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Х SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CONFERENCE PROGRESS
Similarities and differences of the London Tower and Peter and Paul’s Fortress
Burtseva Victoria Vladimirovna
Student 7th Form,
School № 92 (Tyumen)
Kadushkina Svetlana Vladimirovna
Plan of research
Chapter I:The History, traditions and legends of the Tower of London………………………...5
The history of the Tower of London…………………………………………………………5
The traditions and legends of the Tower of London………………………………………….9
Chapter II: History, traditions and legends of the Peter and Paul Fortress………………………11
2.1 The history of the Peter and Paul Fortress…………………………………………………...11
2.2 The traditions and legends of the Peter and Paul Fortress…………………………………...13
Chapter III: Comparative analysis of two objects……………………………………………….15
Appendix 1 (Student Survey)……………………………………………………………………20
Appendix 1 (Booklet)……………………………………………………………………………21
Nowadays there are many monuments that are the visiting card of the city, countries whose history and traditions are passed down from generation to generation. They attract the attention of thousands of tourists not only by the greatness of their buildings, but also by legends, the secrets. They store in themselves the spirit of the era in which they were created. Each country is rich in its traditions, sights and unique history. It has its own color, its individuality, but at the same time it has something in common with the history and tradition of other countries. Does this only apply to history and traditions, and can we talk about the similarities of the sights of different countries and the reasons why these buildings and monuments were created? In our work, we describe the main similarities and differences between the Tower of London (Great Britain) and the Peter and Paul Fortress (Russia).
The purpose of our work is to learn history, traditions and legends of two cultural monuments (the Tower of London and the Peter and Paul’s Fortress).
1.Tomake a survey "Do you know something about the Tower of London and Peter and Paul’s Fortress?";
2. To study the theoretical material on the history and traditions of the Tower of London and the Peter and Paul’s Fortress;
3.To summarize the theoretical material;
4.To make a comparative analysis of the Tower of London and Peter and Paul’s Fortress;
5. To make a booklet "The Tower of London and Peter and Paul’s Fortress".
Object of study: The Tower of London and the Peter and Paul’s Fortress.
The subject of the study: history and traditions of two monuments.
Methods of research: a survey, analysis of literature on the topic, synthesis, comparison.
The relevance of this work is that the two great ensembles of the London Tower and the Peter and Paul’s Fortress enjoy world-wide fame. The human tragedies that took place in these places, the centuries-old history attracted people's attention for a long time, and this could not but interest us.
For the work the topic "Similarities and differences between the Tower of London and the Peter and Paul Fortress" was chosen. The topic of the work under review is quite relevant at the moment, it is impossible to learn the language without having an idea of the country of the studied language and its inhabitants and the history of the country.
Research work is structured correctly, logical, the goal and tasks are clearly formulated, there are moments of research of a scientific nature and a conclusion on work. The student studied the material that goes beyond the school curriculum, accompanied by independently found calculations of an illustrative nature. The content answers the chosen topic, which is disclosed sufficiently, given the age of the author of the work.
Chapter I:History, traditions and legends of the Tower of London.
The history of the Tower of London
The Royal Palace and her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress - better known as Tower of London – historical castle on the northern land of the river Thames. It was based in 1066 by Wilgelm II. Tower has been used by castle, royal residence, prison, arsenal, mint and for other purposes.
In the Middle ages, the Tower played important role in the state's history. He symbolized the power of English kings over the whole country. In the tower were stored the treasures of the British crown and in prison there were the most dangerous criminals.
The story of the tower of London began with the construction of the White tower -a huge structure that combines the functions of a Royal residence and fortress. The exact date of the beginning of the construction is not known, but it is traditionally believed that it was laid in 1077 under the leadership of Gandalf, Bishop of Rochester. Later, the White tower gave castle the name of the Tower of London (the thickness of the walls of the White Tower reaches almost 4 meters). In 1097 king William II ordered to build a stone wall around the White tower.The White Tower became the heart of the tower.
Probably, the Tower existed unchanged until King Richard I Lion's heart (years of rule: from 1189 to 1199). Virtually all of his reign Richard I conducted in constant wars outside of England, and the real power in the kingdom was carried out by Lord Chancellor William Longchamp. At the initiative of the latter, given the threat of war with his brother Richard, the castle's territory was doubled and surrounded by a moat with water. Henry III (reigns: 1216-1272) spent a lot of time in the Tower of London, and several times gathered in his walls the parliament (in 1236 and 1261). With it, almost all the fortifications in the territory were built, which were added to the castle by two of its predecessors (Richard I the Lionheart and John the Landless). Henry III built stone walls and nine towers (seven of them remained unchanged to this day). Nowadays, this territory is called the Courtyard.
All the towers of the Tower were used as the location of residential and administrative premises: in the Bell Tower hung a watchtower, in the tower of the Luke master there were workshops where bows, crossbows and siege weapons were made; Tower Lantorn - a large lighthouse (from the Old English lanthorn - "lamp, lantern"), indicating the way the ships passing through the Thames.
The main entrance to the castle under Henry III was located in the western wall. It is believed that the towers on the south side - Wakefield and Lantorn - served as personal queen and queen chambers respectively. Between the towers was built a large hall for special occasions.
Next to the Wakefield Tower, the Bloody Tower was built to give access to the castle from the side of the river. It acquired its name after in 1483 it became the site of the murder of 12-year-old Edward V and his 10-year-old brother Richard of York, named among the people by the princes of the Tower.
Edward I (reigns: 1272-1307), although rarely visited in London, but still continued expensive work to expand the Tower. A second line of walls was built, including two bastions (in the north-west and northeast corners) and dug a new deep ditch 50 meters wide.
In 1278, the Tower became the place of confinement of 600 London Jews accused of corrupting coins (in the Middle Ages, when there were no accurate scales, this practice was very common - from the coins were chopped off or sawed off small pieces).
By the beginning of the XIV century, the Tower had acquired a modern look. Under Edward II (reigning years: 1307-1321), little occurs in the walls of the Tower. For the first time, the Baroness Margaret de Claire, a baroness, became the prisoner of the Tower, who refused to let Queen Isabella into her castle; moreover, she ordered the archers to shoot, which led to the death of six people in the royal escort. Note that the Tower as a prison was intended primarily for important prisoners and was the main prison in the country, but far from the most reliable. Cases of shoots were not uncommon.
In 1460, the Tower was besieged by the troops of the Yorkists. The castle was heavily damaged by artillery fire, but surrendered only after the capture of King Henry VI of Lancaster at the Battle of Northampton. During the war (1460-1470), the castle was modernized to withstand firearms, and loopholes for cannons and arquebus were made in the walls.
Kings of the Tudor dynasty, who ascended the throne in 1485 (as a result of the successful Rose War), reluctantly stopped in the Tower, and in 1509 Henry VII finally moved his residence to Westminster. To protect the castle and supervise the inmates, a special guardian was created - the Yomens, now more commonly known as beefitters.
During the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547), the deplorable state of the Tower's fortifications was recognized. A considerable amount of money was allocated for their repair, but even despite the reconstruction, the castle is hopelessly outdated as a fortification. In addition, repairs were limited only to walls and towers, while restoration of palace buildings and royal living quarters did not even begin. Therefore, since 1547, the Tower was used as a residence only in special ceremonial cases: for example, Edward VI, Maria I and Elizabeth I stayed in it before the coronations.
Already in the XVI century, the Tower of London acquired a gloomy and very persistent reputation for prison and torture. The reputation, not quite deserved, appears thanks to the religious pamphleteers of the 17th century and the novelists of the XIX century. The use of torture was not frequent, since in each case they had to be approved by the Privy Council. From 1540 to 1640, only 48 cases of torture were recorded.
The executions were usually carried out not in the castle itself, but nearby - on the Tower Hill (for 400 years 112 people died on this site). In the castle itself, until the twentieth century, only 7 people were executed - usually they were individuals whose public execution could provoke unrest among Londoners. Today, on the site where the scaffold was located, a special memorial was erected. In particular, among persons executed in the Tower were:
Anna Boleyn (1507-1536) - the second wife of Henry VIII, mother of Elizabeth I. Accused of state and adultery;
Catherine Howard (1520-1542) - the fifth wife of Henry VIII and cousin of Anna Boleyn. Accused of adultery;
Jane Gray (1537-1554) is the great granddaughter of King Henry VII, an uncrowned queen who ruled for 9 days in 1553. After the deposition was imprisoned in the castle and executed with her husband Guildford Dudley.
In 1774, a new gate was built, connecting the pier with the outer courtyard. The moat surrounding the castle was filled and shallow, so in 1830 the Duke of Wellington, who, among other things, held the post of the constable of the Tower, ordered the work to clean the moat. However, this did not solve the problems with sanitation, and in 1841 an epidemic erupted among the garrison (obviously, cholera). To prevent this from happening again, it was decided to drain the ditch and fill it with earth, which was done in 1845. At the same time, the construction of the Waterloo barracks began, which could accommodate up to 1,000 soldiers, and several separate premises for officers. Today the headquarters of the Royal Fusiliers Regiment is quartered in them.
During the First World War, 11 people were convicted in the Tower, convicted as German spies. And during the Second World Castle again became a prison. In the same year 1941, the last death penalty was executed in the castle - the German spy Josef Jacobs was shot. Also during the war years, the Tower last performed defensive functions.
In the 21st century, tourism became the main function of the Tower. Almost all the military institutions once housed in the castle moved, although the ceremonial headquarters of the Royal Fusiliers Regiment and the museum of this regiment are still located here. Also, one of the units of the Royal Guard, guarding Buckingham Palace, still stands on the Tower guard and, together with bifitters, takes part in the evening key Ceremony. Several times a year, the cannons of the Tower remind themselves of themselves - they give 62 volleys on the occasion of events connected with the royal family, and 41 volleys in all other cases.
The traditions and legends of the Tower of London.
The ceremony of keys in the Tower - this tradition is unshakable for seven hundred years. Every day, at exactly 21.53 the keeper of the keys leaves the Byward tower, he is guarded by keys. The Guardian is dressed in the Tudor dynasty costume. The security locks the Main Gate and approaches the Bloody Tower, a traditional dialogue begins, which begins with the words: "Stop, who goes?" And ends: "God, save Queen Elizabeth." At night, the keys are kept in the residence of the manager. It is interesting that this tradition is unshakable under any causes, it was detained for half an hour in 1941, during the direct attack of the Tower by Nazi bombers.
Black ravens, who live in countless numbers in the Tower of London are not only the main legend, but also the real symbols of the castle. The first raven appeared in the Tower in 1553 in the nine days of the reign of Jane Gray and pronounced the famous "Viva!" Since then, the black raven was the herald of a terrible punishment, it invariably came to those who were doomed, it happened until the time when the Tower was not just a museum.
Now there is a belief that as long as there are winged guardians in the Tower, the British crown will prosper. Charles II issued a decree according to which at least six black ravens should be permanently in the castle, and a special curator must keep them. This tradition is clearly observed and today, a substantial budget is allocated for the maintenance of the seven crows (one in the "reserve"). Each raven has a name and a spacious aviary, each has his own character. Their daily ration includes 200 grams of fresh meat, blood biscuits, fried toast. Tourists are happy to watch the living legends.
The famous Castle Tower can also be called a classic country of ghosts. The imagination of the English for centuries excited the spirits of kings and buffoons, nobles and knights, romantic lovers and beautiful ladies. Here, over the past centuries, a great number of people have been executed. Probably, this was the reason that it is within the walls of this castle that many ghosts live, which constantly reveal themselves to the world.
The most common ghost of the castle can rightfully be considered the bringing of the King of England - George II. If you believe the rumors the king was waiting for a messenger from Germany, but without waiting for important news, he died of a heart attack. From time to time the lonely silhouette of George II is shown in the windows of the Tower, causing considerable surprise to the people walking in the park.
If you walk through the Tower of London, there are all chances to meet the ghost of a decapitated woman. It is believed that this is the ghost of Anna Boleyn.
Under the roof of the Tower, the spirit of Archbishop Thomas Becket, who was murdered in the 12th century on the steps of the Canterbury Cathedral, was sheltered. The ghost of the archbishop left his refuge only after Henry III (his grandfather killed Becket) built a chapel in the castle. There are in the castle walls and very young ghosts of little princes - King Edward V and his brother Richard. When they were killed, they were only 12 and 9 years old. Their images, as if dressed in white robes and holding hands, many times appeared to guests who visited the Tower of London.
Chapter II:History, traditions and legends of the Peter and Paul Fortress.
2.1 The history of the Peter and Paul Fortress.
The beginning of the 18th century was marked by a twenty-year war with Sweden, during which the lands were conquered near the banks of the Neva. To protect themselves from uninvited invaders, there was an urgent need for protection. For these purposes, in 1703 the erection of the fortress on the Hare Island began. The process was led by a French engineer, Joseph Gaspar Lambert de Geren, who was close to Peter the Great.
The fortress was decided to be called St. Peter Burkh and was built according to the rules of the West-European bastion system. It is considered to be the historical center of the northern capital, although the plans of the tsar did not include the construction of a whole city at the time. Here, various buildings and structures were erected. Over time, they formed a unique architectural ensemble, where the monuments of different eras and styles were harmonious .
The fortress began to be guarded on May 16, 1703. Wood and earth were used as building materials. This method allowed to accelerate the process of erection. For the good of the Russian land forced to work prisoners of the Swedish soldiers. Heavy construction conditions drove the prisoners to exhaustion and death. There were also secret passages, of which only trusted officers knew the existence. Their remains were seen during the reconstruction.
On the plans, the fortress was an irregular hexagon, which basically repeated the shape of the Hare Island. There is a legend that this form was chosen not accidentally and is a pentagram that was supposed to protect the future city from attacks and disasters. Six bastions were built to strengthen the fortress. They were raised simultaneously, therefore each of them was supervised by the curator. It was in honor of them that each structure was named: Trubetskoi, Naryshkin, Gosudarev, Menshikov, Golovkin, Zotov.
June 29, 1703 Peter I ordered to rebuild a wooden church, named after the apostles Peter and Paul. Later, the church was finished with a stone and timed to the status of a cathedral. June 29 became the birthday of the fortress, as well as a turning point, when it was considered a full-fledged settlement.In addition to the Peter and Paul Church, the Lutheran Church was also built on the territory of the fortress, which was named after St. Anne. It was intended for the Protestants who served in it.
The construction of the earth fortress was completed on October 1, 1703, but some buildings were washed away by rain. Nevertheless, it was fulfilling its functions and Colonel Karl-Ewald von Renne was appointed the first commandant. Later on the post came regiment-nick Roman Bruce. As a defensive weapon used copper and cast iron guns, delivered from Novgorod, as well as those that were selected from the Swedes.Construction of the fortress continued day and night. Prisoners were given a couple of hours to rest and with the next gunshot they returned to workplaces. With their help was dug a huge canal, crossing the fortress from east to west. Its width was about 5 meters and it served to supply water during the siege.
In 1705, the construction of the Ivanovo Bridge began, which in the 18th century was called Krasny. It lasted 2 years, the bridge was built of wood and painted red.
In 1706 it was decided to strengthen the fortress with brick walls and earth-shafts - crowns. Construction of the brick went much slower and the construction of the bastions was spent several years. In 1707, Peter I ordered the construction of the Peter's Gate.The main gate of the fortress was decorated with statues of the Apostle Peter, artistic images of the Faith and Hope, as well as a sign with the date of the founding of the fortress. Today, above the stone arch flaunts a two-headed eagle.
After the end of the war, the construction of the city began around the fortress, and within its walls there was a Senate and a political prison. Here the punishment was served and the son of Peter the Great Tsarevich Alexei died. He was brought to trial for treason to the sovereign and conspiracy against him.
On the territory of the fortress there was a house and a cemetery for commandants, a guardhouse, a room for the residence of engineers and builders. Later, in the thirties, the fortress was fortified with ravelines. They were in the form of triangles aimed at the side of the enemy's offensive, and were located from the east and west of the fortress. The fortifications were named Joanowski and Alekseevsky, in honor of Peter's brother and father. Between the ravelins and the walls a moat was dug. Completely fortress was ready only in 1740, even after the death of Peter and the replacement on the throne of Catherine the First, Peter II and Anna Ioannovna, the construction did not stop.
In the same decade Joan's Gate was erected, the main builder of which was the German engineer BurchardChristoph von Munnich.
Since the fortress lost its original functions, then from the forties of the 18th century an internal arrangement began.
From 1762 to 1766 the construction of a house was carried out. This building became the first memorial museum, where the boat of Peter the Great is still kept - the ship on which the young Peter was swimming along Yauza. Botik respectfully called "the grandfather of the Russian fleet" and arranged sea parades in his honor.
In 1779 the fortress walls were faced with granite, and in 1784 the Nevsky Gates and the Commandant's Wharf were ennobled. Near the Nevsky Gate there is a "chronicle of catastrophic floods", which marks the highest values of the tide.
1784 was marked by the beginning of the construction of the Mint. At the same time, production was moved here from Moscow. To date, it is one of the largest mints in the world, which also produces jubilee specimens, medals and orders.
In different years on the territory of the Peter and Paul Fortress there were several tunes. One of them was located on the site, where later the fortress administration was rebuilt. It was in it that the son of Peter I died. Also Princess Tarakanova was imprisoned in her cell, who wanted to obtain the Russian throne. Here the term Radishchev Alexander Nikolayevich for the work "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, and Chernyshevsky for the novel" What to do? "
The second prison was located inside the Trubetskoy Bastion. It consisted of 69 solitary confinement cells, where prisoners awaited the verdict of the court.
Peter and Paul Cathedral is not only the highest temple in Russia (the height of the building together with the spire and angel is 122.5 meters), but also the tomb of the Romanov family. Peter the First became the first autocrat buried in the Peter and Paul Fortress, and then all other Russian emperors, except for Peter II (the grandson of Peter the Great was buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin) and John Antonovich (Ivan the Sixth), who was deprived of the throne and killed In Shlisselburg.In 1915, the Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov was buried in the burial vault, then, in connection with the coming to power of the Bolsheviks until 1992, there were no burials in the Peter and Paul Cathedral.
Today concerts and holidays are held on the territory of the Peter and Paul Fortress. Guests of the northern capital can descend into prison catacombs and feel all the hardships of imprisonment. For tourists, there are museums of exposition.
2.2 The traditions and legends of the Peter and Paul Fortress.
In 1731, it was decided to make the Naryshkin Bastion a parade and establish the Flag Tower on it. The flag was raised at dawn, and lowered with sunset. Now he is developing over the bastion around the clock. Another tradition was the daily launch of volleys from the cannon. At noon all residents of the city checked the time for the shot from the side of the fortress. Blank shots are allowed to this day.
The first puzzles associated with the Peter and Paul Fortress, appeared even at the stage of its foundation. Even with regard to the choice of the site of its construction, there is still no single, predominant version. Everyone knows the story of how Peter the First wandered along the banks of the Neva, choosing a suitable site and his words "There will be a city here!" However, why the Hare Island was the choice of the emperor (and whether he did it himself) is not known exactly.
According to one version, Peter chose the Hare Island on the instructions of the elder, who lived as a hermit in the Solovki Monastery, as well as on the island of Zayatsky and predicted the fate of the emperor. When Peter the Great came to choose a place for the founding of the Northern Capital, the coincidence of the names of the two islands seemed to him a sufficient basis for the laying of the Peter and Paul Fortress here.
According to other versions, the signs that influenced the decision of the emperor were either a hare that fled from the flood and jumped directly onto Peter's boot, or eagles that, before the eyes of the Russian ruler, made two circles over the place where the fortress walls were later erected.
Whatever it was, the place was generally chosen quite successfully and on May 16, 1703, the day of laying the first stone of the Peter and Paul Fortress is also considered the day of the founding of St. Petersburg. The island on which the fortress stands is also called Lustholm. In Swedish it means "cheerful". When this land was owned by the Swedes, they arranged a garden on the island for festivities and fun. Hence the name went. After conquering the territory, they gave her another name.
On some walls of the fortress there is no granite finish. This feature is associated with the following legend. Catherine II, admiring the views of Neva of the Winter Palace windows, was upset by the state of the Peter and Paul Fortress and ordered her to be refined. But cunning workers engaged in the arrangement of only those sides that were visible from the windows of the Hermitage.
One of the most famous prisoners of the fortress was Princess Tarakanova, who called herself the daughter of ElizavetaPetrovna and was in the Trubetskoi bastion in 1775. It is associated with a legend that during the next Nevsky flood of 1777, more than 300 prisoners who were flooded in the fortress were killed, however, the princess died much earlier than consumption, and the floods occurred on the Vasilievsky Island without affecting the casemates of the Peter and Paul Fortress. The legend of the princess's ghost, still roaming at the bastion, more often - in rainy weather, there is still.
Another legend of the Peter and Paul Fortress is associated with the Romanov's tomb - the historian Prince Dmitry Shakhovskoy expressed the opinion that all the sarcophagi of the members of the imperial family are empty. This version arose in connection with the fact that Emperor Alexander the First did not want to be buried next to his father - Pavel the First and in his will ordered that his grave be in the village of Gruzino. However, this version does not have any confirmations and, most likely, is one of the many myths of the Peter and Paul fortress. Another mystery is the reburial of the remains of the family of the last Russian emperor, held at the Peter and Paul Cathedral in July 1998. There are still disputes about the authenticity of the remains, and the Orthodox Church notes that although the family of Nicholas II was numbered among the holy martyrs, no miraculous healings have taken place on their graves. But the sarcophagus of Emperor Paul the First is considered miraculous - having touched his cheek can be cured of toothache.
Chapter III: Comparative analysis of two objects
According to all the theoretical material about the history, traditions and legends of the Tower of London and the Peter and Paul Fortress, we would like to note the following similarities:
The founders were the people who ruled this country. In Great Britain, William I (the Conqueror) in 1066 after the Norman conquest began to assert his authority and decided to build 36 castles and the Tower was one of them. In Russia, the beginning of the XVIII century was marked by a twenty-year war with Sweden, during which the lands were conquered off the banks of the Neva. To protect himself from unwanted invaders there was an urgent need for protection and Peter I (Great) decided to build the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Both sights are built with a defensive purpose;
Each sight has animal symbols in the Tower - these are black crows, in the Peter and Paul Fortress, a hare.
An ancient tradition that is never violated in the Tower - the ceremony of keys-this tradition is unshakable for seven hundred years. Every day, at exactly 21.53 the keeper of the keys leaves the Byward tower, he is guarded by keys. The Guardian is dressed in the Tudor dynasty costume. The security locks the Main Gate and approaches the Bloody Tower, a traditional dialogue begins, which begins with the words: "Who the hell is this?" And ends: "God save Queen Elizabeth." In the Peter and Paul Fortress, the daily launch of volleys from a cannon. At noon exactly, all the inhabitants of the city checked the time for the shot from the side of the fortress. Blank shots are allowed to this day.
They were built on the banks of the River Tower on the River Thames, Peter and Paul Fortress on the Neva River);
Each structure is surrounded by bastion towers.
In the course of history both the Tower and the Peter and Paul Fortress changed their mission from defensive fortification to the museum;
The entrance to the fortress passes through the bridge at the Tower-it Tauersky Bridge, and near the Peter and Paul Fortress-Ioannovsky Bridge.
And as we found the following differences:
Different form of structures. The Tower of London is a quadrangle shape; The Peter and Paul Fortress is a form of an irregular hexagon.
The year of foundation of these buildings is different. The Peter and Paul Fortress was built by Peter I in 1703. The Tower of London was built by William I the Conqueror in 1078.
In the Peter and Paul Cathedral, members of the royal family are buried, beginning with Peter I. In Hundred thousands of prisoners were thrown into the Tower, only five women and two men were beheaded in the fortress, which saved them from the shame of public execution. Most of the other executions-mostly beheading-took place at a nearby Tower Hill, where huge crowds of fans of such shows flocked. The decapitated body was taken to the Tower and was buried in the cellars of the chapel. In these cellars, a total of more than 1,500 bodies were buried.
The names of the towers of the Tower recall the life of the structure in former times and of the gloomy events that were associated with it: Bloody, Bell, Salt, Well, etc .; The bastions of the Peter and Paul Fortress are named after the Companions of Peter I. These are the Menshikov Bastion, the Golovkin Bastion, the Zotov Bastion, the Trubetskoi Bastion, the Naryshkin Bastion and the Sovereign.
After a survey of the Tower of London and Peter and Paul Fortress (Appendix 1), at the beginning of our work, we got results that showed: many students don’t know the basic information about these objects. So why do these monuments attract crowds of tourists from different parts of the world for many years, and how do they differ from each other? In order that the respondents could answer this question, we studied information about the Tower of London and the Peter and Paul Fortress and made a comparative analysis of the two great buildings.
In the final part of our work, we created a booklet "The Tower of London and the Peter and Paul Fortress" (Appendix 2), for the dissemination of information on two places of interest among pupils of grades 6-9.
Although the Peter and Paul Fortress and the Tower were built at different times, and in different countries, they have more in common than differences. Throughout history they have been significant for their peoples and are still very important for their countries. By these monuments, you can safely study the history of Britain and Russia, touch the peculiar traditions of the inhabitants of these countries. They continue to play an active role in the life of states today, storing in their walls numerous museums, libraries, ancestral tombs and unsolved mysteries, thus serving as an unassailable and beautiful reminder of the past. Not knowing the past, it is difficult to understand today, and it is already impossible to plan the future.
We believe that all the tasks set by us have been carried out successfully.
Free Encyclopedia "Wikipedia"- Internet resource.
GuryevaYu.F. Deep roots / Yu.F. Guryev-Obninsk: Title, 2014.
Ionnina N.A. One hundred great castles / N.A. Ionnina-M.: Veche, 2001.- 126 p.
Information portal about tourism and travel "You are your own guide" http://tisamsebegid.ru/london/tower .- Internet resource.
Secrets and legends of the Tower of London http://www.london-english-courses.co.uk/en/learn-about/mistery-stories-london-tower/).-Internet resource.
Sights of London http://londonme.ru/her-majestys-royal-palace-and-fortress-tower-of-london/.-Internet resource.
Surmina I. The most famous fortresses of Russia / I. Surmina-M.: Veche, 2002.
Vagina V.S. History of the Peter and Paul Fortress / В.С. Vagina-Spb .: GMI St. Petersburg, 2009.
With the world on the thread "Secrets of the Peter and Paul Fortress" http://amnesia.pavelbers.com/S%20miru%20po%20nitke%204.htm -Internet resource.
Appendix 1 (Student Survey)
The Tower of London
1. The Tower of London is staying on the river …
a) Severn b) Thames c) Simon
2. … black ravens live in The Tower of London.
a) Three b) Nine c) Seven
3. The Tower of London is guarded by …
a) Beefeaters b) Ravenmasters c) Soldiers
1. Petropavlovskaya fortress is staying on the river …
a) Nevab) Yeniseyc) Moscow
2. The national animal of this fortress is …
a) Rabbitb) Falconc) Owl
3. The main colour of this fortress is …
a) Blackb) Greyc) Red
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