Grade: 10th calss Time: 45 min. Topic: what is biology
WHAT IS BIOLOGY?
The term biology in Greek word = " Bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." It means ~ the study of life~
Nowadays, when you open a newspaper or watch a television programme, you can encounter many interesting news about biology. We live together with biology, if you look around carefully, you can see many things related with biology. For example: the nice smelling rose, the girl who smells the rose, the cat that is running to catch mouse etc. we can increase the examples.
One more characteristic of life is the ability to adjust to surroundings, or the environment. Anything in the environment—air, water, temperature, weather, other organisms—that causes the organism to react is called a stimulus (plural, stimuli). The organism’s reaction to the stimulus is called a response. An organism also has the ability to control its internal environment in order to maintain conditions suitable for survival. For example, an organism must make constant adjustments to maintain the right amount of water and minerals in its cells. This ability is called homeostasis (internal balance). Without the ability to adjust to internal changes, an organism would die.
If we want to make the definition of biology, how can it be?
Biology is the science deal with the study of life and living organisms; including their structure, function, growth, origin, distribution, and taxonomy. As you know that, biologists have to know biology. But not only biologists, also engineers and other scientists have to know biology. For what? For developing biology. Because people take help for invention of machines. For example; birds showed the way of flying and fishes showed the swimming underwater. Finally, people invented plane and submarine. Today, engineers investigate structure of vertebrae(backbone) for making more strong and usable bridges. It means your life is affected by biology. So how can you prepare yourself for this new world? The answer ; at first, Be interested biology, then never stop studying, finally search unknown words and learn them.
The Common Characteristics of Living Things
If we compare an elephant, ant and desk, we can see that the common properties between elephant and ant more than desk. Because both elephant and ant have LIFE but desk has not. Since there is no unequivocal definition of life. life is a characteristic of organisms that exhibit all or most of phenomena.
However, according to which characteristics we can distinguish living and nonliving things? In nature, all living things have some common properties that share similar characteristics. These are;
Organization: Being structurally composed of one or more cells. living things are made up of cells.
Metabolism: Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis). On the other hand; Energy production is needed ; Energy is produced by cellular respiration(breaking down of food substances into their subunits to get energy= catabolism) (anabolism= to construct/built molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy)
Homeostasis: keeping body in balance. Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, sweating to reduce temperature or electrolyte concentration
Growth and development: organisms increase in size,mass and number. Maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter.
Response to stimuli: A response is often expressed by motion, for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism) and by chemotaxis.A response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving all the senses of multicellular organisms.
Reproduction: The ability to produce new individual organisms, either asexually from a single parent organism, or sexually from two parent organisms.
Movement: Living ability to change their place.
Chemical activities; Living things perform complex chemical activities. for example; ingestion, digestion, respiration, excretion
How do organisms respond to change? Organisms use energy to grow, develop, respond to stimuli, and maintain homeostasis. Energy is the ability to cause change. Organisms get their energy from food. Any behavior, structure, or internal process that allows an organ-ism to make changes in response to environmental factors and live long enough to reproduce is called an adaptation (a dap TAY shun).For example, the leaves of many desert plants have a thick, waxy coating. This is an adaptation that helps these plants conserve water. Having large eyes is an adaptation that lets owls see well at night. The gradual change in a species over time due to adaptations is called evolution
What do biologists do? Biologists make discoveries and look for explanations by performing laboratory and fi eld studies. Some biologists study animals in their natural environment. For example, Jane Goodall’s observations helped scientists know how best to protect chimpanzees. Other biologists research diseases to develop new medicines. Many biologists work to develop new technology. Technology is the application of scientifi c knowledge to solve human needs and to extend human capabilities. For example, Dr. Charles Drew developed methods to separate blood plasma for transfusions. His research led to blood banks. Some biologists study genetic engineering of plants. They try to develop plants that can grow in poor soils and resist insects and disease. Environmental biologists try to protect animals and plants from extinction by developing ways to protect them.
How does development differ from growth? Growth adds mass to an organism. Many organisms form new cells and new structures as they grow. Development is the process of natural changes that take place during the life of an organism. For example, after baby birds hatch they cannot fly for a few weeks. As they grow, they develop structures that give them the ability to fly.
The Science of Biology answers Biology depend on behave relationship plants prevent extinct Characteristics of Living Things answers Non-living organisms DNA biologists single cell offspring mate development single cell increase
adaptation : any structure,behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental fac-tors and survive to produce offspring. homeostasis: an organ-ism’s ability to control its internal envi-ronment to maintain conditions suitable for survival environment: the surroundings to which an organism must adjust; includes air, water, weather, temperature, organisms, and other factors
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The Science of Biology
……………is the study of life. When you study biology you will learn about all of the different kinds of living things. You will learn where they live, what they are like, how they ……………….each other, and how they ……….….. One of the main ideas in biology is that living things depend on each other. They are part of what is called the balance of nature. All living things interact with other living things and with the world they live in. Without these……………, nothing would survive. Humans need plants and animals to supply us with food and raw materials, such as wood, oil, and cotton. …………….provide the oxygen in our air. The study of one living thing always involves studying other living things. Knowing how human life depends on nature and other living things is the only way that humans can expect to understand how to keep Earth healthy. With this knowledge, researchers can find ways to ………………diseases. Scientists can also find ways to help save living things that are in danger of becoming ……………………and solve other problems.
Behave Extinct Relationship Plants Depend on Prevent Biology
Characteristics of Living Things
Sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference between living and nonliving things. At times, …………………….. have one or more of the characteristics of life, but it is necessary to have all of the characteristics of life to be considered living. Things that have all of the characteristics of life are known as………………………. All organisms are made of one or more cells. Each cell contains the genetic material …………. that has the information needed to control the life processes of the organism.
One of the first things ………………….. look for when they are searching for characteristics of life is structure, or organization. Whether an organism is made of a ……………… or billions of cells, all of its parts work together in an orderly living system. Another important characteristic of life is reproduction. Reproduction is the ability of an organism to make more of the same type of organism. The new organisms that are made are called…………….. Although reproduction is not needed for the survival of an individual organism, it must occur for the continuation of the organism’s species. A species (SPEE sheez) consists of a group of organisms that can …………… with each other and produce offspring that are able to reproduce. For example, there are many species of crocodiles including the American crocodile, the Australian fresh-water crocodile, and the saltwater crocodile. American crocodiles reproduce only American crocodiles. Without reproduction, the species would die out. Another characteristic of life is that growth and …………………..must take place. An organism begins life as a …………... As time passes, it grows and develops. As growth and development take place, the organism takes on the characteristics of its species. Growth results in the formation of new structures and an …………….. in the amount of living material. Development refers to the changes that occur in each organism’s life.
DNA offspring Non-living single cell organisms development increase mate biologists single cell
Answer the following questions
1- How do organisms respond to change? 2- Give two examples of ways in which humans depend on other living things? 3- Write a sentence for each of the following words: homeostasis ,adaptation, environment 4- What Do Biologists Do? 5- How does development differ from growth?