CHAPTER 1. Space researches
Orbiting Space Stations……………………………………..4
Space communication systems……………………………...6
Using of satellites in geodesy and navigation………………8
Physics and cosmonautics…………………………………..9
CHAPTER 2. Modern space programs…………………………….10
CHAPTER 3. Processing and analysis
of information of an opinion poll………………………………….11
CHAPTER 4. The practical application of received information….15
The problem of scientific researches in space is very urgent nowadays. Adoption of space depends on the development of new technologies. It is important and daily question for specialists in different spheres: economics, international programs, science and techniques.
Basic space researches influence on development of technologies very much as well as defence industry. The main aspect of biological and geographical space researches is important for land surveyors, cartographers, meteorologists. Progress in many scientific sectors is reached by using means, which are achieved in cosmonautics.
The main purposes of our research work are:
To understand the role of scientific researches in space for humanity;
To analyze the level of senior pupil’s awareness in modern space programs and their attitude to them;
To find out, which scientific researches were conducted in space;
To carry out an opinion poll and to analyze the received information;
To suggest the ways for improvement of senior pupil’s knowledge.
The hypothesis of research is the space adoption influence on people’s lives and development of humanity very much.
CHAPTER 1. Space researches
Orbiting Space Stations
Orbiting Space Stations, as a good basic knowledge for scientific researches, are not only important for The Earth’s physics and meteorology. Conditions, where Orbiting Space Stations are situated, enabled us to use them for other scientific researches.
Firstly, Orbiting Space Stations are in a long imponderability, which scientists still can not create on the Earth. Secondly, it is a deep vacuum, which realization can cause big difficulties, like: high temperature drop, big rate of movement, magnetic fields of The Earth and Sun, cosmic radiation and solar radiation. Recreation of such factors on the Earth, especially in complex, connects with insurmountable difficulties.
Nowadays it is difficult to imagine all qualities of Orbiting Space Stations like experimental laboratory for physics.
Many researches make sense to conduct them in space. For example, the research of interaction of solar radiation in ultraviolet part of spectrum with different substances. On the Earth analysis of this event is limited by size of vacuum pipe, where the substance is located. In space this research is freely from such limits.
Deep vacuum is interesting not only for physics, but also for materials scientists. Materials scientists have an opportunity to analyze mechanical properties of metals and progress of corrosion in deep vacuum.
Orbiting Skylab can help scientists to test the hypothesis that in conditions of imponderability crystals of metals grow and change of structure. Also there is a big importance in questions, connected with interaction of cosmic radiation on different materials, which could be used in building of future spaceships. As it is well known, such researches were examined with: silicon, titanium, bismuth, magnesium, nickel, iron and lead on the satellite “Discoverer XXV”.
Orbiting Space Stations successfully determine with the problem of using a solar energy, which 90% is reflected and absorbed by the Earth atmosphere. Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie attached big importance to using solar radiation in different techniques and scientific researches.
Also he suggested using the solar energy for mass photosynthesis of materials, which contain the carbon exploiting other substances like in case with chlorophyll in green plants.
OSS will test new types of engines for space ships. “Testing of ionic engine should be organized in conditions which are close to space” – say the specialist from NASA. The experiments on the orbits will help to hold the technical control of ionic engine’s construction and to solve other important problems, for example in the sphere of radio communication.
The creation of OSS has very good prospects for biologists. They would be able to study the influence of space environment on living organisms if they entered in space. It is important to study questions connected with human’s adaptation to conditions of space flight.
Likewise, biologists are take interest in problems such as existence of living organisms beyond the Earth. Solution of these problems would help scientists in researches in organic chemistry, for example chemicals analyze of meteors.
In the space scientists can test Dziolkovsky’s hypothesis that in conditions of imponderability all living organisms are development quirkier then in the Earth conditions.
These entire hypotheses scientists would confirm or reject only if they will build space research institute on the orbit.
1.2. Space communication systems
Using of space techniques essentially raised effectiveness of communication systems, which make it possible to connect all edges of the Earth.
Moreover, the range, which is used on the earth-based techniques, can not make a good communication. Often is occurs whole malfunction of communication, because of magnetic storms. All these problems are limited the quality of communication and reliability of global radio communication.
When scientists launched the first satellites, people got new opportunities for improvement of communication, of its efficiency and reliability. Satellites are let the opportunity to share big amount of information for long distance.
Using the artificial satellites of Earth in communication system is based on retransmission which reflects the signals using the apparatus of satellite. Firstly, the retransmission is passive, and secondly – is active. Passive satellites propagate the signals without delay, they provide momentary retransmission.
Such satellites are simple in construction and quite cheap. They are reliable in work and can serve for a long time.
American satellites from pilot study, like “Echo” worked using the method of passive retransmission. It has shown that communication of this method is not enough effective, because they require high power and heightened sensibility of earth-based techniques. Despite the cheapness of satellites, the earth-based stations are difficult to build and they have high prices.
Space active retransmission is much more perspective method than a passive one. In this case apparatus of satellite receives radio signals from Earth, reinforces and transmits them to the Earth. Earth-based stations do not require high power and heightened sensitivity, so it is easier and cheaper to found them. The communication of this method is very effective. These factors define using the active retransmission for the space communication system.
1.3. Meteorological researches
Nowadays the development of technology and economics has new requests to the meteorology. Some years ago scientists made a weather forecast for small areas, but now meteorologists need full information about hydrometeorological conditions and about it future changes in the world, because of development in aviation and in sea spheres.
To forecast the weather for a long period, scientists need to create a theory about whole circulation in atmosphere, what is impossible without meteorological researches all over the world. However, nowadays there are about 10 thousands of weather stations, but even they can not solve this problem. Almost 80% of Earth surface is unknown for meteorology. Uncontrolled part of atmosphere not only has huge size, but also situated above districts, which are important in formation in weather phenomenon.
Only the meteorological satellites make it possible to look widely at the atmosphere, these satellites can give any information about the weather all over the world. Furthermore, satellite can help to gather all information from all Earth-based meteorological stations.
Thus, space technology will become the most effective way in meteorology, which is having big economic importance for science. Today the first meteorological satellites gave to scientists lots of important information. For example, “Space-144” found out that from Vrangel’s Island to Berengov strait the ocean do not have an ice. Using of meteorological satellites help to meteorologists to detected typhoons and hurricanes, like “Betcy”, “Ester”, “Nancy” and “Pamela”.
1.4. Using of satellites in geodesy and navigation.
Geodesy is a science which explores the shape, the sizes of Earth and also its gravitational field, and ways of representation of earthy surface on maps and plans.
Navigation is a process of controlling of an object which has its own ways of movement.
The artificial satellites have opened a new epoch in measuring of Earth – the epoch of space geodesy. They brought in the science a new quality – globalization. It became simpler to found a geodesic basement for big areas, the amount of stages in measuring decreased, because the visibility of territories is quite big from the satellite. The medium distance between two points is about 10-30 km in classical geodesy, but it is much bigger in space geodesy (about 1-3 thousand km).So transmission of information between islands and continents simplifies through the water area, and because of that more accurate geodesic net can be founded.
The main method of space geodesy is contemporary observation of satellite from the ground-based points. There various parameters are measured such as speed and distance. New optical generators and lasers have good prospects in measuring technologies of space geodesy .They allow us to make more accurate measures than with radio engineering means.
All in all the space geodesy helps us to make true measures and to detect coordinates of any points on the surface of Earth and to make topographic maps of any district of the Earth.
1.5. Physics and cosmonautics
The development of cosmonautics led us to enrichment of physical science by basic discoveries in areas of astrophysics and space radiation. The necessities of space techniques have encouraged researches in sphere of ionic physics. The application of rocket fuel with low temperatures, creation of electric generator of high power led us to necessity to learn deeply the liquids with low temperatures, their behavior in conditions of imponderability. Creating of easy and reliable systems with small power consumption stimulated the development of physics of superconductivity. The development of space energetics allows people to improve existent sources of current. For example, combustive elements, which produce a current through electrochemical processes and are used in space ships, could be used in automobiles in the future. It will eliminate one of the main sources of pollution of atmosphere - internal-combustion engine.
Combustive elements might be introduced also in industry and agriculture. So it would be comfortable and effective source of energy. Also improved accumulators and solar batteries would be used in other various sectors of national economy.
CHAPTER 2. Modern space programs
Space programs of the present and the future
The federal space program of Russia about space means for basic space researches includes lots of projects since 2006 to 2015 year. One of these projects is launching the observatory for getting the results of astrophysical observations, for detecting the nature of “dark matter” in universe, for development of theory of origin of space beams and physics of elementary particles and so on. The launches of space observatories were in 2008, 2010 and are planned in 2011, 2013, 2016, 2018 year.
Also other projects, which can be realized by installation of scientific equipment on native apparatus, are planned. But the native apparatus can be intended for solution of other economic problems. There is a possibility to realize the space projects installing the native scientific apparatus on foreign space equipment of scientific purpose. Nowadays such projects are quite successful. For example, Russian apparatus “Hand” was installed on the side of space apparat of NASA “Mars- Odysseus”.
Russian scientists are collaborators, so they participate in all scientific experiments of apparatus “Mars- Express” and “Venus-Express”. The launches of space apparatus could be explained by the necessities of researches in area of space biology, physiology and material authority. For example, “Bion-5” is a space complex which provides the research of parameters for physiological condition of biological objects in the space. Also providing humanity with prolonged flights in space is one of the purposes of “Bion-5”. The launches of “Bion-5” are planned on 2010, 2013 и 2016 years.
CHAPTER 3. Processing and analysis of information of an opinion poll
We carried out an opinion poll for finding out the level of senior pupil’s awareness in the sphere of modern space researches and programs and there attitude towards them.
We composed 4 questions to get the information for our opinion poll.
1. How can you assess the role of cosmonautics in our life?
a) It is very high
b) It is high
c) It is insignificant
d) I don’t know
2. Is it a necessity to go on the assimilation of space in your opinion?
a) Yes, of course
b) May be yes
d) I don’t know
3. What do you know about the researches which are conducted in the space?
4. In what areas of the sciences do people make experiments in space?
The first two questions allow us to assess the urgency of problem of space researches in opinion of pupils from 10-11 forms. After analyzing of questions we get the information. The 35 % of respondents answered “It is very high” on the first question, 62% of respondents suppose that “it is high” and just 3% of respondents consider that the role of cosmonautics “is insignificant”
The second question: Is it a necessity to go on the assimilation of space in your opinion? 82% of respondents answered “Yes, of course”, 15 % - “May be, yes” and 3% of respondents consider that it isn’t a necessity
Basing on the received information we made a conclusion:
The role of space researches is very high in senior pupil’s opinion. The biggest part of them is confident that people should go on conducting the researches in space.
The third and fourth questions required the pupil’s own answers and their purpose was to find out the level of senior pupil’s knowledge about contemporary space programs.
Unfortunately these questions caused some difficulties. About 18% of respondents answered the third question (What do you know about the researches which are conducted in the space?) “I know nothing about them”. The answers which were given by other 72 % were similar to each other: launching satellites, learning the influence of the weightiness on living organisms and searches of life on other planets. On the 4th (In what areas of the sciences do people make experiments in space?) question lots of sciences were named: biology (53%), chemicals (24%), astronomy (59%), physics (41%), geography (24%), geology (6%), astrology (12%) and even ecology (3%). Only 9 % of respondents did not give the answers on this question. The results of the 4th question we can see on the diagram.
CHAPTER 4. The practical application of received information
The results of our research can be applied on practice. Basin on information which was received from the opinion poll we can work out the plan of activities to improve the knowledge of senior pupils about modern space researches and programs. We can suggest different forms of such activities: extra classes, clubs, holidays, making projects and presentations, organizing quizzes, contest and competitions. Every form has advantages as well as disadvantages, so they should be applied in a complex to have a good effect on students.
We consider that it would be a good idea to add astronomy to main lessons in all schools; it will allow students to get the basic level of knowledge about cosmonautics and to broaden their horizons.
The advantage of this method is that it is orientated on all students. However the system like lesson might not allow children to express themselves in the best way or to express their intellectual and especially creative abilities. In addition, the subject will be interesting not for all pupils, so it can cause some difficulties for teachers.
Another way to organize the learning process of astronomy in schools, gymnasiums and lyceums is arrangement of extra classes. So only people, who want to study astronomy will visit it. We can also organize different holidays and competitions. All senior pupils can be the organizers of these activities. It allows children to express themselves and to create different things. Desire of the victory is a good stimulus to improve the knowledge about the astronomy. Such activities will develop nonstandard thought and positive pupil’s attitude to the subject.
The realization of all ideas is possible for all schools, gymnasiums and lyceums.
For example, in our gymnasium we have a stand in our museum which is dedicated to space and especially to Yuriy Gagarin. Every year we organize a special event in class about space and space researches. Also we go to excursions in museums such as “Museum of Kondratuk”, the museum in scientific city in Novosibirsk and in planetariums.
The problem of space researches is very urgent nowadays. Space projects give other sciences, such as physics, meteorology, chemicals, physiology and geodesy and so on, an opportunity to develop rapidly. The way of mankind to the progress is the way of application of the space. We can’t imagine our lives without cosmonautics: watching a TV, talking on the phone, listening to the radio and finding out the forecast or the weather…At the same time the role of space researches is getting higher and higher.
Launching artificial satellites on the orbit of Earth or Moon has very big practical interest. Harmful and polluting waste products from manufacture can be launched to the Moon. Also unique optical instruments, large crystals, very clean chemical elements and medicines could be produced in conditions of flight: in vacuum and imponderability.
Carryover of harmful and polluting waste products from manufacture will have a very special meaning for humans. The technical progress in the space rocket system and creation of radio electronic and optical equipment allowed people to start to solve the specific problems. Among them, the problems, connected with global researches of nature resources of Earth and environment, have very important meaning. It can be explained by two main reasons.
The first reason is that the economy of humanity increases every day and requires the development of new nature resources for production; the second one is that men and their production activity are influencing on environment stronger and stronger. The question was about the minimal level of influencing the environmental system of Earth last years, but now we are forced, basing on deep knowledge about biosphere, to change the conditions of it, but in such way in which we would save our environment in suitable conditions for living people.
We can solve these problems only with a help of cosmonautics. All in all, space researches have enormous practical meaning for all people as well as for every separate person.
It is very important to study astronomy in high schools, because space researches play big role in our lives. Students should get the basic level of knowledge in this subject. Studying can be realized through organization of different activities, competitions, contests, quizzes and extra classes. The most effective way is to alternate them or to use in complex.
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