certainly, to not manage. Laces long time won to themselves such reputation, in fact all has begun in the most prosaic image - with weaving usual fishing networks. In due course the craft has turned to the present art, and networks - in something delightful and absolutely unlike the instrument for fishing. Who the first has thought up to use result of such metamorphosis not on direct purpose, we do not know. In opinion of some historians of clothes, it there were Catholic priests. Special value was betraid in their ceremonial furniture to beauty and solemnity. Quickly enough laces have ceased to be the privilege only priests, them began to use in the clothes and the nobility. Laces of inconceivable money cost. So, for a collaret from the Venetian laces could request dear gold necklace with brilliants. The reference with lacy a lentines was erected in ritual: if lady dropped lentines on the ground, the man necessarily should lift it and return to it. Also there were situations when dropped lentines lift it was impossible in no event. As a result of all these ceremonies the reputation was strongly fixed to laces indispensable accomplices of love adventures. Today laces became attribute first of all a female wardrobe and in general the female world. Something in them is, in these bound ниточках, that forces female hearts учащенно to fight. The aura of romanticism has made laces an indispensable symbol of the Valentine's day.
The first valentines-card with a declaration of love was written by sacred Valentine. As the legend, on the eve Valentine says execute has sent the beloved a touching farewell note with a declaration of love. " Your Valentine " also has signed. Since then valentines-card remain the most constant, most popular and favourite attribute of a holiday of all enamoured! And an integral part of a holiday they became, when in the beginning of 19 centuries the batch production such valentines-card has been adjusted. During old times the one who received valentines-card, became on the whole year (till a following holiday) pair for the sender. The modern tradition differs from that a little, that was earlier - now pair for a year, certainly, do not choose. Today basically by means of valentines-card admit love, especially in secret. Probably, therefore the most part valentines-card has no return address. Very conveniently, especially for timid people, also gives to mysteriousness. Electronic love messages come to our computerized century on change to valentines-card. Probably, they are not so romantic, but time dictates the rules and here it can't be helped. In any case to receive valentines-card always it is pleasant, though anonymous, though signed. Some girls arrange even the whole competitions among girl-friends - who will receive treasured messages more.
- Просмотры: 225
- Просмотры: 447
- Просмотры: 173
- Просмотры: 317
- Просмотры: 404
- Просмотры: 334