Конспект открытого урока по дисциплине «Зарубежная литература и литература стран изучаемого языка»
Преподаватель: Челапка Е.В.
Группа: А-4 лингвистического отделения.
Тема урока: Роль литературы в культуре Америки. Творчество Марка Твена.
- развитие коммуникативной социокультурной компетенции учащихся в плане формирования знаний, навыков и умений в области изучения зарубежной литературы, а так же специфики развития культуры после промышленной революции в Америке.
Образовательные (познавательные) задачи урока.
1) Расширение эрудиции, знакомство с особенностями, культурным изменениями эпохи промышленной революции.
2) Формирование иноязычного речевого поведения.
Воспитательные задачи урока.
1) Воспитание культуры языкового общения в социально-культурной сфере.
2) Развитие навыков выступления перед аудиторией, совместная работа в группах.
3) Создание атмосферы здорового соперничества, дружеской поддержки, взаимопонимания и взаимовыручки.
4) Сознательное формирование взглядов, ценностей чувств, нравственных и эстетических навыков.
5) Воспитание культуры общения, взаимодействия в малой группе.
6)Воспитание уважения к культурному и литературному наследию страны изучаемого языка.
Развивающие задачи урока.
1) Развитие и активизация интеллектуального потенциала учащихся, их творческой активности через совместную подготовку проведения урока
2) Развитие лингвистического мышления, логического мышления.
3) Развитие познавательного интереса к изучаемой теме и предмету.
4) Развитие памяти, логического мышления, творческих способностей студентов.
Оборудование: электронный словарь Lingvo 12, мультимедиа проектор, презентации студентов.
Литература и использованные ресурсы: Электронная энциклопедия Encarta, интернет-ресурсы: www. Lingva-leo.com. Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. (1995) PBS’s Huck Finn Teacher’s Guide. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/teachers/huck/essay.htm
MacDonnell, Kevin. (2005) Collecting Mark Twain: A History and Three New Paths. Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America. http://www.abaa.org/books/abaa/news_fly?code=53
Merriman C.D. (2006) Mark Twain. http://www.online-literature.com/twain/
The Mark Twain House (2004). Mark Twain: The Man. http://www.marktwainhouse.org/theman/bio.shtml
Создание атмосферы иноязычного общения.
(Quiz about the Industrial Revolution)
2. Проверка домашнего задания
Good morning students! I’m glad to see you here.
I suggest you today an enjoyable journey to the epoch of the American realism in literature. As you already know that realism has a close connection with the industrial revolution.
Let’s revise the information about the industrial revolution and answer the questions of the quiz.
Let’s play my quiz:
Early roads were covered with stone and gravel and people demanded cheaper forms of transportation. From 1825 the great time of _____ began:
Railroads b) airplanes c) canals.
People moved to _____ to support their families?
Europe b) the big cities the country side
The U.S. economy became more focused on _______?
Factory production b) agriculture c) farming
America was shifting into higher gear and readers wanted writers who clearly wrote about?
Adventures b) love c) rural life d) the complexities of their human experiences
America was leaping into a new modern age and people feared that _______?
local traditions would be forgotten b) slavery wouldn’t be abolished c) mass production would substitute farming
The realists who got their fame at the end of the 19th century were _____?
Ernest Hemingway b) William Dean Howells c) Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Thanks for your answers and let’s sum up the information about American realism and remarkable changes the occurred at the end of the nineteen century. What do you know about these changes.
Discussing the subject : The industrial revolution that took place at the end of the 19th century changed America in remarkable ways. People left rural homes for opportunities in urban cities. With the development of new machinery and equipment, the U.S. economy became more focused on factory production; Americans did not have to chiefly rely on farming and agriculture to support their families. At the same time, immigrants from all over the world crowded into tenements to take advantage of new urban opportunities. In the end, the sweeping economic, social, and political changes that took place in post-war life allowed American Realism to prevail.
Показ функционирования и использования усваимого материала.
Знакомство с теорией реализма в литературе
What is realism?
Realism is the theory of writing in which familiar aspects of contemporary life and everyday scenes are represented in a straightforward or matter-of-fact manner. This is the theory that authors try to use and guide them in their writing; in realist fiction characters from all social levels are examined in depth. Before this time characters served some sort of allegorical or symbolic purpose.
Realism appeared between 1855 and 1916.
The realism of the 1880s featured the works of Twain, Howells and James among other writers. American Realists concentrated their writing on select groups or subjects.
The writing during this period was also very regional. The industrial revolution called for standardization, mass production of goods and streamlined channels of distribution. America was leaping into a new modern age and people feared that local folkways and traditions would be soon forgotten. Responding to these sentiments, realistic writers set their stories in specific American regions, rushing to capture the "local color" before it was lost. They drew upon the sometimes grim realities of everyday life, showing the breakdown of traditional values and the growing plight of the new urban poor. American realists built their plots and characters around people's ordinary, everyday lives. Additionally, their works contained regional dialects and extensive dialogue which connected well with the public. As a result, readers were attracted to the realists because they saw their own struggles in print. Conversely, the public had little patience for the slow paced narratives, allegory and symbolism of the romantic writers. America was shifting into higher gear and readers wanted writers who clearly communicated the complexities of their human experiences.
The realist writers hold on to characters and keep examining how these people relate to each other; open ending is also a good example of the truthful treatment of material. It is something that might be puzzling to the reader, but it has a theoretical purpose. It tells the reader that life is complex and cannot be fully understood; realism focuses on commonness of the lives of the common people who are customarily ignored by the arts. Realists are interested in the commonplace, the everyday, the average, the trival, and the representative; realism emphasizes objectivity and offers an objective rather than an idealistic view of human nature and human experience; realism presents moral visions. The author does have a purpose for presenting an objective account of real life. The moral sense is something that resides in the author’s purpose.
Работа с тестом
«Величайший представитель эпохи реализма М. Твен»
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835 – 1910), known to the world as Mark Twain, was the son of a small-town lawyer in the State of Missouri. When the boy was five years old, he was sent to the school. Little Samuel did not like school but he had many friends and was their leader. In summer when school was over, the boys spent many happy hours on the Missouri River.
As Mark Twain said later, many events in “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” really took place and the characters were from real life. Tom Sawyer was very often a portrait of the writer; Huckleberry Finn was his friend, Tom Blankenship; Aunt Polly was his mother; Tom’s brother Sid was like his own brother Henry.
When Samuel was eleven years old, his father died leaving nothing to his wife and for children. Samuel had to leave school and look for work. His elder brother was working as a printer and he helped the boy to learn printing. For some years Samuel worked as a printer for the town newspaper and later for his brother, who at the time had started a small newspaper. The two young people published it themselves. Samuel wrote short humorous stories and printed them for their newspaper. In 1853 Samuel decided to leave home. He went first to St. Louis, then to New York, and to Philadelphia where he worked as a printer. When Samuel was a boy, he dreamed of becoming a sailor. At twenty he found a job on a boat travelling up and down the Mississippi, but he had to pay 100 dollars to get the job. On that boat he learned the work of pilot. From this he got his pen-name “Mark Twain”. The pilot had to know the river very well when he took a ship along it. The sailors watched the marks and shouted to the pilot “mark three”, “mark twain”, which means “mark two”. Later the young man worked with the gold-miners in California for a year. Here he began to write short stories and humorous sketches about camp life. He sends them to newspapers under the name of “Mark Twain”.
His publishers liked his stories and he was invited to work as a journalist for a newspaper. The many professions that he tried gave Mark Twain knowledge of life and people and helped him to find his true profession – the profession of a writer.
In 1870 he married, and a new a happy life began for him. He had one son and three daughters whom he loved very much and was the happiest man when they were with him. As a journalist Mark Twain travelled much over the country. He saw the corruption of the American press and of the American Government which he later attacked in many of his works (“Running for Governor”, “The Gilded Age”, 1873).
In different stories Mark Twain showed race discrimination and false democracy (“Goldsmith’s Friend Abroad Again”). In the story “A Defence of General Funston” he criticized the imperialist policy of the American Government. Chernishevsky said that “American satirical and critical literature began with Mark Twain”.
In 1876 the writer published “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” and in 1884 – “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” – the novels that are now known to children and grown-ups all over the world. The writer showed boys and girls in the novels with such sympathy and understanding that readers always see themselves in these characters. Mark Twain protested against slavery and one of the main characters in the novel “Huckleberry Finn” is a Negro, Jim, who is honest, brave and kind.
The bourgeois critics of that time did not like the books and said the novels gave a bad example for young people. After this kind of criticism the public libraries took “Tom” and “Huck” off their shelves.
The profession of writer did not bring much money to Mark Twain and he had to give lectures on literature and read his stories to the public. He visited many countries, and for a long time lived in England. In 1907 the Oxford University gave Mark Twain an honorary doctorate of letters.
Ernest Hemingway once wrote: “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called “Huckleberry Finn”.
Words for learning:
Samuel Langhorne Clemens – Сэмюэл Ленгхорн Клеменс
pilot – лоцман
mark two – отметка глубины на реке
gold-miner – золотоискатель
sketch – очерк, набросок
“Running for Governor” –«Как меня выбирали в губернаторы»
“The Gilded Age” – «Позолоченный век»
Honorary doctorate of letters – (звание) почетный доктор
Особенности литературного стиля М.Твена.
Local Colourism or regionalism as a trend first made its presence felt in the late 1860s and early seventies in America. The movement once was so much widespread that it became as contagious as whooping cough. The social and intellectual climate of the country provided a stimulating milieu fro the growth of local color fiction in America. Local colorists concerned themselves with presenting and interpreting the local character fo their regions. They tended to idealize and glorify, but they never forgot to keep an eye on the truthful color of local life.
Naturalism applies the principles of scientific determinism to fiction. It views human beings as animals in the natural world responding to environmental forces and internal stresses and drives, over none of which they have control and none of which they fully understand. Here are three major concepts of literary naturalism in the broad abstract way.
Вопросы на закрепление
(Ответы на вопросы по всему материалу)
Mark Twain (1835-1910) is a great literary giant of America, whom H. L. Mencken considered “the true father of our national literature”.
Ernest Hemingway once wrote: “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called “Huckleberry Finn”.
Chernishevsky said that “American satirical and critical literature began with Mark Twain”.
Under what circumstances does local colorism emerge?
What do local colorists mainly concern?
What is Mark Twain’s contribution to American literature?
What are the major features in American realism?
What are the major features in American local color fiction?
What are the major features in American naturalism?
Управление тренировкой усваимого материала
Your home task is to prepare for the discussion in groups.
Thank you for your activity.
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